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Androgen deficiency: causes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416368/nutritional-management-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-review-study
#1
REVIEW
Zeinab Faghfoori, Siavash Fazelian, Mahdi Shadnoush, Reza Goodarzi
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age, which leads to reproductive, hormonal and metabolic abnormalities. Due to the presence of insulin resistance, PCOS increases the risk of chronic diseases like type 2 diabetes, hypertension, lipid disorders, cardiovascular diseases and malignancies such as breast and endometrial cancer. The actual cause of this syndrome is unknown but environmental factors such as dietary habits play an important role in prevention and treatment and lifestyle modifications are the most important therapeutic strategies in these patients...
April 5, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359097/a-perspective-on-middle-aged-and-older-men-with-functional-hypogonadism-focus-on-holistic-management
#2
Mathis Grossmann, Alvin M Matsumoto
Context: Middle-aged and older men (≥50 years), especially those who are obese and suffer from comorbidities, not uncommonly present with clinical features consistent with androgen deficiency and modestly reduced testosterone levels. Commonly, such men do not demonstrate anatomical hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis pathology but have functional hypogonadism that is potentially reversible. Evidence Acquisition: Literature review from 1970 to October 2016. Evidence Synthesis: Although definitive randomized controlled trials are lacking, evidence suggests that in such men, lifestyle measures to achieve weight loss and optimization of comorbidities, including discontinuation of offending medications, lead to clinical improvement and a modest increase in testosterone...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359094/birth-weight-in-different-etiologies-of-disorders-of-sex-development
#3
Sukran Poyrazoglu, Feyza Darendeliler, S Faisal Ahmed, Ieuan Hughes, Jillian Bryce, Jipu Jiang, Martina Rodie, Olaf Hiort, Sabine E Hannema, Silvano Bertelloni, Lidka Lisa, Tulay Guran, Martine Cools, An Desloovere, Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten, Anna Nordenstrom, Paul-Martin Holterhus, Birgit Kohler, Marek Niedziela, Nils Krone
Context: It is well established that boys are heavier than girls at birth. Although the cause of birth weight (BW) difference is unknown, it has been proposed that it could be generated from prenatal androgen action. Objective: The aim of the current study was to determine the BW of children with disorders of sex development (DSD) of different etiologies and to evaluate the effects of androgen action on BW. Methods: Data regarding diagnosis, BW, gestational age, karyotype, and concomitant conditions were collected from the International Disorders of Sex Development (I-DSD) Registry (www...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343199/-hypogonadism-in-patients-with-testicular-tumors-and-prostate-cancer
#4
Marcin Radko, Tomasz Syryło, Henryk Zieliński
Hypogonadism is defined as an array of symptoms arising from a deficiency of androgens. It is caused by a hormonal and spermatogenic dysfunction of the testes. It results in impaired fertility and has a negative impact on the functions of multiple organs and systems, physical well-being, sexual functions and also mental state. Particularly patients with a history of cancer have a high risk of developing hypogonadism as a result of not only the nature of the disease, but mainly its treatment. While leaving the patient with cancer without treatment does not fall within the concept of the art of medicine and the ethical canon of a physician, the symptoms of hypogonadism are often ignored and left untreated...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323036/targeting-androgen-receptor-versus-targeting-androgens-to-suppress-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#5
Changcheng Guo, Shuyuan Yeh, Yuanjie Niu, Gonghui Li, Junhua Zheng, Lei Li, Chawnshang Chang
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the 2nd leading cause of cancer-related death among men in the United States and its progression is tightly associated with the androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signals. Men castrated before puberty (eunuchs) or men with inherited deficiency of type II 5α-reductase (with failure to convert testosterone to the more potent dihydrotestosterone) (DHT) do not develop PCa. To date, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with anti-androgen treatments to reduce or prevent androgens from binding to the AR remains the main therapeutic option for advanced PCa since its discovery by Huggins and Hodges in 1941...
