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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025873/ectopic-expression-of-pax4-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-results-in-%C3%AE-like-cell-neogenesis
#1
Noémie Druelle, Andhira Vieira, Aidin Shabro, Monica Courtney, Magali Mondin, Samah Rekima, Tiziana Napolitano, Serena Silvano, Sergi Navarro-Sanz, Biljana Hadzic, Fabio Avolio, Minoo Rassoulzadegan, Herbert A Schmid, Ahmed Mansouri, Patrick Collombat
The recent demonstration that pancreatic α cells can be continuously regenerated and converted into β-like cells upon ectopic expression of Pax4 opened new avenues of research in the endocrine cell differentiation and diabetes fields. To determine whether such plasticity was also shared by δ cells, we generated and characterized transgenic animals that express Pax4 specifically in somatostatin-expressing cells. We demonstrate that the ectopic expression of Pax4 in δ cells is sufficient to induce their conversion into functional β-like cells...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025857/endocrine-side-effects-of-cancer-immunotherapy
#2
Priscilla Cukier, Fernando C Santini, Mariana Scaranti, Ana O Hoff
Immune checkpoint inhibitors have recently become a cornerstone for the treatment of different advanced cancers. These drugs, represented mainly by monoclonal antibodies anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), anti-programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) and anti-PD-1 ligand molecules (PD-L1 and L2), have the ability to reactivate the immune system against tumor cells, but can also trigger a myriad of autoimmune side effects, termed immune-related adverse events (irAEs). In particular, there are a number of endocrine related irAEs...
October 12, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024702/polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-pcos-long-term-metabolic-consequences
#3
Panagiotis Anagnostis, Basil C Tarlatzis, Robert P Kauffman
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women during their reproductive ages, associated with a plethora of cardiometabolic consequences, with obesity, insulin resistance and hyperandrogenemia playing a major role in the degree of such manifestations. These consequences include increased risk of glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus (both type 2 and gestational), atherogenic dyslipidemia, systemic inflammation, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, hypertension and coagulation disorders...
October 9, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022562/ketogenic-diet-in-endocrine-disorders-current-perspectives
#4
REVIEW
L Gupta, D Khandelwal, S Kalra, P Gupta, D Dutta, S Aggarwal
Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome...
October 2017: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021781/cross-talk-between-adipose-tissue-and-placenta-in-obese-and-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-pregnancies-via-exosomes
#5
REVIEW
Nanthini Jayabalan, Soumyalekshmi Nair, Zarin Nuzhat, Gregory E Rice, Felipe A Zuñiga, Luis Sobrevia, Andrea Leiva, Carlos Sanhueza, Jaime Agustín Gutiérrez, Martha Lappas, Dilys Jane Freeman, Carlos Salomon
Obesity is an important public health issue worldwide, where it is commonly associated with the development of metabolic disorders, especially insulin resistance (IR). Maternal obesity is associated with an increased risk of pregnancy complications, especially gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Metabolism is a vital process for energy production and the maintenance of essential cellular functions. Excess energy storage is predominantly regulated by the adipose tissue. Primarily made up of adipocytes, adipose tissue acts as the body's major energy reservoir...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019734/failed-titration-of-endocrine-replacement-therapy-diagnostic-significance
#6
Omp Jolobe
Unsuccessful titration of endocrine replacement therapy may signify the coexistence of an unrecognized disorder which alters the response to replacement therapy. Examples include recurrent hypoglycaemia when type 1 diabetes mellitus coexists with either Addison's disease or coeliac disease. Recurrent Addisonian crisis occurs when Addison's disease coexists with thyrotoxicosis. Conversely, in a patient with Addison's disease, recognition and treatment of coexisting coeliac disease may facilitate a reduction in corticosteroid dosage...
October 2, 2017: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990742/autoimmune-endocrine-diseases
#7
Rosaria M Ruggeri, Giuseppe Giuffrida, Alfredo Campennì
The endocrine system is interested by several autoimmune diseases, characterized by different impact and severity, according to the organs involved. Autoimmune thyroid disorders (i.e. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease) and type 1 diabetes mellitus are the most common autoimmune endocrine disorders, while hypophysitis, adrenalitis (90% of cases of primary hypocortisolism or Addison's disease), premature ovarian failure and hypoparathyroidism represent quite rare conditions. Autoimmune endocrine diseases can also coexist in the same individuals and cluster in families...
