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Pei-Tan Hsueh, Hsi-Hsun Lin, Hsuan-Han Wang, Chiu-Lin Liu, Wei-Fen Ni, Jong-Kang Liu, Hsin-Hou Chang, Der-Shan Sun, Yao-Shen Chen, Ya-Lei Chen
The murine maternal immune activation (MIA) offspring model enables longitudinal studies to explore aberrant social behaviors similar to those observed in humans. High levels of cytokines, chemokines and cell adhesion molecules (CAM) have been found in the plasma and/or brains of psychiatric patients. We hypothesized that up-regulation of the systemic or brain immune response has an augmenting effect by potentially increasing the interplay between the neuronal and immune systems during the growth of the MIA offspring...
April 15, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Sourav Dutta, K Bavya Devi, Sanjay Gupta, Biswanath Kundu, Vamsi Krishna Balla, Mangal Roy
In order to make magnesium (Mg) a successful candidate for fracture fixation devices, it is imperative to control the corrosion rate and enhance its elastic modulus. In the present work, we have prepared bioactive glass (BG) reinforced magnesium composite using spark plasma sintering (SPS). Simultaneous application of heat and pressure during SPS decreased the softening point of BG (600°C), allowing it to coat the Mg particles partially. As a result, BG was found along the Mg particle boundaries, which was confirmed by elemental mapping...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Li-Rong Lin, Zheng-Xiang Gao, Yong Lin, Xiao-Zhen Zhu, Wei Liu, Dan Liu, Kun Gao, Man-Li Tong, Hui-Lin Zhang, Li-Li Liu, Yao Xiao, Jian-Jun Niu, Fan Liu, Tian-Ci Yang
The polarization of macrophages and the molecular mechanism involved during the early process of syphilis infection remain unknown. This study was conducted to explore the influence of Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum) treatment on macrophage polarization and the Akt-mTOR-NFκB signaling pathway mechanism involved in this process. M0 macrophages derived from the phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 were cultured with T. pallidum. T. pallidum induced inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β and TNF-α) expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner...
April 12, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
J D Weaver, L Ramirez, S Sivan, M Di Prima
In vitro durability tests of cardiovascular devices are often used to evaluate the potential for fretting damage during clinical use. Evaluation of fretting damage is important because severe fretting can concentrate stress and lead to the loss of structural integrity. Most international standards call for the use of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for such tests although there has been little evidence to date that the use of PBS is appropriate in terms of predicting the amount of fretting damage that would occur in vivo...
April 4, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Rohit Panwar, Narendra Kumar, Vipul Kashyap, Chand Ram, Rajeev Kapila
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 ) is known to be a potent carcinogen and continues to pose a public health concern through the consumption of contaminated dairy foods. It is anticipated that consumption of lactic acid bacteria capable of binding aflatoxins can reduce the risk of AFM1 on human health to a certain extent. Seldom reports have hinted the possibility of using lactic acid bacteria for the biological detoxification of AFM1 . Hence, the present study was conducted to assess the ability of selected probiotic Lactobacillus strains for their AFM1 binding ability in PBS and to reduce its bioaccessibility in artificially contaminated skim milk using an in vitro digestion model...
April 12, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Huah Shin Ng, Bogda Koczwara, David Roder, Theo Niyonsenga, Agnes Vitry
Background: The development of comorbidities has become increasingly relevant with longer-term cancer survival. Objective: To assess the pattern of comorbidities among Australian women with breast cancer treated with tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor. Design: Retrospective cohort study using Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) data (10% sample) from January 2003 to December 2014. Dispensing claims data were used to identify comorbidities and classified with the Rx-Risk-V model...
2018: Journal of Comorbidity
Robin L Webb, Erin E Kaiser, Brian J Jurgielewicz, Samantha Spellicy, Shelley L Scoville, Tyler A Thompson, Raymond L Swetenburg, David C Hess, Franklin D West, Steven L Stice
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recent work from our group suggests that human neural stem cell-derived extracellular vesicle (NSC EV) treatment improves both tissue and sensorimotor function in a preclinical thromboembolic mouse model of stroke. In this study, NSC EVs were evaluated in a pig ischemic stroke model, where clinically relevant end points were used to assess recovery in a more translational large animal model. METHODS: Ischemic stroke was induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and either NSC EV or PBS treatment was administered intravenously at 2, 14, and 24 hours post-MCAO...
