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Carbohydrate restriction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102354/a-signature-of-renal-stress-resistance-induced-by-short-term-dietary-restriction-fasting-and-protein-restriction
#1
F Jongbloed, T C Saat, M Verweij, C Payan-Gomez, J H J Hoeijmakers, S van den Engel, C T van Oostrom, G Ambagtsheer, S Imholz, J L A Pennings, H van Steeg, J N M IJzermans, M E T Dollé, R W F de Bruin
During kidney transplantation, ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) induces oxidative stress. Short-term preoperative 30% dietary restriction (DR) and 3-day fasting protect against renal IRI. We investigated the contribution of macronutrients to this protection on both phenotypical and transcriptional levels. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed control food ad libitum, underwent two weeks of 30%DR, 3-day fasting, or received a protein-, carbohydrate- or fat-free diet for various periods of time. After completion of each diet, renal gene expression was investigated using microarrays...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100888/%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-levels-in-serum-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-under-ketone-body-metabolism-in-rats
#2
Xiaomeng Wang, Qi Liu, Jian Zhou, Xiuhua Wu, Qingan Zhu
A high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet (KD) or calorie restriction in the form of every-other-day fasting (EODF) results in ketone body metabolism with an increasing β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB) level. Previous studies have supported that a KD and EODF have a neuroprotective effect. However, the βOHB levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) resulting from a KD and EODF remain unknown. The aim of this study was to detect βOHB levels in rats fed a KD, EODF diet, and every-other-day ketogenic diet (EODKD) and to compare the serum βOHB level with the CSF βOHB level...
January 19, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097692/structural-role-of-a-conserved-active-site-cis-proline-in-the-thermotoga-maritima-acetyl-esterase-from-the-carbohydrate-esterase-family-7
#3
Mrityunjay K Singh, Narayanan Manoj
A conserved cis proline residue located in the active site of Thermotoga maritima acetyl esterase (TmAcE) from the carbohydrate esterase family 7 (CE7) has been substituted by alanine. The residue was known to play a crucial role in determining the catalytic properties of the enzyme. To elucidate the structural role of the residue, the crystal structure of the Pro228Ala variant (TmAcEP228A ) was determined at 2.1 Å resolution. The replacement does not affect the overall secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures and moderately decreases the thermal stability...
January 18, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097013/randomised-double-blind-clinical-investigation-to-compare-orlistat-60-milligram-and-a-customized-polyglucosamine-two-treatment-methods-for-the-management-of-overweight-and-obesity
#4
Manfred Stoll, Norman Bitterlich, Umberto Cornelli
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of a non-prescription drug to support weight loss programs has yet to be compared. This clinical trial investigates the comparability of orlistat 60 milligram (mg) and polyglucosamine. METHODS: Sixty-four overweight or obese subjects were included in a two-center double-blind study. One center was in Germany [center 1] and the other was in Italy [center 2]. The subjects (26 in center 1 and 38 in center 2) were recommended to follow a calorie deficit of about 2000 kilojoules/day and to increase their physical activity to 3 metabolic equivalent hours (MET h)/day...
2017: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060600/influence-of-energy-balance-and-glycemic-index-on-metabolic-endotoxemia-in-healthy-men
#5
Nicolle Breusing, Merit Lagerpusch, Anna Janina Engstler, Ina Bergheim, Manfred J Mueller, Anja Bosy-Westphal
OBJECTIVE: Overfeeding with a high-fat and/or high-carbohydrate (CHO) diet is known to increase plasma concentrations of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) that may lead to metabolic disturbances like insulin resistance. The impact of CHO quality (i.e., the glycemic index [GI]) independent of fat intake on metabolic endotoxemia remains unclear. In the present study, the effects of changes in energy balance and GI on plasma endotoxin were studied. METHODS: Fifteen healthy young men overconsumed diets containing 65% CHO and 20% fat for 1 week (OF; +50% of energy requirement) followed by 3 weeks of caloric restriction (CR; -50% of energy requirement) and were then randomized to 2 weeks hypercaloric refeeding (RF, +50% of energy requirement) with either a low- or high-GI (40 vs 74) diet...
