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Carbohydrate restriction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641787/social-jet-lag-potentiates-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-when-combined-with-cafeteria-diet-in-rats
#1
Estefania Espitia-Bautista, Mario Velasco-Ramos, Iván Osnaya-Ramírez, Manuel Ángeles-Castellanos, Ruud M Buijs, Carolina Escobar
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Modern lifestyle promotes shifted sleep onset and shifted wake up time between weekdays and weekends, producing a condition termed "social-jet lag." Disrupted sleep promotes increased appetite for carbohydrate and fat-rich food, which in long term leads to overweight, obesity and metabolic syndrome. In order to mimic the human situation we produced an experimental model of social-jet lag (Sj-l). With this model, we explored the link between shifted sleep time with consumption of a cafeteria diet (CafD) and the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome...
July 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639757/-ketogenic-diets-the-miraculous-solution
#2
Christophe Kosinski, François R Jornayvaz
The treatment of obesity and cardiovascular diseases is one of the most difficult and important challenges nowadays. Weight loss is frequently offered and aimed at improving some of the components of the metabolic syndrome. Among various diets, carbohydrate restriction is popular, specifically ketogenic diets, which are very low in carbohydrates and usually high in fats and /or proteins. Results are controversial, but some benefits such as weight loss and improved glycemic control have been described. Nevertheless, these effects seem to be limited in time...
May 31, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637406/socioeconomic-status-the-missing-link-between-obesity-and-diabetes-mellitus
#3
Alexei Volaco, Ana Maria Cavalcanti, Roberto Pecoits Filho, Dalton Bertolim Précoma
BACKGROUND: Currently, there is an epidemic expansion of the obesity rates worldwide. The increasing number of obese individuals associated with the aging of population leads to increasing number of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at the same rate. The traditional factors that link obesity to T2DM are related to genetics, hypercaloric diet, sedentary lifestyle, and stress. Individuals from lower socioeconomic status (SES) have restricted autonomy and opportunities that could lead to more stress and consequently increase in stress hormones, such as cortisol, catecholamines, glucagon, and growth hormone, which might ultimately change fat deposition, increasing visceral fat and increasing the risk of T2DM mellitus development...
June 21, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636668/microbiota-in-anorexia-nervosa-the-triangle-between-bacterial-species-metabolites-and-psychological-tests
#4
Francesca Borgo, Alessandra Riva, Alberto Benetti, Maria Cristina Casiraghi, Sara Bertelli, Stefania Garbossa, Simona Anselmetti, Silvio Scarone, Antonio E Pontiroli, Giulia Morace, Elisa Borghi
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disease with devastating physical consequences, with a pathophysiological mechanism still to be elucidated. Metagenomic studies on anorexia nervosa have revealed profound gut microbiome perturbations as a possible environmental factor involved in the disease. In this study we performed a comprehensive analysis integrating data on gut microbiota with clinical, anthropometric and psychological traits to gain new insight in the pathophysiology of AN. Fifteen AN women were compared with fifteen age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched healthy controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630601/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-diets-and-body-composition
#5
REVIEW
Alan A Aragon, Brad J Schoenfeld, Robert Wildman, Susan Kleiner, Trisha VanDusseldorp, Lem Taylor, Conrad P Earnest, Paul J Arciero, Colin Wilborn, Douglas S Kalman, Jeffrey R Stout, Darryn S Willoughby, Bill Campbell, Shawn M Arent, Laurent Bannock, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Jose Antonio
Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature regarding the effects of diet types (macronutrient composition; eating styles) and their influence on body composition. The ISSN has concluded the following. 1) There is a multitude of diet types and eating styles, whereby numerous subtypes fall under each major dietary archetype. 2) All body composition assessment methods have strengths and limitations. 3) Diets primarily focused on fat loss are driven by a sustained caloric deficit...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627053/recovery-of-insulin-sensitivity-and-optimal-body-composition-after-rapid-weight-loss-in-obese-dogs-fed-a-high-protein-medium-carbohydrate-diet
#6
A André, I Leriche, G Chaix, C Thorin, M Burger, P Nguyen
This study investigated the effects of an experimental high-protein medium-carbohydrate diet (protein level, 46% metabolizable energy, ME). First, postprandial plasma glucose and insulin kinetics were determined in steady-state overweight/obese Beagle dogs (28%-41% excess body weight) for an experimental high-protein medium-carbohydrate diet (protein level, 46% ME) and a commercial high-carbohydrate medium-protein diet (protein level, 24%ME) in obese dogs. Secondly, all the dogs were included in a weight loss programme...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625832/diet-low-in-fodmaps-reduces-symptoms-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-probiotic-restores-bifidobacterium-species-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
H M Staudacher, M C E Lomer, F M Farquharson, P Louis, F Fava, E Franciosi, M Scholz, K M Tuohy, J O Lindsay, P M Irving, K Whelan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dietary restriction of fermentable carbohydrates (a low FODMAP diet) has been reported to reduce symptoms in some patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled study to determine its effects on symptoms and the fecal microbiota in patients with IBS. METHODS: We performed a 2x2 factorial trial of 104 patients with IBS (18-65 years old), based on the Rome III criteria, at 2 hospitals in the United Kingdom...
