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Susana Maia, Françoise Lefèvre, Jérémie Jozefowiez
Allan and collaborators (Allan, Hannah, Crump, & Siegel, 2008; Allan, Siegel, & Tangen, 2005; Siegel, Allan, Hannah, & Crump, 2009) recently proposed to apply signal detection theory to the analysis of contingency judgment tasks. When exposed to a flow of stimuli, participants are asked to judge whether there is a contingent relation between a cue and an outcome, that is, whether the subjective cue-outcome contingency exceeds a decision threshold. In this context, we tested the following hypotheses regarding the relation between objective and subjective cue-outcome contingency: (a) The underlying distributions of subjective cue-outcome contingency are Gaussian; (b) The mean distribution of subjective contingency is a linear function of objective cue-outcome contingency; and (c) The variance in the distribution of subjective contingency is constant...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
R Michael Akers
What is old is new again-and with respect to the study of the mammary development and function in dairy animals, the expression resonates. Many of the mammary and milk production questions raised in the early years of the Journal of Dairy Science apply today. To be sure, scientists have filled in many details regarding, for example, identification of hormones and growth factors important in the control of mammary growth, the onset of copious milk production at calving, and maintenance of lactation. Early years focused on identification and subsequent availability of classic mammogenic, lactogenic, and galactopoietic hormones (e...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Richard Stephens, Sophie Staniszewska
Plain English summary: Two years ago we launched Research Involvement and Engagement (RIE) as an interdisciplinary co-produced journal, focusing on patient and wider involvement and engagement in all stages of health and social care research. In this Editorial we reflect on progress and consider future directions. Now indexed in PubMed Central, RIE's prime objective is to publish papers that report public involvement in enough depth to generate a sound and robust evidence base, from which others can draw to develop best practice...
2017: Res Involv Engagem
Catherine Breton, Georgios Koubouris, Pierre Villemur, André Jean Bervillé
The new self-incompatibility system (SI) was presented by Saumitou-Laprade, Vernet, Vekemans et al. (2017). Evolutionary Applications based on 89 crosses between varieties in the olive tree. Four main points are not clear. We are examining here as follows: (i) the assertion that the self-incompatibility system is sporophytic was not sustained by pollen germination data; (ii) surprisingly, the new model does not explain that about one-third of pairwise combinations of olive varieties leads to asymmetric fruit setting; (iii) DNA preparation from one seed may contain two embryos, and thus, embryos should be separated before seed extraction; (iv) although effective self-fertility in olive varieties was reported by many studies, the DSI model fails to explain self-fertility in some olive varieties...
October 2017: Evolutionary Applications
Besim Haluk Bacanakgil, Mustafa Deveci, Emine Karabuk, Zeynep Soyman
Background: Uterine smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) is rare tumor, and regarded as sub-classification in uterine smooth muscle tumors between benign and malignant criteria. In this study, we evaluated characteristics of cases with STUMP diagnosis in a 10-year period. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated medical records of patients with histopathological STUMP diagnosis in Istanbul Training and Research Hospital, a tertiary center. We analyzed preoperative demographic, clinical features and postoperative follow-up...
June 2017: World Journal of Oncology
Khaleel I Assaf, Mara Florea, Jens Antony, Niel M Henriksen, Jian Yin, Andreas Hansen, Zheng-Wang Qu, Rebecca Sure, Dieter Klapstein, Michael K Gilson, Stefan Grimme, Werner M Nau
The host-guest complexation of hydrocarbons (22 guest molecules) with cucurbit[7]uril was investigated in aqueous solution by using the indicator displacement strategy. The binding constants (10(3)-10(9) M(-1)) increased with guest size, pointing to the hydrophobic effect and dispersion interactions as driving forces. The measured affinities provide unique benchmark data for the binding of neutral guest molecules. Consequently, a computational blind challenge, the HYDROPHOBE challenge, was conducted in order to allow a comparison with state-of-the-art computational methods for predicting host-guest affinity constants...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Christoph Koch, Bernd Sures
2,4,6-Tribromophenol is the most widely produced brominated phenol. In the present review, we summarize studies dealing with this substance from an environmental point of view. We cover concentrations in the abiotic and biotic environment including humans, toxicokinetics as well as toxicodynamics, and show gaps of the current knowledge about this chemical. 2,4,6-Tribomophenol occurs as an intermediate during the synthesis of brominated flame retardants and it similarly represents a degradation product of these substances...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Md Hasinur Rahaman Khan, J Ewart H Shaw
We develop variable selection approaches for accelerated failure time models, consisting of a group of algorithms based on a synthesis of two widely used techniques in the area of variable selection for survival analysis-the Buckley-James method and the Dantzig selector. Two algorithms are based on proposed modified Buckley-James estimating methods that are designed for high-dimensional censored data. Another two algorithms are based on a two-stage weighted Dantzig selector method where weights are obtained from the two proposed synthesis-based algorithms...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
Hyokyoung G Hong, Xuerong Chen, David C Christiani, Yi Li
Modern biomedical studies have yielded abundant survival data with high-throughput predictors. Variable screening is a crucial first step in analyzing such data, for the purpose of identifying predictive biomarkers, understanding biological mechanisms, and making accurate predictions. To nonparametrically quantify the relevance of each candidate variable to the survival outcome, we propose integrated powered density (IPOD), which compares the differences in the covariate-stratified distribution functions. The proposed new class of statistics, with a flexible weighting scheme, is general and includes the Kolmogorov statistic as a special case...
