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Carbohydrate restriction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525986/the-lspc3-41i-restriction-modification-system-is-the-major-determinant-for-genetic-manipulations-of-lysinibacillus-sphaericus-c3-41
#1
Pan Fu, Yong Ge, Yiming Wu, Ni Zhao, Zhiming Yuan, Xiaomin Hu
BACKGROUND: Lysinibacillus sphaericus has been widely used in integrated mosquito control program and it is one of the minority bacterial species unable to metabolize carbohydrates. In consideration of the high genetic conservation at genomic level and difficulty of genetic horizontal transfer, it is hypothesized that effective restriction-modification (R-M) systems existed in mosquitocidal L. sphaericus. RESULTS: In this study, six type II R-M systems including LspC3-41I were predicted in L...
May 19, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525543/fermentable-carbohydrates-fodmaps-exacerbate-functional-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-cross-over-re-challenge-trial
#2
Selina R Cox, Alexis C Prince, Clio E Myers, Peter M Irving, James O Lindsay, Miranda C Lomer, Kevin Whelan
Background and Aims: Preliminary evidence suggests fermentable carbohydrate restriction might ameliorate functional gastrointestinal symptoms (FGS) in quiescent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our aim was to determine whether fermentable carbohydrates exacerbate FGS in quiescent IBD using a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over, re-challenge trial. Methods: Patients with quiescent IBD and FGS responsive to a low FODMAP diet were allocated to a series of 3-day fermentable carbohydrate challenges in random order (fructan, 12 g/d; galacto-oligosaccharides, GOS, 6 g/d; sorbitol, 6 g/d; and glucose placebo, 12 g/d), each separated by a standardised washout period...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524877/optimized-fragmentation-schemes-and-data-analysis-strategies-for-proteome-wide-cross-link-identification
#3
Fan Liu, Philip Lössl, Richard Scheltema, Rosa Viner, Albert J R Heck
We describe optimized fragmentation schemes and data analysis strategies substantially enhancing the depth and accuracy in identifying protein cross-links using non-restricted whole proteome databases. These include a novel hybrid data acquisition strategy to sequence cross-links at both MS2 and MS3 level and a new algorithmic design XlinkX v2.0 for data analysis. As proof-of-concept we investigated proteome-wide protein interactions in E. coli and HeLa cell lysates, respectively, identifying 1,158 and 3,301 unique cross-links at ∼1% false discovery rate...
May 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516251/-severe-hypertriglyceridemia-diagnostics-and-new-treatment-principles
#4
U Kassner, M Dippel, E Steinhagen-Thiessen
Severe hypertriglyceridemia is defined at a plasma triglyceride (TG) concentration of >885 mg/dl and may result - in particular when clinical symptoms appear before the age of 40 - from "large variant" mutations in genes which influence the function of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL). For diagnosis, secondary factors have to be excluded and treated before further genetic tests are considered. Typical symptoms in almost all patients are recurrent, sometimes severe abdominal pain attacks, which can result in acute pancreatitis, the most important, sometimes life-threatening complication...
May 17, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515062/changes-in-total-energy-intake-and-macronutrient-composition-after-bariatric-surgery-predict-long-term-weight-outcome-findings-from-the-swedish-obese-subjects-sos-study
#5
Noora Kanerva, Ingrid Larsson, Markku Peltonen, Anna-Karin Lindroos, Lena M Carlsson
Background: Approximately 20-30% of obese patients do not achieve successful weight outcomes after bariatric surgery.Objective: We examined whether short-term changes (≤0.5 y postsurgery) in energy intake and macronutrient composition after bariatric surgery could predict 10-y weight change.Design: Participants were recruited from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study, which was a matched (nonrandomized) prospective trial that compared bariatric surgery with usual care for obese patients. A total of 2010 patients who underwent bariatric surgery were included in the study...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494394/physiological-and-biochemical-changes-attenuate-the-effects-of-drought-on-the-cerrado-species-vatairea-macrocarpa-benth-ducke
#6
Evandro Alves Vieira, Maria das Graças Silva, Camila Fernandes Moro, Valdemir Antônio Laura
Drought is considered the main abiotic stress because it influences the distribution of plant species and limits the productivity of ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of drought on physiological and biochemical parameters during the initial development of Vatairea macrocarpa, a native cerrado species. Plants were subjected to daily watering (control); suppression of watering during 90 days with field capacity (fc) 50% and 25% and then followed by rewatering. Relative leaf water content (RWC), gas exchange, photosynthetic pigments content, carbohydrate and amino acids content, antioxidant activities and growth were recorded...
April 26, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489143/the-use-of-a-formula-based-ketogenic-diet-in-children-with-refractory-epilepsy
#7
Letícia Pereira de Brito Sampaio, Cristina Takakura, Maria Luiza Giraldes de Manreza
The ketogenic diet (KD) is a nonpharmacologic treatment that has been used for refractory epilepsy since 1921. The KD is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and restricted protein diet, which is calculated and weighed for each individual patient. Introducing and maintaining the diet for a long time remains a challenge. In this study, we evaluated the acceptability, tolerance, and efficacy of a formula-based KD in 10 children with refractory epilepsy. The ketogenic formula tested herein caused only mild KD-related adverse events and adequate adherence...
