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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223179/biological-aspects-of-axonal-damage-in-glaucoma-a-brief-review
#1
REVIEW
Ernst R Tamm, C Ross Ethier, Claude Burgoyne, C Ross Ethier, Ernst R Tamm, Cheri Stowell, John E Dowling, Crawford Downs, Mark H Ellisman, Steven Fisher, Brad Fortune, Marcus Fruttiger, Tatjana Jakobs, Geoffrey Lewis, Claire H Mitchell, John Morrison, Sansar C Sharma, Ian Sigal, Michael Sofroniew, Lin Wang, Janey Wiggs, Samuel Wu, Richard H Masland
Intraocular pressure (IOP) is a critical risk factor in glaucoma, and the available evidence derived from experimental studies in primates and rodents strongly indicates that the site of IOP-induced axonal damage in glaucoma is at the optic nerve head (ONH). However, the mechanisms that cause IOP-induced damage at the ONH are far from understood. A possible sequence of events could originate with IOP-induced stress in the ONH connective tissue elements (peripapillary sclera, scleral canal and lamina cribrosa) that leads to an increase in biomechanical strain...
February 18, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222503/selenium-levels-in-serum-red-blood-cells-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-alzheimer-s-disease-patients-a-report-from-the-australian-imaging-biomarker-lifestyle-flagship-study-of-ageing-aibl
#2
Bárbara R Cardoso, Dominic J Hare, Ashley I Bush, Qiao-Xin Li, Christopher J Fowler, Colin L Masters, Ralph N Martins, Katherine Ganio, Amber Lothian, Soumya Mukherjee, Eugene A Kapp, Blaine R Roberts
Selenium (Se) protects cells against oxidative stress damage through a range of bioactive selenoproteins. Increased oxidative stress is a prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and previous studies have shown that Se deficiency is associated with age-related cognitive decline. In this study, we assessed Se status in different biofluids from a subgroup of participants in the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Flagship Study of Ageing. As Se in humans can either be an active component of selenoproteins or inactive via non-specific incorporation into other proteins, we used both size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry to characterize selenoproteins in serum...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219789/acetazolamide-lowers-intracranial-pressure-and-modulates-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-secretion-pathway-in-healthy-rats
#3
Maria Uldall, Hannah Botfield, Inger Jansen-Olesen, Alexandra Sinclair, Rigmor Jensen
Acetazolamide is one of the most widely used drugs for lowering intracranial pressure (ICP) and is believed to reduce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) secretion via its action on the choroid plexus (CP). In the CP the main driving force for CSF secretion is primarily active transport of Na(+) ions facilitated by the Na/K ATPase. Transmembrane water channels, known as aquaporins (AQP), are also present in the CP and play an important role in the movement of water. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a single dose acetazolamide on the activity of the Na/K ATPase and ICP...
February 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219399/noninvasive-detection-of-alarming-intracranial-pressure-changes-by-auditory-monitoring-in-early-management-of-brain-injury-a-prospective-invasive-versus-noninvasive-study
#4
Fabrice Giraudet, François Longeras, Aurélien Mulliez, Aurélie Thalamy, Bruno Pereira, Paul Avan, Laurent Sakka
BACKGROUND: In brain-injured patients intracranial pressure (ICP) is monitored invasively by a ventricular or intraparenchymal transducer. The procedure requires specific expertise and exposes the patient to complications such as malposition, hemorrhage or infection. As inner-ear fluid compartments are connected to the cerebrospinal fluid space, ICP changes elicit subtle changes in the physiology of the inner ear. Notably, we previously demonstrated that the phase of cochlear microphonic potential (CM) generated by sound stimuli rotates with ICP...