June 15, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618958/current-and-future-biomarkers-for-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma
#8
Sven H Loosen, Ulf P Neumann, Christian Trautwein, Christoph Roderburg, Tom Luedde
Although pancreatic cancer is only the twelfth most common type of cancer in the world, it features a very unfavorable prognosis. The mortality rate almost equals the incidence rate, corroborating the very poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer. The 5-year survival rate for all stages of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is only 7%. Surgical resection represents the only potentially curative treatment option for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients but is often not feasible due to the advanced stage of the disease upon diagnosis...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613430/photocontrol-over-molecular-shape-synthesis-and-photochemical-evaluation-of-glycoazobenzene-macrocycles
#9
Guillaume Despras, Julia Hain, Sven Ole Jaeschke
Reversible shape switching upon external stimuli is an attractive property for the control of molecular features. Hence, we aimed at macrocycles to investigate photoswitching of molecular shape. We prepared the first carbohydrate-based macrocycles comprising a photoresponsive azobenzene hinge. These macrocycles were readily obtained by cyclization of isothiocyanate-armed bis-azobenzene glycosides with piperazine. The unprotected macrocycles exhibit favorable photochromic properties in water and DMSO. Notably, the efficient trans→cis isomerization results in a remarkable shape transformation of the molecule...
June 14, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607566/comparative-effects-of-carbohydrate-versus-fat-restriction-on-metabolic-profiles-biomarkers-of-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-overweight-patients-with-type-2-diabetic-and-coronary-heart-disease-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#10
Fariba Raygan, Fereshteh Bahmani, Ebrahim Kouchaki, Esmat Aghadavod, Sahar Sharifi, Elmira Akbari, Akbar Heidari, Zatollah Asemi
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to establish the comparative effects of carbohydrate versus fat restriction on metabolic indices in Type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: This randomized, clinical trial was done among 56 overweight persons with T2D and CHD aged 40-85 years old. The patients were randomly allocated to take either a high-carbohydrate (HC) diet (60-65% carbohydrates and 20-25% fats) (n = 28) or a restricted carbohydrate (RC) diet (43-49% carbohydrate and 36-40% fats) (n = 28) for 8 weeks to determine metabolic status...
November 2016: ARYA Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599043/ketones-and-human-performance
#11
Jonathan M Scott, Patricia A Deuster
Everyone is seeking nutritional strategies that might benefit performance. One approach receiving much attention is ketones, or ketosis. Ketones are very simple compounds made of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen, and ketosis is a metabolic state whereby the body uses predominantly ketones. Ketosis can be achieved by fasting for longer than 72 hours or by following a very lowcarbohydrate, high-fat diet (ketogenic diet) for several days to weeks. Alternatively, ketone supplements purportedly induce ketosis rapidly and do not require strict adherence to any specific type of diet; however, much of the touted benefits are anecdotal...
2017: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596784/indy-a-new-link-to-metabolic-regulation-in-animals-and-humans
#12
REVIEW
Blanka Rogina
The Indy (I'm Not Dead Yet) gene encodes the fly homolog of the mammalian SLC13A5 citrate transporter. Reduced expression of the Indy gene in flies and worms extends their longevity. INDY is expressed in the plasma membrane of metabolically active tissues. Decreased expression of Indy in worms, flies, mice, and rats alters metabolism in a manner similar to calorie restriction. Reducing INDY activity prevents weight gain in flies, worms, and mice, and counteracts the negative effects of age or a high fat diet on metabolism and insulin sensitivity...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595792/various-ketogenic-diets-can-differently-support-brain-resistance-against-experimentally-evoked-seizures-and-seizure-induced-elemental-anomalies-of-hippocampal-formation
#13
J Chwiej, A Patulska, A Skoczen, K Matusiak, K Janeczko, M Ciarach, R Simon, Z Setkowicz
In this paper the influence of two different ketogenic diets (KDs) on the seizure-evoked elemental anomalies of hippocampal formation was examined. To achieve this purpose normal and pilocarpine treated rats previously fed with one of the two high fat and carbohydrate restricted diets were compared with animals on standard laboratory diet. The ketogenic ratios of the examined KDs were equal to 5:1 (KD1) and 9:1 (KD2). KD1 and standard diet fed animals presented similar patterns of seizure-evoked elemental changes in hippocampal formation...