November 9, 2017: Biometrics
Tamas Minarik, Barbara Berger, Paul Sauseng
Forming episodic memories is often driven by top-down processes of allocating attention towards voluntarily remembering the details of an episode. This attention orientation is needed to make sure that information is encoded for later remembering. Here we designed an episodic long-term memory (LTM) EEG experiment where we examined brain oscillatory activity associated with attention allocation towards the temporal link between an item and its context. The remembering of this temporal conjunction is crucial for item-context binding and hence for the formation of episodic memories...
November 5, 2017: NeuroImage
Mathieu Bergeron, Angela L Duggins, Aliza P Cohen, Karin Tiemeyer, Lisa Mullen, Joseph Crisalli, Angela McArthur, Stacey L Ishman
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Shared decision-making is a process whereby patients and clinicians jointly establish a treatment plan integrating clinical evidence and patient values and preferences. Although this approach has been successfully employed in numerous medical disciplines, often using shared decision-making tools, otolaryngologic research assessing its use is scant. Our primary objective was therefore to determine if the tools we developed reduced decisional conflict for children with obstructive sleep apnea without tonsillar hypertrophy...
November 8, 2017: Laryngoscope
Miren Zuazo, Maria Gato-Cañas, Noelia Llorente, María Ibañez-Vea, Hugo Arasanz, Grazyna Kochan, David Escors
Programmed cell death-1 (PD1) has become a significant target for cancer immunotherapy. PD1 and its receptor programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PDL1) are key regulatory physiological immune checkpoints that maintain self-tolerance in the organism by regulating the degree of activation of T and B cells amongst other immune cell types. However, cancer cells take advantage of these immunosuppressive regulatory mechanisms to escape T and B cell-mediated immunity. PD1 engagement on T cells by PDL1 on the surface of cancer cells dramatically interferes with T cell activation and the acquisition of effector capacities...
October 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
Dongmei Huang, Wenfang Lin, Ban Deng, Yujun Ren, Ying Miao
Plastid-nucleus-located WHIRLY1 protein plays a role in regulating leaf senescence and is believed to associate with the increase of reactive oxygen species delivered from redox state of the photosynthetic electron transport chain. In order to make sure whether WHIRLY1 plays a role in photosynthesis, in this study, the performances of photosynthesis were detected in Arabidopsis whirly1 knockout (kowhy1) and plastid localized WHIRLY1 overexpression (oepWHY1) plants. Loss of WHIRLY1 leads to a higher photochemical quantum yield of photosystem I Y(I) and electron transport rate (ETR) and a lower non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) involved in the thermal dissipation of excitation energy of chlorophyll fluorescence than the wild type...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Gregory Poorman, Akhila Sure, Cyrus M Jalai, Shaleen Vira, Samantha R Horn, Bassel Diebo, Shay Bess, Virginie Lafage, Peter Passias
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Ana Luiza Vilela Borges, Osmara Alves Dos Santos, Elizabeth Fujimori
OBJECTIVE: to examine the effect of pregnancy planning status in the concordance between intention to use and current use of contraceptives among postpartum women. DESIGN AND SETTING: a prospective study was conducted in 12 primary health care facilities in São Paulo, Brazil, from November 2013 to September 2014. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 264 woman aged 15-44 years old completed a face-to-face interview when they were pregnant (baseline), and were interviewed by phone at 6 months postpartum...
October 18, 2017: Midwifery
Karin L Ciance
Falls are the leading cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries among adults 65 years and older. Each year, one in three older adults experiences a fall, and people who fall are more likely to fall again. According to the National Council on Aging (2017), instituting evidence-based falls prevention programs can significantly decrease falls. The purpose of this article is to describe a pilot study that examined the impact of the Sure Steps Fall Prevention Program on incidence of falls among adults 65 and older living in their home...
November 2017: Home Healthcare Now
Subaraman Ramchandran, Norah Foster, Akhila Sure, Thomas J Errico, Aaron J Buckland
Study Design: Retrospective analysis. Purpose: Our hypothesis is that the surgical correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) maintains normal sagittal alignment as compared to age-matched normative adolescent population. Overview of Literature: Sagittal spino-pelvic alignment in AIS has been reported, however, whether corrective spinal fusion surgery re-establishes normal alignment remains unverified. Methods: Sagittal profiles and spino-pelvic parameters of thirty-eight postsurgical correction AIS patients ≤21 years old without prior fusion from a single institution database were compared to previously published normative age-matched data...
October 2017: Asian Spine Journal
Luis A Aguirre, Leonardo L Portes, Christophe Letellier
Observability is the property that enables recovering the state of a dynamical system from a reduced number of measured variables. In high-dimensional systems, it is therefore important to make sure that the variable recorded to perform the analysis conveys good observability of the system dynamics. The observability of a network of neuron models depends nontrivially on the observability of the node dynamics and on the topology of the network. The aim of this paper is twofold. First, to perform a study of observability using four well-known neuron models by computing three different observability coefficients...
October 2017: Chaos
Didier Dreyfuss, Stéphane Gaudry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Maureen O Meade, Duncan Young, Niall D Ferguson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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