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Carbohydrate restriction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340627/the-contribution-of-dietary-restriction-to-extended-longevity-in-the-malaria-vector-anopheles-coluzzii
#1
Roy Faiman, Samantha Solon-Biet, Margery Sullivan, Diana L Huestis, Tovi Lehmann
BACKGROUND: Variation in longevity has long been of interest in vector biology because of its implication in disease transmission through vectorial capacity. Recent studies suggest that Anopheles coluzzii adults persist during the ~7 month dry season via aestivation. Recently there has been a growing body of evidence linking dietary restriction and low ratio of dietary protein to carbohydrate with extended longevity of animals. Here, we evaluated the effects of dietary restriction and the protein : carbohydrate ratio on longevity of An...
March 24, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338358/a-mismatch-between-athlete-practice-and-current-sports-nutrition-guidelines-among-elite-female-and-male-middle-and-long-distance-athletes
#2
Ida Aliisa Heikura, Trent Stellingwerff, Antti A Mero, Arja Leena Tuulia Uusitalo, Louise Mary Burke
Contemporary nutrition guidelines promote a variety of periodized and time-sensitive recommendations, but current information regarding the knowledge and practice of these strategies among world-class athletes is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate this theme by implementing a questionnaire on dietary periodization practices in national/international level female (n=27) and male (n=21) middle- and long-distance runners/race-walkers. The questionnaire aimed to gain information on between and within-day dietary choices, as well as timing of pre- and post-training meals and practices of training with low or high carbohydrate (CHO) availability...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327563/health-benefits-and-consequences-of-the-eastern-orthodox-fasting-in-monks-of-mount-athos-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
S N Karras, A Persynaki, A Petróczi, E Barkans, H Mulrooney, M Kypraiou, T Tzotzas, K Tziomalos, K Kotsa, A A Tsioudas, C Pichard, D P Naughton
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Greek Orthodox fasting (OF), which involves 180-200 days of fasting per year, is dictated by the Christian Orthodox religion. For the first time, this cross-sectional study examines the characteristics and the effects of OF on anthropometry, cardiometabolic markers and calcium homeostasis in Athonian monks (AMs). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Daily intakes of energy, macro- and micronutrients of a day during a weekend of Nativity Fast, defined as non-restrictive day (NRD), and a weekday during Great Lent, labeled as restrictive day (RD) were recorded...
March 22, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316796/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-dietary-carbohydrate-restriction-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#4
Ole Snorgaard, Grith M Poulsen, Henning K Andersen, Arne Astrup
OBJECTIVE: Nutrition therapy is an integral part of self-management education in patients with type 2 diabetes. Carbohydrates with a low glycemic index are recommended, but the ideal amount of carbohydrate in the diet is unclear. We performed a meta-analysis comparing diets containing low to moderate amounts of carbohydrate (LCD) (energy percentage below 45%) to diets containing high amounts of carbohydrate (HCD) in subjects with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We systematically reviewed Cochrane library databases, EMBASE, and MEDLINE in the period 2004-2014 for guidelines, meta-analyses, and randomized trials assessing the outcomes HbA1c, BMI, weight, LDL cholesterol, quality of life (QoL), and attrition...
2017: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300773/the-low-fodmap-diet-many-question-marks-for-a-catchy-acronym
#5
REVIEW
Giulia Catassi, Elena Lionetti, Simona Gatti, Carlo Catassi
FODMAP, "Fermentable Oligo-, Di- and Mono-saccharides And Polyols", is a heterogeneous group of highly fermentable but poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates and polyols. Dietary FODMAPs might exacerbate intestinal symptoms by increasing small intestinal water volume, colonic gas production, and intestinal motility. In recent years the low-FODMAP diet for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has gained increasing popularity. In the present review we aim to summarize the physiological, clinical, and nutritional issues, suggesting caution in the prolonged use of this dietary treatment on the basis of the existing literature...
March 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299612/dietary-self-management-in-heart-failure-high-tech-or-high-touch
#6
REVIEW
Eloisa Colin-Ramirez, JoAnne Arcand, Justin A Ezekowitz
Dietary management of heart failure (HF) has largely been focused on sodium and fluid restrictions. Although safety and efficacy of these interventions in HF remain unclear, a daily sodium intake between 2000 and 3000 mg/day appears to be safe in these patients. Ongoing clinical research will inform on the safety and efficacy of a more restrictive sodium intake to less than 1500 mg/day. Data shows that routine fluid restriction in HF regardless of symptoms may be unnecessary; however, in patients with signs of congestion, fluid restriction to 2...