February 21, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217162/a-rare-case-of-giant-occipital-meningocele-with-dandy-walker-syndrome-can-it-grow-bigger-than-this
#5
Dipanker Singh Mankotia, Guru Dutta Satyarthee, Bhoopendra Singh, Bhawani Shankar Sharma
Association of Dandy-Walker syndrome with occipital meningocele (OMC) is extremely rare and about thirty cases are reported till date in the Western literature. However, OMC is classified by Talamonti et al. into small, large, and giant categories with respective diameters were upto 5 cm in small, large with 5-9 cm, and giant with >9 cm. Usually the size of OMC progressively increases as raised intracranial pressure leads to compensatory cerebrospinal fluid escape into sac with the growth of children. Authors report an interesting case of an 18-month-old female child with extra-gigantic OMC, whose size was almost same since birth, representing the first case of its kind, who underwent successful surgical repair...
October 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217049/effectiveness-of-sodium-thiopentone-propofol-and-etomidate-as-an-ideal-intravenous-anesthetic-agent-for-modified-electroconvulsive-therapy
#6
Altaf Hussain Mir, Nida Farooq Shah, Mehraj Ud Din, Shabir Ahmad Langoo, Fayaz Ahmad Reshi
INTRODUCTION: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a well-established psychiatric treatment in which seizures are electrically induced in patients for therapeutic effects. ECT can produce severe disturbances in the cardiovascular system and a marked increase in cerebral blood flow and intracranial pressure. These cardiovascular changes may be altered using various anesthetic drugs. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to compare the effects of intravenous (IV) sodium thiopentone, propofol, and etomidate, used as IV anesthetic agents in modified ECT as regards, induction time and quality of anesthesia, alteration of hemodynamics, seizure duration, and recovery time...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215591/the-effect-of-resuscitation-position-on-cerebral-and-coronary-perfusion-pressure-during-mechanical-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-in-porcine-cardiac-arrest-model
#7
Taeyun Kim, Sang Do Shin, Kyoung Jun Song, Yong Joo Park, Hyun Ho Ryu, Guillaume Debaty, Keith Lurie, Ki Jeong Hong
OBJECTIVE: Automated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) devices can be used during transport in a small spaces (e.g. an elevator) to reduce the length of stretcher and via body position change. It is unknown whether patient position is associated with the optimal cerebral (CePP) and coronary (CoPP) perfusion pressure. METHODS: This study utilized a randomized experimental design and anesthetized, intubated and paralyzed female pigs (n=12) (mean 42, SD 3kg) on a customized tilt table...
February 16, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210514/hemorrhagic-colloid-cyst-presenting-with-acute-hydrocephaly
#8
Reza Akhavan, Behrouz Zandi, Masoud Pezeshki-Rad, Donya Farrokh, Bita Abbasi
Colloid cysts are benign slow-growing cystic lesions located on the roof of the third ventricle that usually present with symptoms related to gradual rise of intracranial pressure. They mostly remain asymptomatic and sometimes grow progressively and cause diverse symptoms associated with increased intracranial pressure such as headache, diplopia, and sixth cranial nerve palsy. Here we report a 47-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with acute severe headache and nausea/vomiting. On MRI examination acute hydrocephaly due to hemorrhagic colloid cyst was detected...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203329/pseudotumor-cerebri-as-the-first-manifestation-of-juvenile-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#9
Seyed-Reza Raeeskarami, Leila Shahbaznejad, Raheleh Assari, Yahya Aghighi
INTRODUCTION: Headache is a common neuropsychiatric manifestation of juvenile systemic lupus erythematous (JSLE). Pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) is an uncommon cause of headache, presenting especially in active JSLE. In this paper, we report a case of missed intractable headache that was eventually diagnosed as PTC and presented as the first manifestation of JSLE. CASE PRESENTATION: A 9-year-old girl with a history of progressive headache for four months, fever, fatigue, myalgia, arthralgia, small-joint arthritis of the hands, and recent diplopia was referred to our clinic...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196729/delayed-expansion-of-an-intracranial-cyst-induced-by-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-in-a-patient-with-chiari-malformation-type-2
#10
Yoshinori Maki, Tsuyoshi Ohta, Hirokazu Onishi, Naoki Fukui, Masanori Morimoto
A male neonate was referred to our hospital for the treatment of myelomeningocele and hydrocephalus related to Chiari malformation type 2. After the placement of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt for hydrocephalus, an intracranial cyst, which was asymptomatic at first, expanded and caused clinical symptoms due to increased intracranial pressure. The expansion of the cyst was confirmed dominantly in the right lateral ventricle where the VP shunt was inserted. Intraoperative findings through a neuroendoscope suggested that the expanded cyst was an isolated lesion...