January 6, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052287/is-overnight-fasting-before-surgery-too-much-or-not-enough-how-basic-aging-research-can-guide-preoperative-nutritional-recommendations-to-improve-surgical-outcomes-a-mini-review
#6
Alban Longchamp, Eylul Harputlugil, Jean-Marc Corpataux, C Keith Ozaki, James R Mitchell
Dietary restriction (DR) is best known for extending lifespan in experimental model organisms, but also increases resistance to a variety of clinically relevant stressors, including those associated with surgery. Extended periods of DR, lasting months to years, are required for optimal longevity benefits in rodents, but short-term dietary preconditioning (less than 1 week) remarkably protects from acute injury. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the mechanistic basis of short-term DR and fasting in the context of surgical stress resistance, including upstream amino acid sensing by the GCN2 and mTORC1 pathways, and downstream effector mechanisms including increased insulin-dependent prosurvival signaling and elevated endogenous hydrogen sulfide production...
January 5, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039918/regulation-of-reserve-mobilization-in-sunflower-during-late-seedling-establishment-under-continuous-darkness
#7
A P Avelino, D F A de Oliveira, H A Silva, C E C de Macêdo, E L Voigt
• Reserve mobilization, metabolite partitioning, and reserve-degrading enzyme activities were studied in sunflower seedlings cultivated in vitro under 12-h photoperiod or in the dark to investigate the involvement of source-sink relation and carbon starvation in the regulation of reserve mobilization under continuous darkness. • Reserves, metabolites, and enzyme activities were determined by standard spectrophotometric methods. • At the first 24 h of treatment (acclimation phase), darkness did not affect growth, but restricted carbon and nitrogen utilization, indicated by sugar and amino acid accumulation in the different seedling parts...
December 31, 2016: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035340/targeting-glucose-metabolism-for-healthy-aging
#8
REVIEW
Rachel A Brewer, Victoria K Gibbs, Daniel L Smith
Advancing age is the greatest single risk factor for numerous chronic diseases. Thus, the ability to target the aging process can facilitate improved healthspan and potentially lifespan. Lack of adequate glucoregulatory control remains a recurrent theme accompanying aging and chronic disease, while numerous longevity interventions result in maintenance of glucoregulatory control. In this review, we propose targeting glucose metabolism to enhance regulatory control as a means to ameliorate the aging process...
October 27, 2016: Nutr Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018759/could-the-use-of-an-enhanced-recovery-protocol-in-laparoscopic-donor-nephrectomy-be-an-incentive-for-live-kidney-donation
#9
Aparna Rege, Harold Leraas, Deepak Vikraman, Kadiyala Ravindra, Todd Brennan, Tim Miller, Julie Thacker, Debra Sudan
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) recovery after major abdominal surgery can be delayed from an ongoing need for narcotic analgesia thereby prolonging hospitalization. Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) is a multimodal perioperative care pathway designed to facilitate early recovery after major surgery by maintaining preoperative body composition and physiological organ function and modifying the stress response induced by surgical exposure. Enhanced recovery programs (ERPs) in colorectal surgery have decreased the duration of postoperative ileus and the hospital stay while showing equivalent morbidity, mortality, and readmission rates in comparison to the traditional standard of care...
November 22, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007348/home-use-of-a-bihormonal-bionic-pancreas-versus-insulin-pump-therapy-in-adults-with-type-1-diabetes-a-multicentre-randomised-crossover-trial
#10
Firas H El-Khatib, Courtney Balliro, Mallory A Hillard, Kendra L Magyar, Laya Ekhlaspour, Manasi Sinha, Debbie Mondesir, Aryan Esmaeili, Celia Hartigan, Michael J Thompson, Samir Malkani, J Paul Lock, David M Harlan, Paula Clinton, Eliana Frank, Darrell M Wilson, Daniel DeSalvo, Lisa Norlander, Trang Ly, Bruce A Buckingham, Jamie Diner, Milana Dezube, Laura A Young, April Goley, M Sue Kirkman, John B Buse, Hui Zheng, Rajendranath R Selagamsetty, Edward R Damiano, Steven J Russell
BACKGROUND: The safety and effectiveness of a continuous, day-and-night automated glycaemic control system using insulin and glucagon has not been shown in a free-living, home-use setting. We aimed to assess whether bihormonal bionic pancreas initialised only with body mass can safely reduce mean glycaemia and hypoglycaemia in adults with type 1 diabetes who were living at home and participating in their normal daily routines without restrictions on diet or physical activity. METHODS: We did a random-order crossover study in volunteers at least 18 years old who had type 1 diabetes and lived within a 30 min drive of four sites in the USA...
