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Carbohydrate restriction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924074/postprandial-glucose-surges-after-extremely-low-carbohydrate-diet-in-healthy-adults
#1
Koji Kanamori, Noriko Ihana-Sugiyama, Ritsuko Yamamoto-Honda, Tomoka Nakamura, Chie Sobe, Shigemi Kamiya, Miyako Kishimoto, Hiroshi Kajio, Kimiko Kawano, Mitsuhiko Noda
Carbohydrate-restricted diets are prevalent not only in obese people but also in the general population to maintain appropriate body weight. Here, we report that extreme carbohydrate restriction for one day affects the subsequent blood glucose levels in healthy adults. Ten subjects (median age 30.5 years, BMI 21.1 kg/m(2), and HbA1c 5.5%), wearing with a continuous glucose monitoring device, were given isoenergetic test meals for 4 consecutive days. On day 1, day 2 (D2), and day 4 (D4), they consumed normal-carbohydrate (63-66% carbohydrate) diet, while on day 3, they took low-carbohydrate/high-fat (5% carbohydrate) diet...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906318/nutritional-state-and-feeding-behaviors-of-children-with-eosinophilic-esophagitis-and-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease
#2
Pooja Mehta, Glenn T Furuta, Taryn Brennan, Michelle L Henry, Nancy Creskoff Maune, Shikha S Sundaram, Calies Menard-Katcher, Dan Atkins, Faith Takurukura, Sandra Giffen, Zhaoxing Pan, Angela M Haas
OBJECTIVE: Because both gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) are associated with malnutrition and feeding dysfunction, this study compares growth, nutrition and feeding behaviors in children with GERD and EoE. METHODS: Subjects aged 1-7 with GERD or EoE were enrolled in a prospective study. Assessments included length/height, weight, 3-day food diary, serum biomarkers of nutrition, and the Behavioral Pediatric Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS)...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883241/ketoacidosis-due-to-a-low-carbohydrate-diet-in-an-elderly-woman-with-dementia-and-abnormal-eating-behavior
#3
Hitoshi Iwata, Seiichiro Tsuzuki, Mitsunaga Iwata, Teruhiko Terasawa
Strict restriction of carbohydrates can induce symptomatic ketoacidosis. We herein report a 76-year-old demented woman who developed ketoacidosis after 1 month of abnormal eating behavior involving selectively eating hamburger steak (estimated carbohydrate =12.7 g/day). Laboratory tests showed high-anion-gap metabolic acidosis with elevated blood ketone levels. She was successfully treated with intravenous fluids followed by oral intake of a regular diet. She remained relapse-free after correcting her eating habits...
September 6, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877457/a-ketogenic-diet-extends-longevity-and-healthspan-in-adult-mice
#4
Megan N Roberts, Marita A Wallace, Alexey A Tomilov, Zeyu Zhou, George R Marcotte, Dianna Tran, Gabriella Perez, Elena Gutierrez-Casado, Shinichiro Koike, Trina A Knotts, Denise M Imai, Stephen M Griffey, Kyoungmi Kim, Kevork Hagopian, Fawaz G Haj, Keith Baar, Gino A Cortopassi, Jon J Ramsey, Jose Alberto Lopez-Dominguez
Calorie restriction, without malnutrition, has been shown to increase lifespan and is associated with a shift away from glycolysis toward beta-oxidation. The objective of this study was to mimic this metabolic shift using low-carbohydrate diets and to determine the influence of these diets on longevity and healthspan in mice. C57BL/6 mice were assigned to a ketogenic, low-carbohydrate, or control diet at 12 months of age and were either allowed to live their natural lifespan or tested for physiological function after 1 or 14 months of dietary intervention...
September 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859312/phase-variation-of-dna-methyltransferases-and-the-regulation-of-virulence-and-immune-evasion-in-the-pathogenic-neisseria
#5
Kate L Seib, Freda E-C Jen, Adeana L Scott, Aimee Tan, Michael P Jennings
The pathogenic Neisseria provide textbook examples of phase variation: the high frequency, random and reversible switching of gene expression. Typically, phase variable gene expression is observed in genes required for the expression of surface proteins and carbohydrate structures. All Neisseria gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis strains also express phase variable DNA methyltransferases that are components of DNA restriction-modification systems. Phase variation of these DNA methyltransferases (Mod) alters global DNA methylation patterns...
