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Carbohydrate restriction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158252/food-addiction-high-glycemic-index-carbohydrates-and-obesity
#1
REVIEW
Belinda Lennerz, Jochen K Lennerz
BACKGROUND: Treatment success in obesity remains low, and recently food addiction has been delineated as an underlying etiologic factor with therapeutic relevance. Specifically, current treatment focuses on reduced food intake and increase of physical activity, whereas interventions for addiction encompass behavioral therapy, abstinence, and environmental interventions such as taxation, restrictions on advertising, and regulation of school menus. CONTENT: Here, we reviewed the pertinent literature on food addiction with a specific focus on the role of high-glycemic-index carbohydrates in triggering addictive symptoms...
November 20, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150190/metabolic-adaptation-of-intracellular-bacteria-and-fungi-to-macrophages
#2
REVIEW
Marcel Sprenger, Lydia Kasper, Michael Hensel, Bernhard Hube
The mature phagosome of macrophages is a hostile environment for the vast majority of phagocytosed microbes. In addition to active destruction of the engulfed microbes by antimicrobial compounds, restriction of essential nutrients in the phagosomal compartment contributes to microbial growth inhibition and killing. However, some pathogenic microorganisms have not only developed various strategies to efficiently withstand or counteract antimicrobial activities, but also to acquire nutrients within macrophages for intracellular replication...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128557/the-effect-of-diet-adiposity-and-weight-loss-on-the-secretion-of-incretin-hormones-in-cats
#3
K E McCool, A J Rudinsky, V J Parker, C O Herbert, C Gilor
Degree of adiposity and dietary macronutrient composition affect incretin hormone secretion in humans and mice, but little is known about their effect in cats. In this study, 7 overweight cats were fed a maintenance diet (MD) for at least 2 wk followed by a reduced calorie diet (RCD), which was lower in fat and higher in carbohydrates and fiber. Cats were fed ad libitum initially, and then, food was restricted to achieve 1%-2% loss of body weight weekly (11 wk). When lean, cats were fed MD for 2 wk. A standardized meal test (SMT) using a third diet was performed after at least 7 d on each diet, before and after weight loss (four SMT's total)...
October 20, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095000/the-effects-of-a-low-carbohydrate-diet-on-oxygen-saturation-in-heart-failure-patients-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#4
Dulce González-Islas, Arturo Orea-Tejeda, Lilia Castillo-Martínez, Gabriela Olvera-Mayorga, Wendy Daniella Rodríguez-García, Cira Santillán-Díaz, Candace Keirnes-Davis, Nayeli Vaquero-Barbosa
INTRODUCTION: Nutritional therapy in heart failure (HF) patients has been focused on fluid and sodium restriction with the aim of decreasing volume overload. However, these recommendations are not well established and sometimes controversial. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of the consumption of a low-carbohydrate diet on oxygen saturation, body composition and clinical variables during two months of follow-up in chronic, stable heart failure patients. METHODS: In a parallel group randomized controlled clinical trial, 88 ambulatory patients were randomly assigned to a low-carbohydrate diet group (40% carbohydrates, 20% protein and 40% fats [12% saturated, 18% monounsaturated and 10% polyunsaturated]) or a standard diet group (50% carbohydrates, 20% protein and 30% fats [10% saturated, 10% monounsaturated and 10% polyunsaturated]) for two months...