February 11, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195748/imaging-features-of-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-in-children
#11
Alexander J P W Hartmann, Bruno P Soares, Beau B Bruce, Amit M Saindane, Nancy J Newman, Valérie Biousse, Jason H Peragallo
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signs of elevated intracranial pressure and idiopathic intracranial hypertension have been well characterized in adults but not in children. The MRIs of 50 children with idiopathic intracranial hypertension and 46 adults with idiopathic intracranial hypertension were reviewed for optic nerve head protrusion, optic nerve head enhancement, posterior scleral flattening, increased perioptic cerebrospinal fluid, optic nerve tortuosity, empty or partially empty sella, tonsillar herniation, enlargement of Meckel's cave meningoceles, and transverse venous sinus stenosis(TSS)...
January 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191384/delayed-temporal-lobe-hemorrhage-after-initiation-of-acyclovir-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-with-herpes-simplex-virus-2-encephalitis-a-case-report
#12
Kyle Mueller, Joshua E Ryan, Alex Tai, Rocco A Armonda
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the most common cause of non-epidemic, sporadic, acute focal encephalitis in the United States. Inflammation of the vasculature makes them friable and susceptible to hemorrhage. Massive hemorrhage, though rare, can present in a delayed fashion after initiation of acyclovir and often requires surgical intervention. We report a unique case of delayed temporal lobe hemorrhage after initiation of acyclovir in an immunocompetent patient, specifically for its presentation, virology, and surgical management...
January 15, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190444/management-of-neuro-oncologic-emergencies
#13
J T Jo, D Schiff
Patients with brain tumors and systemic malignancies are subject to diverse neurologic complications that require urgent evaluation and treatment. These neurologic conditions are commonly due to the tumor's direct effects on the nervous system, such as cerebral edema, increased intracranial pressure, seizures, spinal cord compression, and leptomeningeal metastases. In addition, neurologic complications can develop as a result of thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy, hyperviscosity syndromes, infection, immune-related disorders, and adverse effects of treatment...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188356/brain-trauma-foundation-guidelines-for-intracranial-pressure-monitoring-compliance-and-effect-on-outcome
#14
Alberto Aiolfi, Elizabeth Benjamin, Desmond Khor, Kenji Inaba, Lam Lydia, Demetrios Demetriades
BACKGROUND: Brain Trauma Foundation (BTF) guidelines recommend intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring in patients who sustained severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Compliance to BTF guidelines is variable, and the effect of ICP monitoring on outcomes remains a controversial issue. The purpose of this study was to assess guidelines compliance in patients who sustain a severe TBI and to analyze the effect of ICP monitoring on outcomes. METHODS: Trauma Quality Improvement Program database study, which included patients with isolated severe blunt head trauma (head Abbreviated Injury Scale ≥3 with Glasgow Coma Scale <9)...
February 10, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188349/on-line-dynamic-extraction-system-hyphenated-to-inductively-coupled-plasma-optical-emission-spectrometry-for-automatic-determination-of-oral-bioaccessible-trace-metal-fractions-in-airborne-particulate-matter
#15
Victoria Mohr, Manuel Miró, Andreas Limbeck
For a realistic evaluation of the potential hazard emanating from airborne particulate matter (APM), the determination of the total inhaled metal amounts associated with APM is insufficient in risk assessment. Additional information about metal fractions that can be mobilized by the human body is necessary, because only those soluble (also called bioaccessible) fractions can be absorbed by the human body, and thus potentially cause adverse health effects. In the present study, a dynamic flow-through approach as a front end to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) exploiting advanced flow analysis is employed for on-line handling of multiple APM samples and determination of bioaccessible trace metals under worst case extraction scenarios...
