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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087528/engineering-mycobacteria-for-the-production-of-self-assembling-biopolyesters-displaying-mycobacterial-antigens-for-use-as-tuberculosis-vaccine
#1
Jason W Lee, Natalie A Parlane, Bernd H A Rehm, Bryce M Buddle, Axel Heiser
: Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis and still remains one of the world's biggest global health burdens. Recently, engineered polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biobeads produced in both E. coli and Lactococcus lactis displaying mycobacterial antigens were found to induce significant cell mediated immune responses in mice. We observed that such PHA beads contained host cell proteins as impurities which we hypothesized to have the potential to induce immunity...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087484/inhibition-of-bacterial-adhesion-and-biofilm-formation-by-dual-functional-textured-and-nitric-oxide-releasing-surfaces
#2
Li-Chong Xu, Yaqi Wo, Mark E Meyerhoff, Christopher A Siedlecki
: In separate prior studies, physical topographic surface modification or nitric oxide (NO) release has been demonstrated to each be an effective approach to inhibit and control bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on polymeric surfaces. Such approaches can prevent biomaterial-associated infection without causing the antibiotic resistance of the strain. In this work, both techniques were successfully integrated and applied to a polyurethane (PU) biomaterial surface that bears ordered pillar topographies (400/400 nm and 500/500 nm patterns) at the top surface and a S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP, NO donor) doped sub-layer in the middle, via a soft lithography two-stage replication process...
January 10, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087469/tofacitinib-ameliorates-inflammation-in-a-rat-model-of-airway-neutrophilia-induced-by-inhaled-lps
#3
Elena Calama, Isabel Ramis, Anna Domènech, Cristina Carreño, Jorge De Alba, Neus Prats, Montserrat Miralpeix
BACKGROUND: and purpose: The Janus Kinase (JAK) family mediates the cytokine receptor-induced signalling pathways involved in inflammatory processes. The activation of the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) by JAK kinases is a key point in these pathways. Four JAK proteins, JAK1, JAK2, JAK3 and tyrosine kinase 2 (Tyk2) associate with the intracellular domains of surface cytokine receptors are phosphorylating STATs and modulating gene expression. The aim of this study was to explore the role of JAK inhibition in an acute model of inhaled lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced airway inflammation in rats through evaluating the effects of tofacitinib, a marketed pan-JAK inhibitor...
January 10, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081515/distinguishing-subpopulations-of-marijuana-users-with-latent-profile-analysis
#4
Matthew R Pearson, Adrian J Bravo, Bradley T Conner
BACKGROUND: Although marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States, little is known about the effects of typical marijuana use patterns and whether there are distinct subgroups of marijuana users. METHODS: The present study used latent profile analysis to determine the number of distinct subgroups of marijuana users in a large sample of college students (n=2129 past month marijuana users across 11 universities). We also examined how these distinct groups differ on several putative risk/protective factors (e...
November 23, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081081/compact-broadband-polarization-beam-splitter-using-a-symmetric-directional-coupler-with-sinusoidal-bends
#5
Fan Zhang, Han Yun, Yun Wang, Zeqin Lu, Lukas Chrostowski, Nicolas A F Jaeger
We design and demonstrate a compact broadband polarization beam splitter (PBS) using a symmetric directional coupler with sinusoidal bends on a silicon-on-insulator platform. The sinusoidal bends in our PBS suppress the power exchange between two parallel symmetric strip waveguides for the transverse-electric (TE) mode, while allowing for the maximum power transfer to the adjacent waveguide for the transverse-magnetic (TM) mode. Our PBS has a nominal coupler length of 8.55 μm, and it has an average extinction ratio (ER) of 12...
January 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078551/the-proteolysis-adaptor-nbla-binds-to-the-n-terminus-of-%C3%AE-phycocyanin-implications-for-the-mechanism-of-phycobilisome-degradation
#6
Amelia Y Nguyen, William P Bricker, Hao Zhang, Daniel A Weisz, Michael L Gross, Himadri B Pakrasi
Phycobilisome (PBS) complexes are massive light-harvesting apparati in cyanobacteria that capture and funnel light energy to the photosystem. PBS complexes are dynamically degraded during nutrient deprivation, which causes severe chlorosis, and resynthesized during nutrient repletion. PBS degradation occurs rapidly after nutrient step down, and is specifically triggered by non-bleaching protein A (NblA), a small proteolysis adaptor that facilitates interactions between a Clp chaperone and phycobiliproteins...
January 11, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077075/protection-via-a-rom4-dna-vaccine-and-peptide-against-toxoplasma-gondii-in-balb-c-mice
#7
Yali Han, Aihua Zhou, Gang Lu, Guanghui Zhao, Lin Wang, Jingjing Guo, Pengxia Song, Jian Zhou, Huaiyu Zhou, Hua Cong, Shenyi He
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite with a broad host range including most warm-blooded animals, including humans. T. gondii surface antigen 1 (SAG1) is a well-characterized T. gondii antigen. T. gondii expresses five nonmitochondrial rhomboid intramembrane proteases, TgROM1-5. TgROM4 is uniformly distributed on the surface of T. gondii and involved in regulating MIC2, MIC3, MIC6, and AMA1 during T. gondii invasion of host cells. Bioinformatics have predicted ROM4 B-cell and T-cell epitopes...