March 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298900/the-impact-of-bariatric-surgery-on-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-the-management-of-hypoglycemic-events
#7
REVIEW
Mahmoud Attia Mohamed Kassem, Michael Andrew Durda, Nicoleta Stoicea, Omer Cavus, Levent Sahin, Barbara Rogers
Recent studies discussed the benefit of bariatric surgery on obese patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several factors play an essential role in predicting the impact of bariatric surgery on T2DM, such as ABCD score (age, BMI, C-peptide, and duration of the disease), HbA1c, and fasting blood glucose, incretins [glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)]. DiaRem score known to include factors such as age, HbA1c, medication, and insulin usage used to predict the remission of T2DM, but it has some limitations...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294600/histo-blood-group-antigen-presentation-is-critical-for-binding-of-norovirus-vlp-to-glycosphingolipids-in-model-membranes
#8
Waqas Nasir, Martin Frank, Angelika Kunze, Marta Bally, Francisco Parra, Per-Georg Nyholm, Fredrik Höök, Göran Larson
Virus entry depends on biomolecular recognition at the surface of cell membranes. In the case of glycolipid receptors, these events are expected to be influenced by how the glycan epitope close to the membrane is presented to the virus. This presentation of membrane-associated glycans is more restricted than that of glycans in solution, particularly because of orientational constraints imposed on the glycolipid through its lateral interactions with other membrane lipids and proteins. We have developed and employed a total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy-based binding assay and a scheme for molecular dynamics (MD) membrane simulations to investigate the consequences of various glycan presentation effects...
March 27, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288801/perceived-impact-of-nepalese-food-and-food-culture-in-diabetes
#9
Sujata Sapkota, Jo-Anne E Brien, Josephine Gwynn, Victoria Flood, Parisa Aslani
Consuming a healthy diet forms an important component of diabetes management; however, adhering to a healthy diet is challenging. Dietary behaviour is often guided by socio-cultural, environmental and emotional factors, and not necessarily by physical and nutritional needs. This study explored Nepalese patients' perceptions of the impact of diet, diet management requirement for diabetes and how Nepalese food culture in particular influenced diet management. Interviews were conducted with Nepalese participants with type 2 diabetes in Sydney and Kathmandu; and data was thematically analysed...
March 10, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280354/combination-of-preoperative-cea-and-ca19-9-improves-prediction-outcomes-in-patients-with-resectable-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-results-from-a-large-follow-up-cohort
#10
Guofeng Zhou, Xiaoyu Liu, Xiaoyi Wang, Dayong Jin, Yi Chen, Guoping Li, Changyu Li, Deliang Fu, Wanghong Xu, Xiaolin Wang
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal malignancies with a 5-year survival rate of <7%. Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) are often used to predict the outcome of the malignancy independently. However, the joint prognostic effect of the two tumor biomarkers has not been well determined. The study assessed the joint role of preoperative CA19-9 and CEA in the prognostic prediction of resectable PDAC in a large cohort of patients. The study enrolled 460 eligible patients who were ready to undergo surgery for PDAC...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276183/dietitians-practice-in-giving-carbohydrate-advice-in-the-management-of-type-2-diabetes-a-mixed-methods-study
#11
P D McArdle, S M Greenfield, A Avery, G G Adams, P S Gill
BACKGROUND: Carbohydrate is accepted as the principal nutrient affecting blood glucose in diabetes; however, current guidelines are unable to specify the optimal quantity of carbohydrate for glycaemic control. No studies exist that describe current practice amongst healthcare professionals giving carbohydrate advice in type 2 diabetes. The present study aims to improve understanding of the degree of variation in the current practice of UK registered dietitians (RDs) by describing how RDs advise patients...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274839/dietary-protein-aging-and-nutritional-geometry
#12
REVIEW
Stephen J Simpson, David G Le Couteur, David Raubenheimer, Samantha M Solon-Biet, Gregory J Cooney, Victoria C Cogger, Luigi Fontana
Nearly a century of research has shown that nutritional interventions can delay aging and age- related diseases in many animal models and possibly humans. The most robust and widely studied intervention is caloric restriction, while protein restriction and restriction of various amino acids (methionine, tryptophan) have also been shown to delay aging. However, there is still debate over whether the major impact on aging is secondary to caloric intake, protein intake or specific amino acids. Nutritional geometry provides new perspectives on the relationship between nutrition and aging by focusing on calories, macronutrients and their interactions across a landscape of diets, and taking into account compensatory feeding in ad libitum-fed experiments...
March 6, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271568/effect-of-ziziphus-jujube-fruit-infusion-on-lipid-profiles-glycaemic-index-and-antioxidant-status-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#13
Zeinab Yazdanpanah, Akram Ghadiri-Anari, Alireza Vahidi Mehrjardi, Ali Dehghani, Hadi Zare Zardini, Azadeh Nadjarzadeh
This study was designed to assess the effects of Ziziphus jujube fruit (ZJF) infusion on lipid profiles, glycaemic control and antioxidant status in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 116 participants with T2DM (older than 30 years) were assigned to consume a balanced diet or diet plus ZJF infusion (10 g/100 mL boiling water) three times/day before main meals for 12 weeks. Diet was designed to be energy restricted (500 kcal/day deficit from estimated energy requirements), and macronutrient content was similar in both groups (55% carbohydrate, 15% protein and 30% fat)...