March 18, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295520/androgen-deficiency-impairs-erectile-function-in-rats-through-promotion-of-corporal-fibrosis
#6
K Cui, R Li, R Chen, M Li, T Wang, J Yang, Z Chen, S Wang, J Liu, K Rao
The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanism of androgen deficiency inducing corporal fibrosis, thereby causing erectile dysfunction (ED). Forty 12-week-old healthy male rats were divided randomly into four groups: normal control group (Control); castration group (Castration); the other 20 rats were castrated followed by testosterone (T) (orally) each day: castration + 10mg/kg T group (Castration + 10T) and castration + 20 mg/kg T group (Castration + 20T). After 8 weeks' treatment, the main outcome measures were the following: serum levels of T; the ratios of intracavernous pressure (ICP) to mean arterial pressure (MAP); histologic changes in penile smooth muscle cells; the Smad and non-Smad pathways; and extracellular matrix (ECM) protein deposition...
March 10, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207417/adrenarche-unmasks-compound-heterozygous-3%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-deficiency-c-244g-a-p-ala82thr-and-the-novel-931c-t-p-gln311-variant-in-a-non-salt-wasting-severely-undervirilised-46xy
#7
Stephanie Louise Teasdale, Adam Morton
3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II deficiency (3βHSD2) congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a rare cause of ambiguous genitalia, resulting in abnormal virilisation in both 46XY and 46XX. We describe a case of 46XY ambiguous genitalia that was misdiagnosed as androgen insensitivity syndrome. The correct diagnosis was made after adrenarche. Genotyping demonstrated compound heterozygosity in two alleles, the previously described c.244G>A (p.Ala82Thr), and a novel 931C>T(p.Gln311*) variant. We suggest that adrenarche unmasked the condition by driving cortisol production to rates that caused the mutant 3bHSD2 enzyme to become rate limiting for cortisol production...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188961/high-serum-progesterone-associated-with-infertility-in-a-woman-with-nonclassic-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia
#8
Yoshimasa Kawarai, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Tomoya Segawa, Shokichi Teramoto, Tomoaki Tanaka, Makio Shozu
Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) is an autosomal-recessive disorder caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency and manifests as hirsutism and oligomenorrhea due to excess adrenal androgen and progesterone. We report a case of a woman with NCAH who showed continuous high serum progesterone levels in the follicular phase associated with impaired folliculogenesis. NCAH was diagnosed based on high 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels after rapid adrenocorticotropic hormone loading, and three heterozygous missense mutations in CYP21A2, encoding 21-hydroxylase, were identified...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115639/combined-effects-of-gestational-phthalate-exposure-and-zinc-deficiency-on-steroid-metabolism-and-growth
#9
Johnathan R Nuttall, Heidi R Kucera, Suangsuda Supasai, Nilesh W Gaikwad, Patricia I Oteiza
Disruption of steroid hormone signaling has been implicated independently in the developmental abnormalities resulting from maternal phthalate plasticizer exposure and developmental zinc deficiency. This study investigated if secondary zinc deficiency may result from dietary exposure to a low level of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) through gestation and if this could be associated with altered steroid metabolism. The interaction between marginal zinc nutrition and DEHP exposure to affect pregnancy outcome, zinc status, and steroid metabolism was also assessed...
April 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038404/the-impact-of-flutamide-on-prostaglandin-f2%C3%AE-synthase-and-prostaglandin-f2%C3%AE-receptor-expression-and-prostaglandin-f2%C3%AE-concentration-in-the-porcine-corpus-luteum-of-pregnancy
#10
M Grzesiak, K Knapczyk-Stwora, M Slomczynska
Recently, we have indicated that flutamide-induced androgen deficiency diminished progesterone production in the porcine corpus luteum (CL) during late pregnancy and before parturition, as a sign of functional luteolysis. In pigs, the main luteolytic factor is prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), which acts via specific receptors (PTGFRs), and its biosynthesis is catalyzed by prostaglandin F2α synthase (PGFS). The present study investigated the impact of flutamide on luteal PGFS and PTGFR expression, as well as intraluteal PGF2α content during pregnancy in pigs...