January 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077022/feasibility-of-a-novel-multispot-nanoarray-for-antibiotic-screening-in-honey
#8
Sara E McNamee, Giulia Rosar, Lidija Persic, Christopher T Elliott, Katrina Campbell
Practical solutions for multiple antibiotic determination in food is required by the food industry and regulators for cost effective screening purposes. This study describes the feasibility in development and preliminary performance of a novel multispot nanoarray for antibiotic screening in honey. Using a multiplex approach the metabolites of the four main nitrofuran antibiotics including morpholinomethyl-2-oxazolidone (AMOZ), 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ), semicarbazide (SEM), 1-aminohydantoin (AHD) and chloramphenicol (CAP) were simultaneously detected...
January 12, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076825/polar-aromatic-periphery-increases-agonist-potency-of-spirocyclic-free-fatty-acid-receptor-gpr40-agonists-inspired-by-ly2881835
#9
Mikhail Krasavin, Alexey Lukin, Daria Bagnyukova, Nikolay Zhurilo, Aleksei Golovanov, Sergey Zozulya, Ihor Zahanich, Daniel Moore, Irina G Tikhonova
A series of spirocyclic compounds inspired by Eli Lilly's phase 1 antidiabetic FFA1 receptor agonist LY2881835 was designed to include polar aromatic periphery groups and explore a possibility of building additional contacts with the target near the agonist binding site. The frontrunner compound in the series (9i) was shown to be a potent (EC50 = 260 nM) FFA1 agonist with excellent aqueous (PBS) solubility and good Caco-2 permeability. The observed structure-activity relationships were rationalized by a docking study...
January 4, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073193/analysis-of-myo-inositol-effect-on-spermatozoa-motility-in-hyper-viscous-ejaculates-and-in-patients-with-grades-ii-and-iii-varicocele
#10
Filomena Scarselli, Anna Maria Lobascio, Mario Terribile, Valentina Casciani, Pierfrancesco Greco, Giorgio Franco, Maria Giulia Minasi, Ermanno Greco
The goal of this study is to evaluate MYOInositol effects on spermatozoa motility, in patients' ejaculates with severe varicocele or hyper viscosity. The study included normal viscosity ejaculate from 30 patients affected by varicocele and hyper viscosity ejaculate from 33 patients without any testicular pathologies. All selected samples showed sperm concentration > 2 million/ml and progressive motility < 32%. In both groups, the pellet obtained after centrifugation in buffered medium, was divided in two aliquots, both incubated for 15 minutes at 37°C: one with MYO-Inositol and the other one, as control, only in phosphate buffered saline (PBS)...
December 30, 2016: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070698/drug-coated-microneedles-for-rapid-and-painless-local-anesthesia
#11
Sung-Hyun Baek, Ju-Hyung Shin, Yeu-Chun Kim
This study showed that drug-coated PLLA (Poly (L-lactide)) microneedle arrays can induce rapid and painless local anesthesia. Microneedle arrays were fabricated using a micro-molding technique, and the needle tips were coated with 290.6 ± 45.9 μg of lidocaine, the most widely used local anesthetic worldwide. A dip-coating device was newly designed for the coating step using an optimized coating formulation. Lidocaine coated on the arrays was released rapidly into PBS within 2 min, and its stability in storage lasted 3 weeks at 4, 25, and 37°C...
March 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069428/high-concentrations-of-lead-and-barium-in-hair-of-the-rural-population-caused-by-water-pollution-in-the-thar-jath-oilfields-in-south-sudan
#12
Fritz Pragst, Klaus Stieglitz, Hella Runge, Klaus-Dietrich Runow, David Quig, Robert Osborne, Christian Runge, John Ariki
In the oil fields of Thar Jath, South Sudan, increasing salinity of drinking water was observed together with human incompatibilities and rise in livestock mortalities. Hair analysis was used to characterize the toxic exposure of the population. Hair samples of volunteers from four communities with different distance from the center of the oil field (Koch 23km, n=24; Leer 50km, n=26; Nyal 110km, n=21; and Rumbek 220km, n=25) were analyzed for altogether 39 elements by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry...
December 23, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069117/promotion-effect-of-sulfite-on-deoxyosones-and-4-methylimidazole-in-caramel-model-system
#13
Xian-Bing Xu, Pei Yu, Shu-Juan Yu
In this study, hydrogen-deuterium (H/D) exchange experiment was carried out to reveal the promotion effect of sulfite on the formation of deoxyosones and 4-methylimidazole (4-MeI) in the Maillard reaction. Glucose-ammonium (40mmol/L, pH 7.4 in PBS) model systems with different levels of sulfite were incubated at 110°C for 2h. Alpha-dicarbonyls were detected after derivatization by a high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). 4-MeI in the Maillard reaction was tested using a high-performance anion exchange chromatography with an electrochemical detector (HPAEC-ED)...