July 28, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075629/carbohydrate-restriction-with-high-intensity-interval-training-an-optimal-combination-for-treating-metabolic-diseases
#5
Monique E Francois, Jenna B Gillen, Jonathan P Little
Lifestyle interventions incorporating both diet and exercise strategies remain cornerstone therapies for treating metabolic disease. Carbohydrate-restriction and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) have independently been shown to improve cardiovascular and metabolic health. Carbohydrate-restriction reduces postprandial hyperglycemia, thereby limiting potential deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of excessive glucose excursions. Additionally, carbohydrate-restriction has been shown to improve body composition and blood lipids...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070709/increased-protein-consumption-during-the-day-from-an-energy-restricted-diet-augments-satiety-but-does-not-reduce-daily-fat-or-carbohydrate-intake-on-a-free-living-test-day-in-overweight-women
#6
Jess A Gwin, Kevin C Maki, Heather J Leidy
Background: Higher-protein (HP) energy-restriction diets improve weight management to a greater extent than normal-protein (NP) versions. Potential mechanisms of action with regard to assessment of eating behaviors across the day have not been widely examined during energy restriction.Objectives: The objectives of this study were to test whether the consumption of an HP energy-restriction diet reduces carbohydrate and fat intakes through improvements in daily appetite, satiety, and food cravings compared with NP versions and to test whether protein type within the NP diets alters protein-related satiety...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046264/carbohydrate-binding-module-assisted-purification-and-immobilization-of-%C3%AE-glucosidase-onto-cellulose-and-application-in-hydrolysis-of-soybean-isoflavone-glycosides
#7
Fei Chang, Saisai Xue, Xiaqing Xie, Wei Fang, Zemin Fang, Yazhong Xiao
Complicated purification steps, together with the fact that β-glucosidase has to be tolerant to ethanol restricts the application of β-glucosidase in isoflavone aglycone hydrolyzing process. β-Glucosidase Bgl1A(A24S/F297Y) is a promising enzyme in hydrolyzing isoflavones. In this work, six different carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs), which were from 3 families, were fused to the C-terminal of Bgl1A(A24S/F297Y), respectively, to simplify the enzyme preparation process. The fusion proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and adsorbed onto cellulose...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046007/-dietary-recommendations-in-metabolic-vascular-syndrome
#8
Katharina Lechner, Nicole Erickson, Benjamin Lechner, Florian Horn
Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death globally. Poor diet constitutes a key factor in the initiation and progression of cardiovascular disease and has become the leading risk factor for disability and death worldwide. Therefore, addressing suboptimal nutrition is of key prognostic relevance in primary and secondary prevention of metabolic vascular syndrome.Metabolic vascular syndrome is a multidimensional network of acquired cardiometabolic risk factors closely related to insulin resistance (IR) and concomitant hyperinsulinemia...
October 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037147/de-novo-assembly-of-genomes-from-long-sequence-reads-reveals-uncharted-territories-of-propionibacterium-freudenreichii
#9
Paulina Deptula, Pia K Laine, Richard J Roberts, Olli-Pekka Smolander, Helena Vihinen, Vieno Piironen, Lars Paulin, Eija Jokitalo, Kirsi Savijoki, Petri Auvinen, Pekka Varmanen
BACKGROUND: Propionibacterium freudenreichii is an industrially important bacterium granted the Generally Recognized as Safe (the GRAS) status, due to its long safe use in food bioprocesses. Despite the recognized role in the food industry and in the production of vitamin B12, as well as its documented health-promoting potential, P. freudenreichii remained poorly characterised at the genomic level. At present, only three complete genome sequences are available for the species. RESULTS: We used the PacBio RS II sequencing platform to generate complete genomes of 20 P...
October 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034175/refining-low-protein-modular-feeds-for-children-on-low-protein-tube-feeds-with-organic-acidaemias
#10
A Daly, S Evans, C Ashmore, S Chahal, S Santra, A MacDonald
Children with inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) who are dependent on tube feeding and require a protein restriction are commonly fed by 'modular tube feeds' consisting of several ingredients. A longitudinal, prospective two-phase study, conducted over 18 months assessed the long-term efficacy of a pre-measured protein-free composite feed. This was specifically designed to meet the non-protein nutritional requirements of children (aged over 1 year) with organic acidaemias on low protein enteral feeds and to be used as a supplement with an enteral feeding protein source...