April 12, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Pei Cui, Haiming Xin, Yongming Yao, Shichu Xiao, Feng Zhu, Zhenyu Gong, Zhiping Tang, Qiu Zhan, Wei Qin, Yanhua Lai, Xiaohui Li, Yalin Tong, Zhaofan Xia
BACKGROUND: White smoke inhalation (WSI) is an uncommon but potentially deadly cause of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome for which no effective pharmaceutical treatment has been developed. This study aimed to determine the protective effects of human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) against WSI-induced lung injury in rats. METHODS: hAMSCs were injected into rats via the tail vein 4 h after WSI. At 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after cell injection, hAMSCs labeled with PKH26 in lung, heart, liver, and kidney tissues were observed by fluorescence microscopy...
April 12, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
A-Young Lee, Hyun-Soo Ra, Dohyun Kwak, Jeong Min-Hye, Jeong-Hyun Park, Yeon-Su Kang, Weon-Sik Chae, Jong-Soo Lee
Recently, black phosphorus (BP) with direct band gap exhibited excellent potential for optoelectronic applications due to its high charge carrier mobility and low dark current as well as the variable band gap of 0.3 eV to 1.5 eV depending on the number of layers. However, few-layer BP-based phototransistors (photo-FETs) have been limited in sensitivity and wavelength selectivity. To overcome the drawback of these photo-FETs, we studied hybrid photo-FETs combined with the novel properties of the two materials between the channel and sensitizer layers...
April 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jun Zhang, Long Zhang, Chang Lei, Xiaodan Huang, Yannan Yang, Chengzhong Yu
In this study, the insulin immobilization behaviors of silica vesicles (SV) before and after modification with hydrophobic alkyl -C8 and -C18 groups have been studied and correlated to the grafted alkyl chain length. In order to minimize the in-fluence from the other structural parameters, monolayered -C8 or -C18 groups are grafted onto SV with controlled density. The insulin immobilization capacity of SV is dependent on the initial insulin concentrations (IIC). At high IIC (2.6-3.0 mg/ml), the trend of insulin immobilization capacity of SV is SV-OH > SV-C8 > SV-C18, which is determined mainly by the surface area of SV...
April 12, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Yuting Lin, El Hassane Bentefour, Jacob B Flanz, Hanne M Kooy, Benjamin M Clasie
Pencil beam scanning (PBS) periodic quality assurance (QA) programs ensure the beam delivered to patients is within technical specifications. Two critical specifications for PBS delivery are the beam width and position. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a 2-dimensional ionization chamber array, such as the MatriXX detector (IBA Dosimetry, Schwarzenbruck, Germany), can be used to characterize submillimeter-sized PBS beam properties. The motivation is to use standard equipment, which may have pixel spacing coarser than the pencil beam size, and simplify QA workflow...
April 12, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Junko Takamura, Takayuki Seo, Vibeke Strand
Objective Many clinical trials of viscosupplementation have been conducted, although only the Gel-200 (primary) trial included a different patient population. A subgroup analysis of a multicenter, randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of single intra-articular injections of Gel-200 with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was performed to demonstrate its benefit as treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee in a population similar to those of other reported trials of viscosupplementation. Design The subgroup population was defined as patients in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population who met the specified criteria...
April 1, 2018: Cartilage
L Zhu, Y D Wang, Y M Dong, X F Chen
OBJECTIVE: To construct mesoporous nano-bioactive glass (MNBG) microspheres load-release minocycline as an antibacterial drug delivery system. METHODS: Sol-gel method was used to synthesze MNBG microspheres as drug carrier. The MNBG consisted of SiO2, CaO, and P2O5. According to the content of silicon, MNBG microspheres were divided into four groups (60S, 70S, 80S and 90S). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the surface characteristic and particle size of MNBG; Nitrogen adsorption-desorption experiment was performed to calculate the MNBG's specific surface area and the pore sizes; The Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR) and the thermogravimetric analysis were conducted to calculate the loading efficiencies of minocycline hydrochloride; UV spectrophotometric was used to determine the cumulative release of minocycline from drug-loaded particles in PBS solution within 21 d...
April 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Harutai Sayan, Pornchalit Assavacheep, Kris Angkanaporn, Anongnart Assavacheep
Objective: Gut health improvements were monitored with respect to growth performance, diarrhea incidence, fecal bacterial population and intestinal morphology of suckling pigs orally supplemented with live Lactobacillus salivarius oral suspensions and challenged with F4+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Methods: Two groups of newborn pigs from 18 multiparous sows were randomly designated as non-supplemented (control: n=114 piglets) and L. salivarius supplemented groups (treatment: n=87 piglets)...