August 31, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856433/effects-of-orthodox-religious-fasting-on-human-health-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Theocharis Koufakis, Spyridon Ν Karras, Vasiliki Antonopoulou, Eleni Angeloudi, Pantelis Zebekakis, Kalliopi Kotsa
PURPOSE: Different studies have pointed towards a positive effect of religious fasting on human health. Orthodox fasting (OF) regime could be characterized as a periodical vegetarian diet, demonstrating several common characteristics with the typical Mediterranean diet. The present systematic review aimed to synthesize available results regarding the potential impact of OF on human health. METHODS: Key biomedical databases were searched to identify studies examining the effects of OF on humans...
August 30, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845625/impact-of-carbohydrate-restriction-on-healthy-adolescent-development
#7
Hannah M Richmond, David M Duriancik
Carbohydrate-restricted diets are known for their impact on weight loss; however, research is still required to determine if low-carbohydrate diets are safe for adolescents. Carbohydrates directly stimulate an insulin response, and studies have recently shown that insulin and binding to respective insulin receptors (IRs) are critical in Kisspeptin (Kiss1) neuronal development. These neurons directly stimulate gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which activates the pituitary-gonadal axis during puberty. This information suggests that carbohydrate restriction may delay pubertal development in adolescents due to the impact on insulin and Kiss1 transcription...
September 2017: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835510/a-systematic-review-of-performance-enhancing-pharmacologicals-and-biotechnologies-in-the-army
#8
REVIEW
Henry Ko, K E Hunter, A M Scott, M Ayson, M L Willson
INTRODUCTION: In 2015, the Australian Army commissioned a systematic review to assess the evidence on effectiveness and safety of pharmacological and biotechnological products for cognitive enhancement specifically in Army personnel. METHODS: Searches for studies examining biotechnological and pharmacological products in Army populations were conducted in December 2015. Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO were searched without date or language restrictions...
August 22, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833406/effect-of-age-and-dietary-carbohydrate-profiles-on-glucose-and-insulin-dynamics-in-horses
#9
S I Jacob, R J Geor, P S D Weber, P A Harris, M E McCue
BACKGROUND: Glucose and insulin dynamics may be different in adult and aged horses. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of age and dietary carbohydrates on glucose and insulin dynamics in healthy horses. STUDY DESIGN: Balanced Latin square with four isocaloric diets: CONTROL (hay plus restricted-starch-and-sugar fortified pellets), STARCH (control plus kibbled corn), FIBER (control plus unmolassed sugar beet pulp/soybean hull pellets) and SUGAR (control plus dextrose powder)...
August 18, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832534/transcriptional-analysis-allows-genome-reannotation-and-reveals-that-cryptococcus-gattii-vgii-undergoes-nutrient-restriction-during-infection
#10
Patrícia Aline Gröhs Ferrareze, Rodrigo Silva Araujo Streit, Patricia Ribeiro Dos Santos, Francine Melise Dos Santos, Rita Maria Cunha de Almeida, Augusto Schrank, Livia Kmetzsch, Marilene Henning Vainstein, Charley Christian Staats
Cryptococcus gattii is a human and animal pathogen that infects healthy hosts and caused the Pacific Northwest outbreak of cryptococcosis. The inhalation of infectious propagules can lead to internalization of cryptococcal cells by alveolar macrophages, a niche in which C. gattii cells can survive and proliferate. Although the nutrient composition of macrophages is relatively unknown, the high induction of amino acid transporter genes inside the phagosome indicates a preference for amino acid uptake instead of synthesis...