December 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032464/nutritional-composition-of-honey-bee-food-stores-vary-with-floral-composition
#11
Philip Donkersley, Glenn Rhodes, Roger W Pickup, Kevin C Jones, Eileen F Power, Geraldine A Wright, Kenneth Wilson
Sufficiently diverse and abundant resources are essential for generalist consumers, and form an important part of a suite of conservation strategies for pollinators. Honey bees are generalist foragers and are dependent on diverse forage to adequately meet their nutritional needs. Through analysis of stored pollen (bee bread) samples obtained from 26 honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) hives across NW-England, we quantified bee bread nutritional content and the plant species that produced these stores from pollen...
December 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030343/carbohydrate-restriction-with-postmeal-walking-effectively-mitigates-postprandial-hyperglycemia-and-improves-endothelial-function-in-type-2-diabetes
#12
Monique Emily Francois, Etienne Myette-Cote, Tyler Daniel Bammert, Cody Durrer, Helena Neudorf, Christopher A DeSouza, Jonathan Peter Little
Postprandial hyperglycemia has deleterious effects on endothelial function. Restricting carbohydrate intake and postmeal walking have each been shown to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia but their combination and subsequent effects on endothelial function have not been investigated. Here, we sought to examine the effect of blunting postprandial hyperglycemia by following a low-carbohydrate diet, with or without postmeal walking exercise, on markers of vascular health in type 2 diabetes (T2D). In a randomized crossover design, individuals with T2D (N=11) completed three four-day controlled diet interventions consisting of i) low-carbohydrate diet alone (LC), ii) low-carbohydrate diet with 15-minute postmeal walks (LC+Ex), and iii) Low-fat control diet (CON)...
October 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029202/a-metabolomic-signature-of-acute-caloric-restriction
#13
Tinh-Hai Collet, Takuhiro Sonoyama, Elana Henning, Julia M Keogh, Brian Ingram, Sarah Kelway, Lining Guo, I Sadaf Farooqi
Context: The experimental paradigm of acute caloric restriction followed by refeeding can be used to study the homeostatic mechanisms that regulate energy homeostasis, which are relevant to understanding the adaptive response to weight loss. Objective: Metabolomics, the measurement of hundreds of small molecule metabolites, their precursors, derivatives, and degradation products, has emerged as a useful tool for the study of physiology and disease and was used here to study the metabolic response to acute caloric restriction...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024341/modulation-of-human-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-microrna-profile-associated-with-changes-in-adiposity-related-parameters
#14
Simona Giardina, Pablo Hernández-Alonso, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Antoni Rabassa-Soler, Mònica Bulló
SCOPE: To analyze the effect of three calorie-restricted diets with different amount and quality of carbohydrates on subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) miRNA profile. METHODS AND RESULTS: 6-month, parallel, randomized trial conducted on overweight and obese subjects randomized to: 1) low glycemic index diet (LGI), 2) high glycemic index diet (HGI), and 3) low-fat (LF). The genome-wide SAT miRNA profile was assessed in 8 randomly selected participants and the most relevant changing miRNAs (n = 13) were validated in 48 subjects...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021174/nutritional-geometry-of-paternal-effects-on-embryo-mortality
#15
Michal Polak, Leigh W Simmons, Joshua B Benoit, Kari Ruohonen, Stephen J Simpson, Samantha M Solon-Biet
Well-established causal links exist between maternal nutritional deficits and embryo health and viability. By contrast, environmental effects operating through the father that could influence embryo mortality have seldom been examined. Yet, ejaculates can require non-trivial resource allocation, and seminal plasma components are increasingly recognized to exert wide-ranging effects on females and offspring, so paternal dietary effects on the embryo should be expected. We test for effects of varying levels of protein (P), carbohydrate (C) and caloric load in adult male diet on embryo mortality in Drosophila melanogaster We demonstrate that macronutrient balance and caloric restriction exert significant effects, and that nutritional effects are more impactful when a prior mating has occurred...
