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antibodies n-acetyl aspartate

Tarlan Mamedov, Kader Cicek, Burcu Gulec, Rifat Ungor, Gulnara Hasanova
A plant transient expression system, with eukaryotic post-translational modification machinery, offers superior efficiency, scalability, safety, and lower cost over other expression systems. However, due to aberrant N-glycosylation, this expression system may not be a suitable expression platform for proteins not carrying N-linked glycans in the native hosts. Therefore, it is crucial to develop a strategy to produce target proteins in a non-glycosylated form while preserving their native sequence, conformation and biological activity...
2017: PloS One
Marie-Lise Gougeon, Béatrice Poirier-Beaudouin, Jacques Durant, Christine Lebrun-Frenay, Héla Saïdi, Valérie Seffer, Michel Ticchioni, Stephane Chanalet, Helene Carsenti, Alexandra Harvey-Langton, Muriel Laffon, Jacqueline Cottalorda, Christian Pradier, Pierre Dellamonica, Matteo Vassallo
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) persist in the post-HAART era, characterized by asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) and mild neurocognitive disorders (MND). High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a non-histone chromosomal protein widely expressed in the nucleus of all eukaryotic cells, including brain cells, which acts as a potent proinflammatory cytokine when actively secreted from immune cells. Recent reports suggested that HMGB1 acts on microglial cells to promote neuroinflammation...
February 2017: Heliyon
Christine Sievert, Henning Richter, Katrin Beckmann, Patrick R Kircher, Ines Carrera
In vivo diagnosis of tick-borne encephalitis is difficult due to high seroprevalence and rapid viral clearance, limiting detection of antibodies in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of tick-borne encephalitis have been reported, however MRI studies can also be negative despite the presence of neurologic signs. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H MRS) is an imaging method that provides additional information about the metabolic characteristics of brain tissues...
January 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Yukio Imamura, Nao Yoshikawa, Yuki Murkami, Satoko Mitani, Naoya Matsumoto, Hisatake Matsumoto, Tomoki Yamada, Kazuma Yamakawa, Junichiro Nakagawa, Hiroshi Ogura, Takeshi Shimazu, Takashi Jin
Whole-body inflammation (i.e., sepsis) often results in brain-related sensory dysfunction. We previously reported that interleukin (IL)-1 resulted in synaptic dysfunction of septic encephalopathy, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown, as do effective treatments. Using mice, we examined immunohistochemistry, co-immunoprecipitation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and behavior analyses, and investigated the role of the N-methyl-D-aspartate 2B subunit (NR2B) of NMDA receptor, IL-1 receptor, and histone acetylation in the pathophysiology underlying sensory dysfunction induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
June 2016: Shock
Bharath Wootla, Aleksandar Denic, Jens O Watzlawik, Arthur E Warrington, Moses Rodriguez
Demyelination underlies early neurological symptoms in multiple sclerosis (MS); however, axonal damage is considered critical for permanent chronic deficits. The precise mechanisms by which axonal injury occurs in MS are unclear; one hypothesis is the absence or failure of remyelination, suggesting that promoting remyelination may protect axons from death. This report provides direct evidence that promoting oligodendrocyte remyelination protects axons and maintains transport function. Persistent Theiler's virus infection of Swiss Jim Lambert (SJL)/J mice was used as a model of MS to assess the effects of remyelination on axonal injury following demyelination in the spinal cord...
October 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Bharath Wootla, Aleksandar Denic, Jens O Watzlawik, Arthur E Warrington, Moses Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: Intracerebral infection of susceptible mouse strains with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) results in chronic demyelinating disease with progressive axonal loss and neurologic dysfunction similar to progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). We previously showed that as the disease progresses, a marked decrease in brainstem N-acetyl aspartate (NAA; metabolite associated with neuronal integrity) concentrations, reflecting axon health, is measured. We also demonstrated stimulation of neurite outgrowth by a neuron-binding natural human antibody, IgM12...
April 29, 2015: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Melissa E Murray, Scott A Przybelski, Timothy G Lesnick, Amanda M Liesinger, Anthony Spychalla, Bing Zhang, Jeffrey L Gunter, Joseph E Parisi, Bradley F Boeve, David S Knopman, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Dennis W Dickson, Kejal Kantarci
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) is sensitive to early neurodegenerative processes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although (1)H-MRS metabolite ratios of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr), NAA/myoinositol (mI), and mI/Cr measured in the posterior cingulate gyrus reveal evidence of disease progression in AD, pathologic underpinnings of the (1)H-MRS metabolite changes in AD are unknown. Pathologically diagnosed human cases ranging from no likelihood to high likelihood AD (n = 41, 16 females and 25 males) who underwent antemortem (1)H-MRS of the posterior cingulate gyrus at 3 tesla were included in this study...