December 11, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999286/testosterone-deficiency-induces-changes-of-the-transcriptomes-of-visceral-adipose-tissue-in-miniature-pigs-fed-a-high-fat-and-high-cholesterol-diet
#11
Lifan Zhang, Yueqin Cai, Shengjuan Wei, Yun Ling, Liang Zhu, Dongfeng Li, Zhaowei Cai
Testosterone deficiency causes fat deposition, particularly in visceral fat, and its replacement might reverse fat accumulation, however, the underlying mechanisms of such processes under diet-induced adiposity are largely unknown. To gain insights into the genome-wide role of androgen on visceral adipose tissue (VAT), RNA-Seq was used to investigate testosterone deficiency induced changes of VAT in miniature pigs fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFC) diet among intact male pigs (IM), castrated male pigs (CM), and castrated male pigs with testosterone replacement (CMT) treatments...
December 16, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967205/gestational-hyperandrogenism-in-developmental-programming
#12
Christopher Hakim, Vasantha Padmanabhan, Arpita K Vyas
Androgen excess (hyperandrogenism) is a common endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. The potential causes of androgen excess in women include polycystic ovary syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), adrenal tumors, and racial disparity among many others. During pregnancy, luteoma, placental aromatase deficiency, and fetal CAH are additional causes of gestational hyperandrogenism. The present report reviews the various phenotypes of hyperandrogenism during pregnancy and its origin, pathophysiology, and the effect of hyperandrogenism on the fetal developmental trajectory and offspring consequences...
February 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959413/17%C3%AE-%C3%A2-hydroxylase-17-20%C3%A2-lyase-deficiency-in-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-a-case-report
#13
Simiao Xu, Shuhong Hu, Xuefeng Yu, Muxun Zhang, Yan Yang
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the cytochrome P450 family 17 subfamily A member 1 (CYP17A1) gene located on chromosome 10q24.3, which leads to a deficiency in 17α‑hydroxylase/17,20‑lyase. The disorder is characterized by low blood levels of estrogens, androgens and cortisol, which leads to a compensatory increase in adrenocorticotropic hormone levels that stimulate the production of mineralocorticoid precursors. This subsequently leads to hypertension, hypokalemia, primary amenorrhea and sexual infantilism...
January 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936533/endocrinology-update-testicular-hypogonadism
#14
Joel J Heidelbaugh
Testicular hypogonadism, or androgen deficiency, is defined as a clinical condition resulting from failure of the testes to produce physiologic levels of testosterone and a normal number of spermatozoa because of disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Testosterone deficiency (TD) is defined as a serum level less than 300 ng/dL on a morning total testosterone test. It is estimated that more than one-third of men 45 years and older have testosterone deficiency. Associated symptoms include decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, decreased physical stamina and strength, depressed mood, fatigue, increased visceral adiposity, sleep disturbance, and/or poor concentration and memory...
December 2016: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936531/endocrinology-update-hirsutism
#15
Joel J Heidelbaugh
Hirsutism is defined as excessive terminal hair growth, such as coarse sexual or secondary hair, that typically appears in a male growth pattern in androgen-dependent areas of the female body. It can occur in men and women. Common etiologies include polycystic ovary syndrome, idiopathic hyperandrogenemia, idiopathic hirsutism, adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, androgen-secreting tumors, iatrogenic hirsutism, acromegaly, Cushing syndrome, hyperprolactinemia, and hypo- or hyperthyroidism. Diagnostic guidelines are predominantly aimed at premenopausal women but an appropriate evaluation for underlying endocrinopathies in postmenopausal women and men may be required...
