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Androgen deficiency: causes

Ada S Cheung, Hans Gray, Anthony G Schache, Rudolf Hoermann, Daryl Lim Joon, Jeffrey D Zajac, Marcus G Pandy, Mathis Grossmann
BACKGROUND: Although muscle mass declines with testosterone deficiency in men, previous studies of muscle function have not demonstrated consistent deficits, likely due to relatively insensitive methodology. Our objective was to determine the effects of testosterone deprivation on the biomechanical function of individual lower-limb muscles. METHODS: We conducted a 12-month prospective, observational case-control study of 34 men newly commencing androgen deprivation treatment (ADT) for prostate cancer and 29 age-matched prostate cancer controls...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
J J Body, E Terpos, B Tombal, P Hadji, A Arif, A Young, M Aapro, R Coleman
More than a third of cancers are diagnosed in people over the age of 75. Androgen deprivation for prostate cancer and aromatase inhibitors in breast cancer accelerate age-related bone loss and increase fracture rates. BMD should be checked by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and, dependent on risk, every 12-24months. Sufficient calcium, vitamin D and exercise are part of primary fracture prevention. Resistance exercise in particular may improve functional activity and bone density. In men at increased fracture risk and women with postmenopausal early breast cancer, antiresorptive treatment is warranted to reduce fracture rate and to increase overall survival in breast cancer...
December 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Chupong Ittiwut, Jaturong Pratuangdejkul, Vichit Supornsilchai, Sasipa Muensri, Yodporn Hiranras, Taninee Sahakitrungruang, Suttipong Watcharasindhu, Kanya Suphapeetiporn, Vorasuk Shotelersuk
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities of dihydrotestosterone conversion [5α-reductase deficiency: online Mendelian inheritance in man (OMIM) 607306] or actions of androgens [partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS): OMIM 312300] during the 8th-12th weeks of gestation cause varying degrees of undervirilized external genitalia in 46, XY disorders of sex development (DSD) with increased testosterone production. The objective of the study was to determine clinical and genetic characteristics of Thai patients with 46, XY DSD...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Berenice B Mendonca, Rafael Loch Batista, Sorahia Domenice, Elaine M F Costa, Ivo J P Arnhold, David W Russell, Jean D Wilson
Dihydrotestosterone is a potent androgen metabolite formed from testosterone by action of 5α-reductase isoenzymes. Mutations in the type 2 isoenzyme cause a disorder of 46,XY sex development, termed 5α-reductase type 2 deficiency and that was described forty years ago. Many mutations in the encoding gene have been reported in different ethnic groups. In affected 46,XY individuals, female external genitalia are common, but Mullerian ducts regress, and the internal urogenital tract is male. Most affected males are raised as females, but virilization occurs at puberty, and male social sex develops thereafter with high frequency...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Luboslav Stárka
Subnormal levels of testosterone are frequently found in men of higher age category. Hypogonadal men have lower life expectancy than men with full androgenization and cardiovascular disease, obesity or diabetes is often associated with hypotestosteronemia. Low testosterone level is risk factor for these diseases. However, until now it is not clear whether testosterone deficiency is a cause or consequence of atherosclerosis or metabolic syndrome. A handful of symptoms and metabolic risk markers in hypogonadal men can be ameliorated by testosterone supplementation...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Ганна Л Пустовойт, Тетяна І Ярмола, Олександр В Мохначов, Лідія А Ткаченко, Сергій М Супруненко
INTRODUCTION: Ukraine occupies the 143 place in the world in life expectancy and the first place in terms of mortality. The main cause of death - cardiovascular diseases - 58%. Recent studies show the important and independent role of endothelium in the development of cardiovascular disease. THE AIM: examination of the endothelium destruction in aging men by determining the level of surface specific antigens of endothelial microparticles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 88 men age from 45 to 76 years...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Nur-Vaizura Mohamad, Ima-Nirwana Soelaiman, Kok-Yong Chin
Osteoporosis is a condition causing significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly population worldwide. Age-related testosterone deficiency is the most important factor of bone loss in elderly men. Androgen can influence bone health by binding to androgen receptors directly or to estrogen receptors (ERs) indirectly via aromatization to estrogen. This review summarized the direct and indirect effects of androgens on bone derived from in vitro, in vivo, and human studies. Cellular studies showed that androgen stimulated the proliferation of preosteoblasts and differentiation of osteoblasts...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Ursina Probst-Scheidegger, Sameer S Udhane, Dagmar l'Allemand, Christa E Flück, Núria Camats
Classic 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (3β-HSD II) deficiency causes congenital adrenal hyperplasia with glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, and sex steroid deficiency. We present a female patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia detected in newborn screening due to elevated 17OH-progesterone. Female external genitalia and non-measurable androgen levels elicited the suspicion of a defect early in the steroid cascade. Two loss-of-function HSD3B2 mutations (1 novel) were detected and confirmed in silico...