December 20, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993175/carbohydrate-intake-and-resistance-based-exercise-are-current-recommendations-reflective-of-actual-need
#11
Kurt A Escobar, Trisha A VanDusseldorp, Chad M Kerksick
Substantial research has been completed examining the impact of carbohydrate (CHO) intake on endurance exercise, whereas its role in resistance-based exercise performance, adaptation and cell signalling has yet to be fully characterised. This empirical shortcoming has precluded the ability to establish specific CHO recommendations for resistance exercise. This results in recommendations largely stemming from findings based on endurance exercise and/or anecdotal evidence despite the distinct energetic demands and molecular responses mediating adaptation from endurance- and resistance-based exercise...
December 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986586/evaluation-of-carbohydrate-restriction-as-primary-treatment-for-post-gastric-bypass-hypoglycemia
#12
Jorick van Meijeren, Ilse Timmer, Hans Brandts, Ignace Janssen, Hans de Boer
BACKGROUND: Up to 15% of patients who have undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery may eventually develop symptoms of hypoglycemia. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the daily life efficacy of a carbohydrate (carb)-restricted dietary advice (CRD) of 6 meals per day with a 30 g carb maximum per meal in patients with documented post-RYGB hypoglycemia. SETTING: Teaching hospital, the Netherlands. METHODS: Frequency and severity of hypoglycemic events before and after CRD were assessed retrospectively in 41 patients with documented post-RYGB hypoglycemia, based on medical records and telephone questionnaires...
November 5, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983688/maternal-food-restriction-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-adversely-affect-hepatic-growth-and-lipid-metabolism-in-three-week-old-rat-offspring
#13
Sangmi Lee, Young-Ah You, Eun Jin Kwon, Sung-Chul Jung, Inho Jo, Young Ju Kim
Maternal malnutrition influences the early development of foetal adaptive changes for survival. We explored the effects of maternal undernutrition during gestation and lactation on hepatic growth and function. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal or a food-restricted (FR) diet during gestation and/or lactation. We performed analyses of covariance (adjusting for the liver weight/body weight ratio) to compare hepatic growth and lipid metabolism among the offspring. Maternal FR during gestation triggered the development of wide spaces between hepatic cells and increased the expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in three-week-old male offspring compared with controls (both p < 0...
December 15, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928202/effects-of-short-term-carbohydrate-restrictive-and-conventional-hypoenergetic-diets-and-resistance-training-on-strength-gains-and-muscle-thickness
#14
Claudia M Meirelles, Paulo S C Gomes
: Hypoenergetic diets and resistance training (RT) have been suggested to be important components of weight loss strategy programs; however, there is little evidence as to the chronic effects of different macronutrient compositions on strength performance and muscle mass with RT. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of carbohydrate restrictive (CRD) and conventional (CONV) diets combined with RT on strength performance and muscle thicknesses in overweight and obese participants already involved in RT programs...
December 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917828/molecular-determinants-of-substrate-specificity-revealed-by-the-structure-of-clostridium-thermocellum-arabinofuranosidase-43a-from-glycosyl-hydrolase-family-43-subfamily-16
#15
Arun Goyal, Shadab Ahmed, Kedar Sharma, Vikas Gupta, Pedro Bule, Victor D Alves, Carlos M G A Fontes, Shabir Najmudin
The recent division of the large glycoside hydrolase family 43 (GH43) into subfamilies offers a renewed opportunity to develop structure-function studies aimed at clarifying the molecular determinants of substrate specificity in carbohydrate-degrading enzymes. α-L-Arabinofuranosidases (EC 3.2.1.55) remove arabinose side chains from heteropolysaccharides such as xylan and arabinan. However, there is some evidence suggesting that arabinofuranosidases are substrate-specific, being unable to display a debranching activity on different polysaccharides...