October 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989746/the-sex-specific-effects-of-diet-quality-versus-quantity-on-morphology-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#16
Alexander W Shingleton, Josephine R Masandika, Lily S Thorsen, Yuqing Zhu, Christen K Mirth
Variation in the quality and quantity of nutrition is a major contributor to phenotypic variation in animal populations. Although we know much of how dietary restriction impacts phenotype, and of the molecular-genetic and physiological mechanisms that underlie this response, we know much less of the effects of dietary imbalance. Specifically, although dietary imbalance and restriction both reduce overall body size, it is unclear whether both have the same effect on the size of individual traits. Here, we use the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to explore the effect of dietary food versus protein-to-carbohydrate ratio on body proportion and trait size...
September 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959738/ecophysiology-of-freshwater-verrucomicrobia-inferred-from-metagenome-assembled-genomes
#17
Shaomei He, Sarah L R Stevens, Leong-Keat Chan, Stefan Bertilsson, Tijana Glavina Del Rio, Susannah G Tringe, Rex R Malmstrom, Katherine D McMahon
Microbes are critical in carbon and nutrient cycling in freshwater ecosystems. Members of the Verrucomicrobia are ubiquitous in such systems, and yet their roles and ecophysiology are not well understood. In this study, we recovered 19 Verrucomicrobia draft genomes by sequencing 184 time-series metagenomes from a eutrophic lake and a humic bog that differ in carbon source and nutrient availabilities. These genomes span four of the seven previously defined Verrucomicrobia subdivisions and greatly expand knowledge of the genomic diversity of freshwater Verrucomicrobia...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959517/matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-mass-spectrometry-mechanistic-studies-and-methods-for-improving-the-structural-identification-of-carbohydrates
#18
Yin-Hung Lai, Yi-Sheng Wang
Although matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry is one of the most widely used soft ionization methods for biomolecules, the lack of detailed understanding of ionization mechanisms restricts its application in the analysis of carbohydrates. Structural identification of carbohydrates achieved by MALDI mass spectrometry helps us to gain insights into biological functions and pathogenesis of disease. In this review, we highlight mechanistic details of MALDI, including both ionization and desorption...
2017: Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958318/an-integrative-review-of-postoperative-accelerated-recovery-protocols
#19
REVIEW
Ramon AntÔnio Oliveira, Gabrielle Meriche GalvÃo Bento da Silva Guatura, Aparecida de Cássia Giani Peniche, Ana Lúcia Siqueira Costa, Vanessa de Brito Poveda
We undertook an integrative literature review of articles pertaining to perioperative nursing care provided to patients using postoperative accelerated recovery protocols. To select the articles, we searched the MEDLINE, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and LiteraturaLatino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde databases. We identified 329 studies, 13 of which met our inclusion criteria and described perioperative nursing care activities. Nursing activities noted in these articles were hypothermia prevention and maintenance of normothermia, restriction of IV fluids, assessment of vital signs, management of symptoms and pain, support of early ambulation, care for tubes and drains, oral administration of carbohydrate-rich foods, assessment of ability to tolerate diet, and encouragement to resume activities of daily living...
October 2017: AORN Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954640/impact-of-%C3%AE-2-1-fructan-on-faecal-community-change-results-from-a-placebo-controlled-randomised-double-blinded-cross-over-study-in-healthy-adults
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Sandra T Clarke, Stephen P J Brooks, G Douglas Inglis, L Jay Yanke, Judy Green, Nicholas Petronella, D Dan Ramdath, Premysl Bercik, Julia M Green-Johnson, Martin Kalmokoff
Healthy adults (n 30) participated in a placebo-controlled, randomised, double-blinded, cross-over study consisting of two 28 d treatments (β2-1 fructan or maltodextrin; 3×5 g/d) separated by a 14-d washout. Subjects provided 1 d faecal collections at days 0 and 28 of each treatment. The ability of faecal bacteria to metabolise β2-1 fructan was common; eighty-seven species (thirty genera, and four phyla) were isolated using anaerobic medium containing β2-1 fructan as the sole carbohydrate source. β2-1 fructan altered the faecal community as determined through analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms and 16S rRNA genes...
September 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
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