May 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068765/tandem-solar-cells-from-solution-processed-cdte-and-pbs-quantum-dots-using-a-znte-zno-tunnel-junction
#14
Ryan W Crisp, Gregory F Pach, J Matthew Kurley, Ryan M France, Matthew O Reese, Sanjini U Nanayakkara, Bradley A MacLeod, Dmitri V Talapin, Matthew C Beard, Joseph M Luther
We developed a monolithic CdTe/PbS tandem solar cell architecture where both the CdTe and PbS absorber layers are solution-processed from nanocrystal inks. Due to their tunable nature, PbS quantum dots (QDs), with a controllable bandgap between 0.4 and ~1.6 eV, are a promising candidate for a bottom absorber layer in tandem photovoltaics. In the detailed balance limit, the ideal configuration of a CdTe (Eg = 1.5 eV)/PbS tandem structure assumes infinite thickness of the absorber layers and requires the PbS bandgap to be 0...
January 10, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068659/hearing-loss-after-round-window-surgery-in-mice-is-due-to-middle-ear-effusion
#15
Bovey Z Zhu, Jasmine Saleh, Kevin T Isgrig, Lisa L Cunningham, Wade W Chien
BACKGROUND: Delivery of therapeutic agents directly through the round window (RW) offers promise for treating sensorineural hearing loss. However, hearing loss can result from the surgical approach itself, and the reasons for this are poorly understood. We examined the hearing loss following the 3 major steps involved with the RW approach to access the mouse cochlea: bullostomy, RW puncture, and RW injection. METHODS: Twenty-one adult CBA/J mice underwent bullostomy alone, 10 underwent RW puncture, and 8 underwent RW injection with PBS with 5% glycerol...
January 10, 2017: Audiology & Neuro-otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068622/tribological-behavior-of-ti6al4v-cellular-structures-produced-by-selective-laser-melting
#16
F Bartolomeu, M Sampaio, O Carvalho, E Pinto, N Alves, J R Gomes, F S Silva, G Miranda
Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies enable the fabrication of innovative structures with complex geometries not easily manufactured by traditional processes. Regarding metallic cellular structures with tailored/customized mechanical and wear performance aiming to biomedical applications, Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is a remarkable solution for their production. Focusing on prosthesis and implants, in addition to a suitable Young's modulus it is important to assess the friction response and wear resistance of these cellular structures in a natural environment...
January 4, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068083/simultaneous-electrochemical-detection-of-benzimidazole-fungicides-carbendazim-and-thiabendazole-using-a-novel-nano-hybrid-material-modi%C3%AF-ed-electrode
#17
Yuanyuan Dong, Lijun Yang, Lei Zhang
In this work, a novel ZnFe2O4/SWCNTs nano-hybrid was successfully synthesized as electrode materials and applied to the simultaneous quantitative determination of carbendazim (CBZ) and thiabendazole (TBZ). The electrochemical behaviors of CBZ and TBZ on the ZnFe2O4/SWCNTs/GCE were investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The electrochemical active area of modified electrode was calculated, which is nearly 5.5 times that of the bare electrode. The influence of various factors such as accumulation time, pH and scan rates, type of surfactant, and the electrochemical reaction mechanism were studied...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068065/sustained-nitric-oxide-release-from-a-tertiary-s-nitrosothiol-based-polyphosphazene-coating
#18
Alec Lutzke, Jesus B Tapia, Megan J Neufeld, Melissa M Reynolds
Nitric oxide (NO) occurs naturally in mammalian biochemistry as a critical signaling molecule and exhibits antithrombotic, antibacterial, and wound-healing properties. NO-forming biodegradable polymers have been utilized in the development of antithrombotic or antibacterial materials for biointerfacial applications, including tissue engineering and the fabrication of erodible coatings for medical devices such as stents. Use of such NO-forming polymers has frequently been constrained by short-term release or limited NO storage capacity and has led to the pursuit of new materials with improved NO release function...
January 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067307/fluorescent-gold-nanoclusters-for-selective-detection-of-dopamine-in-cerebrospinal-fluid
#19
Saravanan Govindaraju, Seshadri Reddy Ankireddy, Buddolla Viswanath, Jongsung Kim, Kyusik Yun
Since the last two decades, protein conjugated fluorescent gold nanoclusters (NCs) owe much attention in the field of medical and nanobiotechnology due to their excellent photo stability characteristics. In this paper, we reported stable, nontoxic and red fluorescent emission BSA-Au NCs for selective detection of L-dopamine (DA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The evolution was probed by various instrumental techniques such as UV-vis spectroscopy, High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL)...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067247/erratum-detecting-trap-states-in-planar-pbs-colloidal-quantum-dot-solar-cells
#20
Zhiwen Jin, Aiji Wang, Qing Zhou, Yinshu Wang, Jizheng Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
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