April 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467181/pre-clinical-and-clinical-investigations-of-metabolic-zonation-in-liver-diseases-the-potential-of-microphysiology-systems
#8
Alejandro Soto-Gutierrez, Albert Gough, Lawrence A Vernetti, D L Taylor, Satdarshan P Monga
The establishment of metabolic zonation within a hepatic lobule ascribes specific functions to hepatocytes based on unique, location-dependent gene expression patterns. Recently, there have been significant developments in the field of metabolic liver zonation. A little over a decade ago, the role of β-catenin signaling was identified as a key regulator of gene expression and function in pericentral hepatocytes. Since then, additional molecules have been identified that regulate the pattern of Wnt/β-catenin signaling within a lobule and determine gene expression and function in other hepatic zones...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466507/effects-of-dietary-approach-to-stop-hypertension-diet-on-androgens-antioxidant-status-and-body-composition-in-overweight-and-obese-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#9
M Azadi-Yazdi, M Karimi-Zarchi, A Salehi-Abargouei, H Fallahzadeh, A Nadjarzadeh
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disease in reproductive age women. The present study aimed to determine the effects of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on reproductive hormones, plasma total antioxidant status and anthropometric indices in overweight and obese PCOS women. METHODS: In this randomised controlled clinical trial, 60 women with PCOS were randomly assigned to one of two diets with energy restriction: the DASH diet and a control diet...
June 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465837/a-moderate-zinc-deficiency-does-not-alter-lipid-and-fatty-acid-composition-in-the-liver-of-weanling-rats-fed-diets-rich-in-cocoa-butter-or-safflower-oil
#10
Edgar Weigand, Jennifer Egenolf
The aim of the study was to examine whether a moderate zinc deficiency alters hepatic lipid composition. Male weanling rats, assigned to five groups (8 animals each), were fed low-carbohydrate high-fat diets supplemented with 7 or 50 mg Zn/kg (LZ or HZ) and 22% cocoa butter (CB) or 22% safflower oil (SF) for four weeks. One group each had free access to the LZ-CB and LZ-SF diets, one group each was restrictedly fed the HZ-CB and HZ-SF diets in matching amounts, and one group had free access to the HZ-SF diet (ad libitum control)...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460778/macronutrients-and-the-fto-gene-expression-in-hypothalamus-a-systematic-review-of-experimental-studies
#11
REVIEW
Saeid Doaei, Naser Kalantari, Nastaran Keshavarz Mohammadi, Ghasem Azizi Tabesh, Maryam Gholamalizadeh
The various studies have examined the relationship between FTO gene expression and macronutrients levels. In order to obtain better viewpoint from this interactions, all of existing studies were reviewed systematically. All published papers have been obtained and reviewed using standard and sensitive keywords from databases such as CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane, from 1990 to 2016. The results indicated that all of 6 studies that met the inclusion criteria (from a total of 428 published article) found FTO gene expression changes at short-term follow-ups...
March 2017: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458896/octreotide-therapy-and-restricted-fetal-growth-pregnancy-in-familial-hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemia
#12
Marianne Geilswijk, Lise Lotte Andersen, Morten Frost, Klaus Brusgaard, Henning Beck-Nielsen, Anja Lisbeth Frederiksen, Dorte Møller Jensen
SUMMARY: Hypoglycemia during pregnancy can have serious health implications for both mother and fetus. Although not generally recommended in pregnancy, synthetic somatostatin analogues are used for the management of blood glucose levels in expectant hyperinsulinemic mothers. Recent reports suggest that octreotide treatment in pregnancy, as well as hypoglycemia in itself, may pose a risk of fetal growth restriction. During pregnancy, management of blood glucose levels in familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia thus forms a medical dilemma...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446926/are-we-ready-for-the-eras-protocol-in-colorectal-surgery
#13
Michał Kisielewski, Mateusz Rubinkiewicz, Michał Pędziwiatr, Magdalena Pisarska, Marcin Migaczewski, Marcin Dembiński, Piotr Major, Kazimierz Rembiasz, Andrzej Budzyński
INTRODUCTION: Modern perioperative care principles in elective colorectal surgery have already been established by international surgical authorities. Nevertheless, barriers to the introduction of routine evidence-based clinical care and changing dogmas still exist. One of the factors is the surgeon. AIM: To assess perioperative care trends in elective colorectal surgery among general surgery consultants in surgical departments in Malopolska Voivodeship, Poland...