April 12, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Andrea Cochis, Lorenzo Bonetti, Rita Sorrentino, Nicola Contessi Negrini, Federico Grassi, Massimiliano Leigheb, Lia Rimondini, Silvia Farè
A possible strategy in regenerative medicine is cell-sheet engineering (CSE), i.e., developing smart cell culture surfaces from which to obtain intact cell sheets (CS). The main goal of this study was to develop 3D printing via extrusion-based bioprinting of methylcellulose (MC)-based hydrogels. Hydrogels were prepared by mixing MC powder in saline solutions (Na₂SO₄ and PBS). MC-based hydrogels were analyzed to investigate the rheological behavior and thus optimize the printing process parameters. Cells were tested in vitro on ring-shaped printed hydrogels; bulk MC hydrogels were used for comparison...
April 10, 2018: Materials
S-C Zou, J Jiang, J Song
OBJECTIVE: We aimed at exploring the role of IL-33 in mouse chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its potential molecular mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mice model was established by cigarette smoking (CS). COPD mice were randomly assigned into PBS group and IL-33 antibody group. The peripheral blood and lung tissues of mice from two groups were collected for the following experiments. Pathological changes of the lung tissues in both groups were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Yong Gu, Zhiyuan Zhao, Dongmei Miao, Hilary High, Tao Yang, Liping Yu
Pinpointing islet autoantibodies associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D) leads the way to project and deter this disease in the general population. A novel ECL assay is a nonradioactive fluid phase assay for islet autoantibodies with higher sensitivity and specificity than the current 'gold' standard radio-binding assay (RBA). ECL assays can more precisely define the onset of presymptomatic T1D by distinguishing the high-risk, high-affinity autoantibodies from the low-risk, low-affinity autoantibodies generated in RBAs, and conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA)...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Mehran Dabaghian, Ali Mohammad Latifi, Majid Tebianian, Hamid NajmiNejad, Seyyed Mahmoud Ebrahimi
In this study, the potential of N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) nanoparticles as a carrier system for the nasal delivery of the r4M2e.HSP70c, as an M2e-based universal recombinant influenza virus vaccine candidate, was investigated in mice. The anti-M2e specific cellular and humoral immune responses were assessed and the protective efficacy against a 90% lethal dose (LD90) of influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) in a mice model was evaluated. Our results showed that the intranasal immunization of mice with r4M2e.HSP70c+TMC rather than the control groups, r4M2e+TMC, r4M2e and PBS (Phosphate buffer saline), significantly elevated both longevity and serum level of the total M2e-specific IgG antibody with a significant shift in the IgG2a/IgG1 ratio toward IgG2a, induced a Th1 skewed humoral and cellular immune responses, increased IFN-γ, IgG, and IgA in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and promoted the proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes with lower morbidity and mortality rate against viral challenge...
April 4, 2018: Vaccine
Antonia Fettelschoss-Gabriel, Victoria Fettelschoss, Franziska Thoms, Christoph Giese, Michelle Daniel, Florian Olomski, Jivko Kamarachev, Katharina Birkmann, Maya Bühler, Martin Kummer, Andris Zeltins, Eliane Marti, Thomas M Kündig, Martin F Bachmann
BACKGROUND: Insect-bite hypersensitivity is the most common allergic dermatitis in horses. Excoriated skin lesions are typical symptoms of this seasonal and refractory chronic disease. On a cellular level, the skin lesions are characterized by massive eosinophil infiltration caused by an underlying allergic response. OBJECTIVE: To target these cells and treat disease, we developed a therapeutic vaccine against equine IL-5 (eIL-5), the master regulator of eosinophils...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Fenghui Zhao, Chengcheng Wang, Qiaolei Yang, Shuhong Han, Qinglian Hu, Zhengwei Fu
AIMS: The interaction of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) with the immune system and the possibility of inflammation induction are of particularly interest. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are one of the most popular manufactured nanomaterials. In this study, we focused on the immune-modulatory effect of commercial P-25 TiO2 NPs in vivo and in vitro and their crucial role in cancer metastasis. MAIN METHODS: The female C57BL/6 mice were injected into abdominal cavity with PBS or P-25 TiO2 to investigate the immune-modulatory function of P-25...
April 3, 2018: Life Sciences
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