February 10, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186156/mechanism-study-on-the-sulfidation-of-zno-with-sulfur-and-iron-oxide-at-high-temperature
#16
Junwei Han, Wei Liu, Tianfu Zhang, Kai Xue, Wenhua Li, Fen Jiao, Wenqing Qin
The mechanism of ZnO sulfidation with sulfur and iron oxide at high temperatures was studied. The thermodynamic analysis, sulfidation behavior of zinc, phase transformations, morphology changes, and surface properties were investigated by HSC 5.0 combined with FactSage 7.0, ICP, XRD, optical microscopy coupled with SEM-EDS, and XPS. The results indicate that increasing temperature and adding iron oxide can not only improve the sulfidation of ZnO but also promote the formation and growth of ZnS crystals. Fe2O3 captured the sulfur in the initial sulfidation process as iron sulfides, which then acted as the sulfurizing agent in the late period, thus reducing sulfur escape at high temperatures...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185018/efficacy-and-safety-of-durotomy-after-decompressive-hemicraniectomy-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
R B Moringlane, N Keric, F B Freimann, D Mielke, R Burger, D Duncker, V Rohde, K L V Eckardstein
Decompressive hemicraniectomy (DH) plus duroplasty was demonstrated to be effective for treating critically elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). In order to shorten operation time and to avoid the use of autologous or heterologous material, durotomy has been introduced as an alternative to duroplasty. Only limited data is available on the effect of DH and durotomy on the increased ICP in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Therefore, we collected consecutive intraoperative ICP readings during the different steps of DH and durotomy in TBI patients...
February 9, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183068/electroless-deposition-of-nickel-boron-coatings-using-low-frequency-ultrasonic-agitation-effect-of-ultrasonic-frequency-on-the-coatings
#18
L Bonin, N Bains, V Vitry, A J Cobley
The effect of ultrasound on the properties of Nickel-Boron (NiB) coatings was investigated. NiB coatings were fabricated by electroless deposition using either ultrasonic or mechanical agitation. The deposition of Ni occurred in an aqueous bath containing a reducible metal salt (nickel chloride), reducing agent (sodium borohydride), complexing agent (ethylenediamine) and stabilizer (lead tungstate). Due to the instability of the borohydride in acidic, neutral and slightly alkaline media, pH was controlled at pH 12±1 in order to avoid destabilizing the bath...
January 30, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177603/pro-inflammatory-and-pro-fibrogenic-effects-of-ionic-and-particulate-arsenide-and-indium-containing-semiconductor-materials-in-the-murine-lung
#19
Wen Jiang, Xiang Wang, Olivia J Osborne, Yingjie Du, Chong Hyun Chang, Yu-Pei Liao, Bingbing Sun, Jinhong Jiang, Zhaoxia Ji, Ruibin Li, Xiangsheng Liu, Jianqin Lu, Sijie Lin, Huan Meng, Tian Xia, André E Nel
We have recently shown that the toxicological potential of GaAs and InAs particulates in cells is size- and dissolution-dependent, tending to be more pronounced for nano- vs micron-sized particles. Whether the size-dependent dissolution and shedding of ionic III-V materials also apply to pulmonary exposure is unclear. While it has been demonstrated that micron-sized III-V particles, such as GaAs and InAs, are capable of inducing hazardous pulmonary effects in an occupational setting as well as in animal studies, the effect of submicron particles (e...
February 8, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177254/experimental-and-numerical-investigations-of-silver-nanoparticle-transport-under-variable-flow-and-ionic-strength-in-soil
#20
Joanna Makselon, Dan Zhou, Irina Engelhardt, Diederik Jacques, Erwin Klumpp
Unsaturated column experiments were conducted with an undisturbed loamy sand soil to investigate the influence of flow interruption (FI) and ionic strength (IS) on the transport and retention of surfactant-stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNP) and the results were compared to those obtained under continuous flow conditions. AgNP concentrations for breakthrough curves (BTCs) and retention profiles (RPs) were analyzed by ICP-MS. Experimental results were simulated by the numerical code HP1 (Hydrus-PhreeqC) with the DLVO theory, extended colloid filtration theory and colloid release model...
February 8, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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