December 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917187/integrating-physiology-and-architecture-in-models-of-fruit-expansion
#16
Mikolaj Cieslak, Ibrahim Cheddadi, Frédéric Boudon, Valentina Baldazzi, Michel Génard, Christophe Godin, Nadia Bertin
Architectural properties of a fruit, such as its shape, vascular patterns, and skin morphology, play a significant role in determining the distributions of water, carbohydrates, and nutrients inside the fruit. Understanding the impact of these properties on fruit quality is difficult because they develop over time and are highly dependent on both genetic and environmental controls. We present a 3D functional-structural fruit model that can be used to investigate effects of the principle architectural properties on fruit quality...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903152/obesity-and-cancer-mechanisms-cancer-metabolism
#17
Benjamin D Hopkins, Marcus D Goncalves, Lewis C Cantley
Obesity is a risk factor for cancer development and is associated with poor prognosis in multiple tumor types. The positive energy balance linked with obesity induces a variety of systemic changes including altered levels of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, leptin, adiponectin, steroid hormones, and cytokines. Each of these factors alters the nutritional milieu and has the potential to create an environment that favors tumor initiation and progression. Although the complete ramifications of obesity as it relates to cancer are still unclear, there is convincing evidence that reducing the magnitude of the systemic hormonal and inflammatory changes has significant clinical benefits...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900447/controversies-about-sugars-results-from-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses-on-obesity-cardiometabolic-disease-and-diabetes
#18
REVIEW
Tauseef A Khan, John L Sievenpiper
Fructose-containing sugars are a focus of attention as a public health target for their putative role in obesity and cardiometabolic disease including diabetes. The fructose moiety is singled out to be the primary driver for the harms of sugars due to its unique endocrine signal and pathophysiological role. However, this is only supported by ecological studies, animal models of overfeeding and select human intervention studies with supraphysiological doses or lack of control for energy. The highest level of evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of controlled trials has not shown that fructose-containing sugars behave any differently from other forms of digestible carbohydrates...
November 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898845/effect-of-sterilization-and-of-dietary-fat-and-carbohydrate-content-on-food-intake-activity-level-and-blood-satiety-related-hormones-in-female-dogs
#19
S Schauf, A Salas-Mani, C Torre, G Bosch, H Swarts, C Castrillo
Animal sterilization is suggested to promote food overconsumption, although it is unknown whether this effect is mediated by variations in satiety-related hormones, which are released in response to food intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sterilization and of the main energy-delivery nutrients, fat and nonstructural carbohydrates, on food intake, blood concentration of satiety-related hormones, and activity level in dogs. In a 2-phase experiment (phase I [Ph.I], 74 d, and Ph.II, 84 d), 12 female Beagle dogs were assigned to a control group (intact in both phases) and a sterilization group (spayed 20 d before Ph...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894792/pyruvate-dehydrogenase-e1%C3%AE-deficiency-presenting-as-recurrent-acute-proximal-muscle-weakness-of-upper-and-lower-extremities-in-an-8-year-old-boy
#20
Bülent Kara, Hülya Maraş Genç, Emek Uyur-Yalçın, Ayfer Sakarya-Güneş, Uğur Topçu, Serap Mülayim, Serdar Ceylaner
The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex (PDHC) plays an important role in aerobic energy metabolism and acid-base equilibrium. PDHC contains of 5 enzymes, 3 catalytic (E1, E2, E3) and 2 regulatory, as well as 3 cofactors and an additional protein (E3-binding protein) encoded by nuclear genes. The clinical presentation of PDHC deficiency ranges from fatal neonatal lactic acidosis to chronic neurologic dysfunction without lactic acidosis. Paroxysmal neurologic problems such as intermittent ataxia, episodic weakness, exercise-induced dystonia and recurrent demyelination may also be seen although they are rare...
January 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
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