August 23, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830345/physiological-and-de-novo-transcriptome-analysis-of-the-fermentation-mechanism-of-cerasus-sachalinensis-roots-in-response-to-short-term-waterlogging
#11
Peng Zhang, Deguo Lyu, Luting Jia, Jiali He, Sijun Qin
BACKGROUND: Cerasus sachalinensis is widely used in cool regions as a sweet cherry rootstock and is known for its sensitivity to soil waterlogging and waterlogging stress. However, the limited availability of Cerasus genomic resources has considerably restricted the exploration of its waterlogging response mechanism. To understand its reaction to short-term waterlogging, we analyzed the physiology and transcriptomes of C. sachalinensis roots in response to different waterlogging durations...
August 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826271/the-role-of-fermentable-carbohydrates-and-beverages-in-the-symptomatology-of-functional-gastrointestinal-disease
#12
Magnus Moding, Bodil Ohlsson
OBJECTIVES: The pathophysiology behind functional gastrointestinal disease (FGID) has not been defined, but an intestinal accumulation of fermentable short-chain carbohydrates (FODMAPs) is thought to be involved. A restricted coffee intake is recommended. The aim was to investigate if symptoms of FGID were associated with intake of certain foods (including FODMAPs), as well as beverages (including coffee and tea). METHOD AND MATERIALS: Data were used from participants, age range 45-75 years, who had answered the EpiHealth questionnaire about their background factors, health status and intake of food and beverages...
August 21, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814394/dynamics-of-intrapericardial-and-extrapericardial-fat-tissues-during-long-term-dietary-induced-moderate-weight-loss
#13
Gal Tsaban, Arik Wolak, Hila Avni-Hassid, Yftach Gepner, Ilan Shelef, Yaakov Henkin, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Noa Cohen, Nitzan Bril, Michal Rein, Dana Serfaty, Shira Kenigsbuch, Lilac Tene, Hila Zelicha, Anat Yaskolka-Meir, Oded Komy, Avital Bilitzky, Yoash Chassidim, Uta Ceglarek, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Joachim Thiery, Dror Dicker, Assaf Rudich, Meir J Stampfer, Iris Shai
Background: In view of evidence linking pericardial fat accumulation with increased cardiovascular disease risk, strategies to reduce its burden are needed. Data comparing the effects of specific long-term dietary interventions on pericardial fat tissue mobilization are sparse.Objective: We sought to evaluate intrapericardial-fat (IPF) and extrapericardial-fat (EPF) changes during weight-loss interventions by different dietary regimens.Design: During 18 mo of a randomized controlled trial, we compared a Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (MED/LC) diet plus 28 g walnuts/d with a calorically equal low-fat (LF) diet among randomly assigned participants with moderate abdominal obesity...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805727/leaf-physiological-and-proteomic-analysis-to-elucidate-silicon-induced-adaptive-response-under-salt-stress-in-rosa-hybrida-rock-fire
#14
Prabhakaran Soundararajan, Abinaya Manivannan, Chung Ho Ko, Sowbiya Muneer, Byoung Ryong Jeong
Beneficial effects of silicon (Si) on growth and development have been witnessed in several plants. Nevertheless, studies on roses are merely reported. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out to illustrate the impact of Si on photosynthesis, antioxidant defense and leaf proteome of rose under salinity stress. In vitro-grown, acclimatized Rosa hybrida 'Rock Fire' were hydroponically treated with four treatments, such as control, Si (1.8 mM), NaCl (50 mM), and Si+NaCl. After 15 days, the consequences of salinity stress and the response of Si addition were analyzed...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800397/association-between-the-7-day-moving-average-for-nutrition-and-growth-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#15
Gustave H Falciglia, Karna Murthy, Jane Holl, Hannah L Palac, Yuliya Oumarbaeva, Pratyusha Yadavalli, Donna Woods, Daniel T Robinson
BACKGROUND: Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants remain at risk for postnatal growth restriction. Clinicians may have difficulty identifying growth patterns resulting from nutrition interventions, impeding prompt management changes intended to increase growth velocity. This study aimed to quantify the association between growth and nutrition intake through 7-day moving averages (SDMAs). METHODS: The first 6 weeks of daily nutrition intake and growth measurements were collected from VLBW infants admitted to a level 4 neonatal intensive care unit (2011-2014)...