2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
Shigeru Takishima, Keisuke Nakajima, Risa Nomura, Atsumi Tsuji-Hosokawa, Nozomi Matsuda, Yohei Matsubara, Makoto Ono, Kentaro Miyai, Kei Takasawa, Tomohiro Morio, Yukihiro Hasegawa, Kenichi Kashimada
21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) is the most common type of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In addition to the clinical problems caused by adrenal insufficiency and androgen excess, a risk for obesity and metabolic syndrome during young adulthood is a major ramification of the disease. Although glucocorticoid therapy is very likely to be one of the contributory factors, the precise causes of the metabolic status of adult 21-OHD patients remain to be clarified. Previously we reported that 21-OHD patients developed early onset AR, a condition which might create a risk for obesity and metabolic syndrome in adulthood...
November 30, 2016: Endocrine Journal
V Chauhan, R Dada, V Jain
46, XY differences of sex development (DSD) constitute a heterogenous group of rare genetic defects. Definitive aetiological diagnosis cannot be made in more than half of these cases. The aim of our study was to prospectively evaluate and assign a probable diagnosis based on clinical and biochemical parameters in children with 46, XY DSD. Prospective clinical and biochemical screening was performed in a series of 46, XY children referred to paediatric endocrine services of our centre. Forty children with 46, XY DSD were investigated, and presumptive aetiological diagnoses of 5-alpha reductase deficiency (5αRD), partial gonadal dysgenesis (PGD), partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS), congenital bilateral anorchia (CBA), congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH), ovotesticular DSD (OT-DSD) and Frasier syndrome (FS) were made...
August 8, 2016: Andrologia
Rhéure Alves-Lopes, Karla B Neves, Marcondes Ab Silva, Vânia C Olivon, Silvia G Ruginsk, José Antunes-Rodrigues, Leandra Nz Ramalho, Rita C Tostes, Fernando Silva Carneiro
Androgen deficiency is strongly associated with erectile dysfunction (ED). Inadequate penile arterial blood flow is one of the major causes of ED. The blood flow to the corpus cavernosum is mainly derived from the internal pudendal arteries (IPAs); however, no study has evaluated the effects of androgen deprivation on IPA's function. We hypothesized that castration impairs IPAs reactivity and structure, contributing to ED. In our study, Wistar male rats, 8-week-old, were castrated and studied 30 days after orchiectomy...
July 5, 2016: Asian Journal of Andrology
Lei Wang, Ji Wang, Hua Xiong, Fengxia Wu, Tian Lan, Yingjie Zhang, Xiaolan Guo, Huanan Wang, Mohammad Saleem, Cheng Jiang, Junxuan Lu, Yibin Deng
Currently, no therapeutic options exist for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients who have developed resistance to the second generation anti-androgen receptor (AR) axis therapy. Here we report that co-deletion of Pten and p53 in murine prostate epithelium, often observed in human CRPC, leads to AR-independent CRPC and thus confers de novo resistance to second generation androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in multiple independent yet complementary preclinical mouse models. In contrast, mechanism-driven co-targeting hexokinase 2 (HK2)-mediated Warburg effect with 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) and ULK1-dependent autophagy with chloroquine (CQ) selectively kills cancer cells through intrinsic apoptosis to cause tumor regression in xenograft, leads to a near-complete tumor suppression and remarkably extends survival in Pten-/p53-deficiency-driven CRPC mouse model...
May 2016: EBioMedicine
Wen-Jiao Zhu, Tong Cheng, Hui Zhu, Bing Han, Meng-Xia Fan, Ting Gu, Shuang-Xia Zhao, Yang Liu, Kai-Xiang Cheng, Huai-Dong Song, Jie Qiao
BACKGROUND: Aromatase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that is caused by an impairment of androgen conversion to estrogens. Affected 46, XX individuals generally present with virilization of external genitalia at birth and mutations in CYP19A1 gene. OBJECTIVE: This study described the clinical features and molecular basis of a Chinese 46, XX girl born with ambiguous genitalia and investigated the functional alteration of two novel mutations of the CYP19A1 gene...