December 3, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Maria Elena Pessa, Francesco Janes, Gian Luigi Gigli
Limbic encephalitis (LE) is an inflammation of structures of limbic system. It may be an autoimmune disease or secondary to a neoplasia. Onset is subacute within a few weeks and clinical presentation is characterized by behavioral changes, psychiatric symptoms, short-term memory loss, and epileptic seizures. Diagnosis is typically set after a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, revealing hyperintensity in limbic structures on T2, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequences or detection of antineuronal antibodies; EEG aspecific alterations on temporal areas usually match with MRI and laboratory findings...
July 2016: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Bob Hamans, Anna Catharina Navis, Alan Wright, Pieter Wesseling, Arend Heerschap, William Leenders
BACKGROUND: Anti-angiogenic treatment of glioblastoma characteristically results in therapy resistance and tumor progression via diffuse infiltration. Monitoring tumor progression in these patients is thwarted because therapy results in tumor invisibility in contrast-enhanced (CE) MRI. To address this problem, we examined whether tumor progression could be monitored by metabolic mapping using (1)H MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). METHODS: We treated groups of BALB/c nu/nu mice carrying different orthotopic diffuse-infiltrative glioblastoma xenografts with bevacizumab (anti-vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF] antibody, n = 13), cabozantinib (combined VEGF receptor 2/c-Met tyrosine kinase inhibitor, n = 11), or placebo (n = 15) and compared CE-MRI with MRS-derived metabolic maps before, during, and after treatment...
December 2013: Neuro-oncology
Sushil Sharma, Carolyn Seungyoun Moon, Azza Khogali, Ali Haidous, Anthony Chabenne, Comfort Ojo, Miriana Jelebinkov, Yousef Kurdi, Manuchair Ebadi
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder mostly affecting the aging population over sixty. Cardinal symptoms including, tremors, muscle rigidity, drooping posture, drooling, walking difficulty, and autonomic symptoms appear when a significant number of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons are already destroyed. Hence we need early, sensitive, specific, and economical peripheral and/or central biomarker(s) for the differential diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of PD. These can be classified as clinical, biochemical, genetic, proteomic, and neuroimaging biomarkers...
September 2013: Neurochemistry International
Jun Guo, Chengjun Yao, Hong Chen, Dongxiao Zhuang, Weijun Tang, Guang Ren, Yin Wang, Jinsong Wu, Fengping Huang, Liangfu Zhou
BACKGROUND: The marginal delineation of gliomas cannot be defined by conventional imaging due to their infiltrative growth pattern. Here we investigate the relationship between changes in glioma metabolism by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((1)H-MRSI) and histopathological findings in order to determine an optimal threshold value of choline/N-acetyl-aspartate (Cho/NAA) that can be used to define the extent of glioma spread. METHOD: Eighteen patients with different grades of glioma were examined using (1)H-MRSI...
August 2012: Acta Neurochirurgica
P Marmiroli, B Slusher, G Cavaletti
Glutamate carboxypeptidase II, also known as prostate specific membrane antigen or folate hydrolase I, is a type II transmembrane 750 amino acid membrane-bound glycoprotein, with a molecular weight in the human form of approximately 100 kDa and a demonstrated metallopeptidase activity. At the synaptic level it hydrolyzes N-acetylaspartylglutamate to N-acetyl-aspartate and glutamate. Its localization in the animal and human nervous system has only recently been clearly established, since many of the older studies gave conflicting results, likely due to the use of poorly characterized antibodies lacking epitope mapping and proper controls (i...
2012: Current Medicinal Chemistry
John R Moffett, Peethambaran Arun, Prasanth S Ariyannur, James Y Garbern, David M Jacobowitz, Aryan M A Namboodiri
Aspartoacylase (ASPA) catalyzes deacetylation of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) to generate acetate and aspartate. Mutations in the gene for ASPA lead to reduced acetate availability in the CNS during development resulting in the fatal leukodystrophy Canavan disease. Highly specific polyclonal antibodies to ASPA were used to examine CNS expression in adult rats. In white matter, ASPA expression was associated with oligodendrocyte cell bodies, nuclei, and some processes, but showed a dissimilar distribution pattern to myelin basic protein and oligodendrocyte specific protein...