2017: Wideochirurgia i Inne Techniki Mało Inwazyjne, Videosurgery and Other Miniinvasive Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446669/salivary-blockade-protects-the-lower-respiratory-tract-of-mice-from-lethal-influenza
#14
Karen Ivinson, Georgia Deliyannis, Leanne McNabb, Lara Grollo, Brad Gilbertson, David Jackson, Lorena E Brown
It is possible to model progression of influenza virus from the upper respiratory tract to the lower respiratory tract in the mouse using viral inoculum delivered in a restricted manner to the nose. In this model, infection with the A/Udorn/307/72 (Udorn) strain of virus results ultimately in high viral titres in both the trachea and lungs. In contrast, the A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) strain causes an infection that is almost entirely limited to the nasal passages. The factors that govern the progression of virus down the respiratory tract are not well understood...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435686/apple-dwarfing-rootstocks-exhibit-an-imbalance-in-carbohydrate-allocation-and-reduced-cell-growth-and-metabolism
#15
Toshi M Foster, Peter A McAtee, Chethi N Waite, Helen L Boldingh, Tony K McGhie
Apple dwarfing rootstocks cause earlier shoot termination and reduced root and shoot mass. To identify physiological factors responsible for rootstock-induced growth restriction, we compared vascular-enriched gene expression between two dwarfing rootstocks ('M27' and 'M9') and the vigorous rootstock 'M793' using RNA sequencing and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Differentially expressed genes common to both dwarfing rootstocks belonged to five main biological processes: (1) primary metabolism, (2) cell wall synthesis and modification, (3) secondary metabolism, (4) hormone signalling and response and (5) redox homeostasis...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434208/dietary-interventions-for-adults-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#16
REVIEW
Suetonia C Palmer, Jasjot K Maggo, Katrina L Campbell, Jonathan C Craig, David W Johnson, Bernadet Sutanto, Marinella Ruospo, Allison Tong, Giovanni Fm Strippoli
BACKGROUND: Dietary changes are routinely recommended in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on the basis of randomised evidence in the general population and non-randomised studies in CKD that suggest certain healthy eating patterns may prevent cardiovascular events and lower mortality. People who have kidney disease have prioritised dietary modifications as an important treatment uncertainty. OBJECTIVES: This review evaluated the benefits and harms of dietary interventions among adults with CKD including people with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) treated with dialysis or kidney transplantation...
April 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426943/how-strong-is-the-evidence-for-using-blood-biomarkers-alone-to-screen-for-alcohol-consumption-during-pregnancy-a-systematic-review
#17
Helen Howlett, Sarah Abernethy, Nigel W Brown, Judith Rankin, William K Gray
Accurate and early identification of women at risk from alcohol consumption during pregnancy allows education and support programmes to be targeted at those most in need. We aimed to conduct a systematic review to compare the efficacy of blood analysis and maternal self-report in detecting at risk women during pregnancy. This review investigated diagnostic accuracy. We searched four databases (Medline, Embase, Psychinfo and CINAHL) for relevant articles and conducted hand searches of recent issues of key journals in the field...
April 5, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420945/controversies-and-recent-developments-of-the-low-fodmap-diet
#18
Peta Hill, Jane G Muir, Peter R Gibson
The low-fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharide and polyol (FODMAP) diet is a 2-phased intervention, with strict reduction of all slowly absorbed or indigestible short-chain carbohydrates (ie, FODMAPs) followed by reintroduction of specific FODMAPs according to tolerance. The efficacy of the elimination phase of the FODMAP diet is well established, but the success of maintaining this diet has been shown in only a few observational studies. How the efficacy of the low-FODMAP diet compares with that of other therapies has received limited attention, but recent studies have shown this diet to be comparable or superior to diets that address eating style and choice of food as well as to gut hypnotherapy...
January 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417375/metagenomics-and-cazyme-discovery
#19
Benoit J Kunath, Andreas Bremges, Aaron Weimann, Alice C McHardy, Phillip B Pope
Microorganisms play a primary role in regulating biogeochemical cycles and are a valuable source of enzymes that have biotechnological applications, such as carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). However, the inability to culture the majority of microorganisms that exist in natural ecosystems using common culture-dependent techniques restricts access to potentially novel cellulolytic bacteria and beneficial enzymes. The development of molecular-based culture-independent methods such as metagenomics enables researchers to study microbial communities directly from environmental samples, and presents a platform from which enzymes of interest can be sourced...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415067/effect-of-whey-protein-in-conjunction-with-a-caloric-restricted-diet-and-resistance-training
#20
Wesley D Dudgeon, Elizabeth P Kelley, Timothy P Scheett
Dudgeon, WD, Kelley, EP, and Scheett, TP. Effect of whey protein in conjunction with a caloric-restricted diet and resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1353-1361, 2017-Caloric-restricted weight loss, especially rapid weight loss, results from a decrease in both lean and fat mass (FM). The goal for many is to lose FM while retaining lean body mass (LBM) and muscular performance thus many turn to supplements. Sixteen resistance-trained men (24 ± 1.6 years of age) completed a 4 d·wk body building style split resistance training program for 8 weeks in conjunction with a pre-exercise, periexercise, and postexercise ingestion of whey protein (WHEY) nutritional supplement or carbohydrate (CON)-based nutritional supplement...
May 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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