September 15, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Berenice B Mendonca, Rafael Loch Batista, Sorahia Domenice, Elaine M F Costa, Ivo J P Arnhold, David W Russell, Jean D Wilson
Dihydrotestosterone is a potent androgen metabolite formed from testosterone by action of 5α-reductase isoenzymes. Mutations in the type 2 isoenzyme cause a disorder of 46,XY sex development, termed 5α-reductase type 2 deficiency and that was described forty years ago. Many mutations in the encoding gene have been reported in different ethnic groups. In affected 46,XY individuals, female external genitalia are common, but Mullerian ducts regress, and the internal urogenital tract is male. Most affected males are raised as females, but virilization occurs at puberty, and male social sex develops thereafter with high frequency...
October 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Mabel Yau, Ahmed Khattab, Dix Poppas, Lucia Ghizzoni, Maria New
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) describes a family of disorders that comes from enzymatic deficiencies in cortisol production, with 21-hydroxylase deficiency causing ∼90% of cases. Distinction is made between the severe classical form and milder nonclassical form of CAH. Molecular genetic analysis is used to confirm the hormonal diagnosis. A high rate of genotype-phenotype disconcordance has been found in 21-hydroxylase deficiency. The goal of treatment is to replace with synthetic glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids and suppress adrenal androgen production...
2016: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Carolina Dalmasso, Rodrigo Maranon, Chetan Patil, Mohadetheh Moulana, Damian G Romero, Jane F Reckelhoff
In male rats, androgen supplements increase 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) via cytochrome P-450 (CYP)4A ω-hydroxylase and cause an increase in blood pressure (BP). In the present study, we determined the roles of 20-HETE and CYP4A2 on the elevated BP in hyperandrogenemic female rats. Chronic dihydrotestosterone (DHT) increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) in female Sprague-Dawley rats (96 ± 2 vs. 108 ± 2 mmHg, P < 0.05) and was associated with increased renal microvascular CYP4A2 mRNA expression (15-fold), endogenous renal 20-HETE (5-fold), and ω-hydroxylase activity (3-fold)...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Chauhan Vasundhera, Viveka P Jyotsna, Devasenathipathy Kandasamy, Nandita Gupta
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: 46 XY disorders of sexual development (DSD) cover a wide spectrum of phenotypes ranging from unambiguous female genitalia to ambiguous male genitalia with hypospadias or dysgenetic gonads. Management of these patients depends on the cause of DSD, degree of feminization, age at presentation, and gender orientation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presentation and management of patients with 46XY DSD at our center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All new and old patients of 46XY DSD attending the endocrine OPD in a period of 16 months were included in this study...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Berenice B Mendonca, Nathalia Lisboa Gomes, Elaine M F Costa, Marlene Inacio, Regina M Martin, Mirian Y Nishi, Filomena Marino Carvalho, Francisco Denes Tibor, Sorahia Domenice
17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 deficiency consists of a defect in the last phase of steroidogenesis, in which androstenedione is converted into testosterone and estrone into estradiol. External genitalia range from female-like to atypical genitalia and most affected males are raised as females. Virilization in subjects with 17β-HSD3 deficiency occurs at the time of puberty and several of them change to male social sex. In male social sex patients, testes can be safely maintained, as long as they are positioned inside the scrotum The phenotype of 46,XY DSD due to 17β-HSD3 deficiency is extremely variable and clinically indistinguishable from other causes of 46,XY DSD such as partial androgen insensitivity syndrome and 5α-reductase 2 deficiency...
May 6, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Andrea Sansone, Francesco Romanelli, Massimiliano Sansone, Andrea Lenzi, Luigi Di Luigi
Gynecomastia-the enlargement of male breast tissue in men-is a common finding, frequently observed in newborns, adolescents, and old men. Physiological gynecomastia, occurring in almost 25 % of cases, is benign and self-limited; on the other hand, several conditions and drugs may induce proliferation of male breast tissue. True gynecomastia is a common feature often related to estrogen excess and/or androgen deficiency as a consequence of different endocrine disorders. Biochemical evaluation should be performed once physiological or iatrogenic gynecomastia has been ruled out...
May 4, 2016: Endocrine
Anna Ross, Shalender Bhasin
Hypogonadism is a clinical syndrome, which results from the failure of the testes to produce physiologic levels of testosterone and a normal number of spermatozoa due to defects at one or more levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Primary hypogonadism results from malfunction at the level of the testes due to a genetic cause, injury, inflammation, or infection. Hypothalamic and/or pituitary failure leads to secondary hypogonadism, most often as a result of genetic defects, neoplasm, or infiltrative disorders...
May 2016: Urologic Clinics of North America
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