August 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790922/exercise-preserves-lean-mass-and-performance-during-severe-energy-deficit-the-role-of-exercise-volume-and-dietary-protein-content
#16
Jose A L Calbet, Jesús G Ponce-González, Jaime de La Calle-Herrero, Ismael Perez-Suarez, Marcos Martin-Rincon, Alfredo Santana, David Morales-Alamo, Hans-Christer Holmberg
The loss of fat-free mass (FFM) caused by very-low-calorie diets (VLCD) can be attenuated by exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the role played by exercise and dietary protein content in preserving the lean mass and performance of exercised and non-exercised muscles, during a short period of extreme energy deficit (~23 MJ deficit/day). Fifteen overweight men underwent three consecutive experimental phases: baseline assessment (PRE), followed by 4 days of caloric restriction and exercise (CRE) and then 3 days on a control diet combined with reduced exercise (CD)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778055/the-effect-of-the-ketogenic-diet-on-the-developing-skeleton
#17
Peter J Simm, Jillian Bicknell-Royle, Jock Lawrie, Judy Nation, Kellie Draffin, Karen G Stewart, Fergus J Cameron, Ingrid E Scheffer, Mark T Mackay
The ketogenic diet (KD) is a medically supervised, high fat, low carbohydrate and restricted protein diet which has been used successfully in patients with refractory epilepsy. Only one published report has explored its effect on the skeleton. We postulated that the KD impairs skeletal health parameters in patients on the KD. Patients commenced on the KD were enrolled in a prospective, longitudinal study, with monitoring of Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) derived bone parameters including bone mineral content and density (BMD)...
July 26, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776021/1-6-cyclophellitol-cyclosulfates-a-new-class-of-irreversible-glycosidase-inhibitor
#18
Marta Artola, Liang Wu, Maria J Ferraz, Chi-Lin Kuo, Lluís Raich, Imogen Z Breen, Wendy A Offen, Jeroen D C Codée, Gijsbert A van der Marel, Carme Rovira, Johannes M F G Aerts, Gideon J Davies, Herman S Overkleeft
The essential biological roles played by glycosidases, coupled to the diverse therapeutic benefits of pharmacologically targeting these enzymes, provide considerable motivation for the development of new inhibitor classes. Cyclophellitol epoxides and aziridines are recently established covalent glycosidase inactivators. Inspired by the application of cyclic sulfates as electrophilic equivalents of epoxides in organic synthesis, we sought to test whether cyclophellitol cyclosulfates would similarly act as irreversible glycosidase inhibitors...
July 26, 2017: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768654/effect-of-the-interaction-between-diet-composition-and-the-ppm1k-genetic-variant-on-insulin-resistance-and-%C3%AE-cell-function-markers-during-weight-loss-results-from-the-nutrient-gene-interactions-in-human-obesity-implications-for-dietary-guidelines-nugenob-randomized
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Leticia Goni, Lu Qi, Marta Cuervo, Fermín I Milagro, Wim H Saris, Ian A MacDonald, Dominique Langin, Arne Astrup, Peter Arner, Jean-Michel Oppert, Mathilde Svendstrup, Ellen E Blaak, Thorkild Ia Sørensen, Torben Hansen, J Alfredo Martínez
Background: Circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and aromatic amino acids (AAAs) have been shown to be associated with insulin resistance and diabetes risk. The common rs1440581 T allele in the protein phosphatase Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1K (PPM1K) gene has been related to elevated BCAA concentrations and risk of type 2 diabetes.Objective: In the present study, we tested whether dietary fat and carbohydrate intakes influenced the association between the rs1440581 PPM1K genetic variant and glucose-metabolism traits during weight loss...
September 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765272/-calories-in-calories-out-and-macronutrient-intake-the-hope-hype-and-science-of-calories
#20
Scott Howell, Richard Kones
One of the central tenets in obesity prevention and management is caloric restriction. This perspective presents salient features of how calories and energy balance matter, also called the "calories in, calories out paradigm." Determinants of energy balance and relationships to dietary macronutrient content are reviewed. The rationale and features of the carbohydrate-insulin hypothesis postulate that carbohydrate restriction confers a metabolic advantage. According to this model, a large amount of fat intake is enabled without weight gain...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
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