July 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593722/macronutrient-intake-associated-with-weight-gain-in-adolescent-girls-with-anorexia-nervosa
#14
Charumathi Baskaran, Traci L Carson, Karen J Campoverde Reyes, Kendra R Becker, Meghan J Slattery, Shreya Tulsiani, Kamryn T Eddy, Ellen J Anderson, Jane L Hubbard, Madhusmita Misra, Anne Klibanski
OBJECTIVE: Adolescents and women with anorexia nervosa (AN) are known to severely restrict total calorie and fat intake. However, data are limited regarding specific macronutrient intake associated with weight gain in AN. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively investigate dietary macronutrient composition associated with weight gain in adolescent girls with AN. METHOD: A prospective naturalistic study of 90 girls 12-18 years old; 45 with AN and 45 healthy normal-weight-controls over a 6-12-month period...
June 7, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592442/the-low-fodmap-diet-recent-advances-in-understanding-its-mechanisms-and-efficacy-in-ibs
#15
REVIEW
Heidi M Staudacher, Kevin Whelan
There is an intensifying interest in the interaction between diet and the functional GI symptoms experienced in IBS. Recent studies have used MRI to demonstrate that short-chain fermentable carbohydrates increase small intestinal water volume and colonic gas production that, in those with visceral hypersensitivity, induces functional GI symptoms. Dietary restriction of short-chain fermentable carbohydrates (the low fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol (FODMAP) diet) is now increasingly used in the clinical setting...
June 7, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589488/negative-electron-transfer-dissociation-sequencing-of-increasingly-sulfated-glycosaminoglycan-oligosaccharides-on-an-orbitrap-mass-spectrometer
#16
Franklin E Leach, Nicholas M Riley, Michael S Westphall, Joshua J Coon, I Jonathan Amster
The structural characterization of sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) carbohydrates remains an important target for analytical chemists attributable to challenges introduced by the natural complexity of these mixtures and the defined need for molecular-level details to elucidate biological structure-function relationships. Tandem mass spectrometry has proven to be the most powerful technique for this purpose. Previously, electron detachment dissociation (EDD), in comparison to other methods of ion activation, has been shown to provide the largest number of useful cleavages for de novo sequencing of GAG oligosaccharides, but such experiments are restricted to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometers (FTICR-MS)...
June 6, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585108/contribution-of-malabsorption-to-weight-loss-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Kamal K Mahawar, Alistair J Sharples
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is traditionally classified as a combined restrictive and malabsorptive operation. This notion of the operation influences its technical variations and revisions for patients who do not achieve significant weight loss after this surgery. There is an increasing body of literature suggesting a role for appetite suppression mediated by neuro-hormonal signals after RYGB. The purpose of this paper was to systematically review published English language scientific literature to determine the role of malabsorption towards weight loss achieved with RYGB...
June 6, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571494/cardiovascular-pleiotropic-effects-of-statins-and-new-onset-diabetes-is-there-a-common-link-do-we-need-to-evaluate-the-role-of-katp-channels
#18
Devindra Sehra, Sudhish Sehra, Shiv Tej Sehra
Statins are considered the main stay of treatment in the prevention of cardio-vascular morbidity and mortality. They have multiple pleiotropic effects, like stabilization of atherosclerotic plaques, inhibition of platelet aggregation, and vascular smooth muscle proliferation; in addition to their lipid lowering action. Statins manifest these pleiotropic effects because they activate KATP channels in the cardiac and vascular tissue. Simultaneous activation of the KATP channels by statins in β cells of pancreas may inhibit insulin release which may lead to diabetes...
June 13, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525986/the-lspc3-41i-restriction-modification-system-is-the-major-determinant-for-genetic-manipulations-of-lysinibacillus-sphaericus-c3-41
#19
Pan Fu, Yong Ge, Yiming Wu, Ni Zhao, Zhiming Yuan, Xiaomin Hu
BACKGROUND: Lysinibacillus sphaericus has been widely used in integrated mosquito control program and it is one of the minority bacterial species unable to metabolize carbohydrates. In consideration of the high genetic conservation at genomic level and difficulty of genetic horizontal transfer, it is hypothesized that effective restriction-modification (R-M) systems existed in mosquitocidal L. sphaericus. RESULTS: In this study, six type II R-M systems including LspC3-41I were predicted in L...
May 19, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525543/fermentable-carbohydrates-fodmaps-exacerbate-functional-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-cross-over-re-challenge-trial
#20
Selina R Cox, Alexis C Prince, Clio E Myers, Peter M Irving, James O Lindsay, Miranda C Lomer, Kevin Whelan
Background and Aims: Preliminary evidence suggests fermentable carbohydrate restriction might ameliorate functional gastrointestinal symptoms (FGS) in quiescent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our aim was to determine whether fermentable carbohydrates exacerbate FGS in quiescent IBD using a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over, re-challenge trial. Methods: Patients with quiescent IBD and FGS responsive to a low FODMAP diet were allocated to a series of 3-day fermentable carbohydrate challenges in random order (fructan, 12 g/d; galacto-oligosaccharides, GOS, 6 g/d; sorbitol, 6 g/d; and glucose placebo, 12 g/d), each separated by a standardised washout period...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
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