December 2016: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928728/clinical-perspectives-in-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-due-to-11%C3%AE-hydroxylase-deficiency
#16
REVIEW
Krupali Bulsari, Henrik Falhammar
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11 beta-hydroxylase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder. It is caused by reduced or absent activity of 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1) enzyme and the resultant defects in adrenal steroidogenesis. The most common clinical features of 11 beta-hydroxylase deficiency are ambiguous genitalia, accelerated skeletal maturation and resultant short stature, peripheral precocious puberty and hyporeninemic hypokalemic hypertension. The biochemical diagnosis is based on raised serum 11-deoxycortisol and 11-deoxycorticosterone levels together with increased adrenal androgens...
January 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897410/androgen-deprivation-causes-selective-deficits-in-the-biomechanical-leg-muscle-function-of-men-during-walking-a-prospective-case-control-study
#17
Ada S Cheung, Hans Gray, Anthony G Schache, Rudolf Hoermann, Daryl Lim Joon, Jeffrey D Zajac, Marcus G Pandy, Mathis Grossmann
BACKGROUND: Although muscle mass declines with testosterone deficiency in men, previous studies of muscle function have not demonstrated consistent deficits, likely due to relatively insensitive methodology. Our objective was to determine the effects of testosterone deprivation on the biomechanical function of individual lower-limb muscles. METHODS: We conducted a 12-month prospective, observational case-control study of 34 men newly commencing androgen deprivation treatment (ADT) for prostate cancer and 29 age-matched prostate cancer controls...
February 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863287/bone-health-in-the-elderly-cancer-patient-a-siog-position-paper
#18
REVIEW
J J Body, E Terpos, B Tombal, P Hadji, A Arif, A Young, M Aapro, R Coleman
More than a third of cancers are diagnosed in people over the age of 75. Androgen deprivation for prostate cancer and aromatase inhibitors in breast cancer accelerate age-related bone loss and increase fracture rates. BMD should be checked by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and, dependent on risk, every 12-24months. Sufficient calcium, vitamin D and exercise are part of primary fracture prevention. Resistance exercise in particular may improve functional activity and bone density. In men at increased fracture risk and women with postmenopausal early breast cancer, antiresorptive treatment is warranted to reduce fracture rate and to increase overall survival in breast cancer...
December 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849622/novel-mutations-of-the-srd5a2-and-ar-genes-in-thai-patients-with-46-xy-disorders-of-sex-development
#19
Chupong Ittiwut, Jaturong Pratuangdejkul, Vichit Supornsilchai, Sasipa Muensri, Yodporn Hiranras, Taninee Sahakitrungruang, Suttipong Watcharasindhu, Kanya Suphapeetiporn, Vorasuk Shotelersuk
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities of dihydrotestosterone conversion [5α-reductase deficiency: online Mendelian inheritance in man (OMIM) 607306] or actions of androgens [partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS): OMIM 312300] during the 8th-12th weeks of gestation cause varying degrees of undervirilized external genitalia in 46, XY disorders of sex development (DSD) with increased testosterone production. The objective of the study was to determine clinical and genetic characteristics of Thai patients with 46, XY DSD...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842977/reprint-of-steroid-5%C3%AE-reductase-2-deficiency
#20
REVIEW
Berenice B Mendonca, Rafael Loch Batista, Sorahia Domenice, Elaine M F Costa, Ivo J P Arnhold, David W Russell, Jean D Wilson
Dihydrotestosterone is a potent androgen metabolite formed from testosterone by action of 5α-reductase isoenzymes. Mutations in the type 2 isoenzyme cause a disorder of 46,XY sex development, termed 5α-reductase type 2 deficiency and that was described forty years ago. Many mutations in the encoding gene have been reported in different ethnic groups. In affected 46,XY individuals, female external genitalia are common, but Mullerian ducts regress, and the internal urogenital tract is male. Most affected males are raised as females, but virilization occurs at puberty, and male social sex develops thereafter with high frequency...
January 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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