March 7, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270747/metabolic-dysfunction-underlying-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-potential-treatment-approaches
#14
REVIEW
Ning Cheng, Jong M Rho, Susan A Masino
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by deficits in sociability and communication, and increased repetitive and/or restrictive behaviors. While the etio-pathogenesis of ASD is unknown, clinical manifestations are diverse and many possible genetic and environmental factors have been implicated. As such, it has been a great challenge to identify key neurobiological mechanisms and to develop effective treatments. Current therapies focus on co-morbid conditions (such as epileptic seizures and sleep disturbances) and there is no cure for the core symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264433/the-effect-of-low-carbohydrate-diets-on-fertility-hormones-and-outcomes-in-overweight-and-obese-women-a-systematic-review
#15
Melanie McGrice, Judi Porter
(1) Background: Medical interventions including assisted reproductive technologies have improved fertility outcomes for many sub-fertile couples. Increasing research interest has investigated the effect of low carbohydrate diets, with or without energy restriction. We aimed to systematically review the published literature to determine the extent to which low carbohydrate diets can affect fertility outcomes; (2) Methods: The review protocol was registered prospectively with Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (registration number CRD42016042669) and followed Preferred Reporting Items For Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines...
February 27, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254873/inter-and-intra-observer-agreement-of-fdg-pet-ct-image-interpretation-in-patients-referred-for-assessment-of-cardiac-sarcoidosis
#16
Hiroshi Ohira, Brian Mc Ardle, Robert A deKemp, Pablo B Nery, Daniel Juneau, Jennifer M Renaud, Ran Klein, Owen Clarkin, Karen MacDonald, Eugene Leung, Girish Nair, Rob S B Beanlands, David Birnie
Recent studies have reported the usefulness of (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in aiding with the diagnosis and management of patients with cardiac sarcoidosis (CS). However, the image interpretation of FDG-PET for CS is sometimes challenging. We sought to investigate the inter- and intra-observer agreement and explore factors which lead to important discrepancies between readers. METHODS: We studied consecutive patients with no significant coronary artery disease who were referred for assessment of CS...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244675/the-clinical-value-of-breath-hydrogen-testing
#17
REVIEW
Chu K Yao, Caroline J Tuck
Breath hydrogen testing for assessing the presence of carbohydrate malabsorption is frequently applied to refine dietary restrictions on a low fermentable carbohydrate (FODMAP) diet. Its application has also been extended for the detection of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Recently, several caveats of its methodology and interpretation have emerged. A review of the evidence surrounding its application in the management of patients with a functional bowel disorder was performed. Studies were examined to assess limitations of testing methodology, interpretation of results, reproducibility, and how this relates to clinical symptoms...
March 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244673/history-of-the-low-fodmap-diet
#18
REVIEW
Peter R Gibson
It has long been known that many short-chain carbohydrates can induce abdominal symptoms that are similar to those in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). It was hypothesized that restricting the intake of all short-chain carbohydrates that are either slowly absorbed or not digested in the small intestine should be considered together because they all have similar effects on the intestine by distending the lumen. These groups of carbohydrates were called, Fermentable, Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides and Monosaccharides and Polyols (FODMAPs), because of the lack of a known collective term...
March 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244671/prebiotic-inulin-type-fructans-and-galacto-oligosaccharides-definition-specificity-function-and-application-in-gastrointestinal-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Bridgette Wilson, Kevin Whelan
Prebiotics are non-digestible selectively fermented dietary fibers that specifically promote the growth of one or more bacterial genera in the gastrointestinal tract and thus provide health benefit to the host. The two most investigated prebiotics being the inulin-type fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides. Prebiotic specificity is mediated through species-specific gene clusters within saccharolytic bacteria controlled by signaling sensors for various substrates. Prebiotic health benefits are attributed to immune regulation and bacterial metabolite production...
March 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244669/how-to-institute-the-low-fodmap-diet
#20
REVIEW
Jacqueline S Barrett
A diet low in poorly absorbed, fermentable, short chain carbohydrates (FODMAPs) is an effective strategy to manage symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The diet has gained traction since its original description in Australia 10 years ago and is now an internationally accepted dietary management strategy for IBS. Randomized controlled trials have raised the profile of the low-FODMAP diet to become a viable first-line therapy for IBS, when implemented under a dietitian's guidance. Importantly, the diagnosis of IBS should be confirmed before commencement of the dietary approach...
March 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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