October 2011: Glia
Kazuo Mutsukura, Katsuya Satoh, Susumu Shirabe, Itsuro Tomita, Takayasu Fukutome, Minoru Morikawa, Masachika Iseki, Kensuke Sasaki, Yusei Shiaga, Tetsuyuki Kitamoto, Katsumi Eguchi
BACKGROUND: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been reported to be a useful technique for diagnosing Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). The present study reported DWI results in cases of familial CJD with a V180I mutation (CJD180) in the prion protein gene as well as neurological findings. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 3 patients with V180I was performed. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, brain MRI, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) were included...
2009: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Sarah L Cousins, Sarah E A Hoey, F Anne Stephenson, Michael S Perkinton
This is a study of the interaction between the two NMDA neurotransmitter receptor subtypes, NR1/NR2A and NR1/NR2B, and amyloid precursor protein (APP) 695, the major APP variant expressed in neurones. APP695 co-immunoprecipitated with assembled NR1-1a/NR2A and NR1-1a/NR2B NMDA receptors following expression in mammalian cells. Single NR1-1a, NR1-2a, NR1-4b(c-Myc), or NR2 subunit transfections revealed that co-association of APP695 with assembled NMDA receptors was mediated via the NR1 subunit; it was independent of the NR1 C1, C2, and C2' cassettes and, the use of an NR1-2a(c-Myc)-trafficking mutant suggested that interaction between the two proteins occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum...
December 2009: Journal of Neurochemistry
T Matsushita, N Isobe, T Matsuoka, T Ishizu, Y Kawano, T Yoshiura, Y Ohyagi, J Kira
OBJECTIVE: Using neuroimaging, we analyzed the nature of extensive brain lesions in five anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody-positive patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. RESULTS: Extensive brain lesions involved white matter in three, and basal ganglia and corpus callosum in one each. Four patients showed high diffusivity on apparent diffusion coefficient maps and three demonstrated increased choline/creatine ratios and decreased N-acetyl-aspartate/creatine ratios on (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
September 2009: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Bich-Thuy Doan, Gwennhael Autret, Joël Mispelter, Philippe Méric, William Même, Céline Montécot-Dubourg, Jean-Loup Corrèze, Frédéric Szeremeta, Brigitte Gillet, Jean-Claude Beloeil
(13)C spectroscopy combined with the injection of (13)C-labeled substrates is a powerful method for the study of brain metabolism in vivo. Since highly localized measurements are required in a heterogeneous organ such as the brain, it is of interest to augment the sensitivity of (13)C spectroscopy by proton acquisition. Furthermore, as focal cerebral lesions are often encountered in animal models of disorders in which the two brain hemispheres are compared, we wished to develop a bi-voxel localized sequence for the simultaneous bilateral investigation of rat brain metabolism, with no need for external additional references...
May 2009: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Naoko Matsui, Shunya Nakane, Masafumi Harada, Kaori Furutani, Yuishin Izumi, Hirofumi Oka, Chizuru Hashimoto, Ryuji Kaji
We report a possible case of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) that was attempted to evaluate the pathogenesis by a novel brain MRI techniques. A 72-year-old woman had developed subacute visual disturbance, right hemiparesis and sensory disturbance. Laboratory examinations revealed liver dysfunction and pancytopenia due to liver cirrhosis (type C) and preclinical status of multiple myeloma. Thus, this patient had these two underlying diseases, while anti-HIV antibody was negative. She was suspected with PML by detection of JCV-DNA in cerebrospinal fluid using with PCR...
August 2006: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Lucia Margari, Patrizia Ventura, Claudia Portoghese, Anna Presicci, Maura Buttiglione, Franca Di Cuonzo
This report presents clinical, laboratory, and neuroimaging findings in a 7-year-old male with Sydenham's chorea associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Western immunoblotting revealed serum anti-human basal ganglia tissue antibodies. Magnetic resonance imaging results were normal. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging disclosed increased choline/creatine ratio in basal ganglia, frontal, and parieto-occipital areas, and decreased N-acetyl aspartate/creatine ratio in both basal ganglia and frontal areas...
June 2006: Pediatric Neurology
Simone Appenzeller, Li Min Li, Lilian T L Costallat, Fernando Cendes
Our objective was to investigate axonal dysfunction in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). We studied prospectively 90 SLE patients (mean age of 32.5 years) and 23 normal volunteers (mean age of 33.8 years). We performed single voxel proton MRS using point resolved spectroscopy sequence over the superior-posterior region of the corpus callosum. We measured signals from N-acetyl compounds [N-acetylaspartate (NAA)] at 2.01 p.p.m., choline-based compounds (Cho) at 3...
December 2005: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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