October 9, 2017: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990428/retrospective-review-of-comorbid-conditions-in-a-multidisciplinary-pediatric-weight-management-clinic
#8
Christine Thang, Margaret Whitley, Nilufar Izadpanah, Daniel DeUgarte, Wendy Slusser
A retrospective medical chart review was conducted of patients enrolled in the Fit for Healthy Weight Clinic (Fit Clinic). At initial evaluation, comorbidities were identified by the patient and pediatrician. The number of comorbidities increased with age among patients. In reviewing the differences among the number of identified comorbidities among grade school age and adolescent patients, increases of 30% were observed in gastrointestinal-associated, 23% in psychiatric, 18% in endocrine, 16% in cardiovascular, and 14% in respiratory comorbidities...
October 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989569/clinical-profile-of-diabetes-at-diagnosis-among-children-and-adolescents-at-an-endocrine-clinic-in-ghana
#9
Emmanuel Ameyaw, Serwah B Asafo-Agyei, Sumithira Thavapalan, Angela C Middlehurst, Graham D Ogle
AIM: To determine the clinical features of diabetes in children and adolescents in Ghana. METHODS: Retrospective review of clinical features of all children and adolescents with new-onset diabetes seen at the paediatric endocrinology clinic of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, from February 2012 to Auguest 2016. RESULTS: One hundred and six subjects presented with diabetes. Ninety (84.9%) were diagnosed by clinical features and family history as type 1, and 16 (15...
September 15, 2017: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989027/hyperglycemic-condition-during-puberty-increases-collagen-fibers-deposition-in-the-prostatic-stroma-and-reduces-mmp-2-activity
#10
Sérgio Alexandre Alcantara Dos Santos, Elaine Manoela Porto Amorim, Larissa Mayume Ribeiro, Jaqueline Carvalho Rinaldi, Flávia Karina Delella, Luis Antonio Justulin, Sérgio Luis Felisbino
Puberty is an important period for the growth and maturation of the male reproductive system, and is also a critical window for endocrine or environmental interference. The physiological levels of circulating insulin and hyperglycemic control are important factors for a normal prostate growth. Hyperglycemia during puberty is reported to retard the growth of the prostate gland, with remarkable effects on the epithelial compartment. Here, we investigated the impact of hyperglycemia along with a simultaneous or late insulin replacement on the ventral prostate growth in rats during puberty, paying special attention to the deposition of collagen fibers and activities of gelatinase, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and -9 (MMP-9)...
October 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988715/self-transducible-bimodal-pdx1-foxp3-protein-lifts-insulin-secretion-and-curbs-autoimmunity-boosting-tregs-in-type-1-diabetic-mice
#11
Christina Amatya, Ilian A Radichev, Jacob Ellefson, Mark Williams, Alexei Y Savinov
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by massive destruction of insulin-producing β cells by autoreactive T lymphocytes, arising via defective immune tolerance. Therefore, effective anti-T1D therapeutics should combine autoimmunity-preventing and insulin production-restoring properties. We constructed a cell-permeable PDX1-FOXP3-TAT fusion protein (FP) composed of two transcription factors: forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), the master regulator of differentiation and functioning of self-tolerance-promoting Tregs, and pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX1), the crucial factor supporting β cell development and maintenance...
September 7, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986817/isobaric-labeling-based-lc-ms-ms-strategy-for-comprehensive-profiling-of-human-pancreatic-tissue-proteome
#12
Chih-Wei Liu, Qibin Zhang
The pancreas is an organ with both endocrine and exocrine functions, and various pathologies, such as pancreatic cancer and diabetes are associated with this organ. Owing to the limited pancreatic biopsy samples available for research, it is critical to make the best use of cadaveric pancreatic tissue for biomarker studies and mechanistic understanding of pancreas-related pathologies. Discovery-phase quantitative proteomics has attracted a lot of attention for its capabilities in large-scale protein identification and accurate protein quantification...
October 7, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986398/inhibition-of-cdk5-promotes-%C3%AE-cell-differentiation-from-ductal-progenitors
#13
Ka-Cheuk Liu, Gunter Leuckx, Daisuke Sakano, Philip A Seymour, Charlotte L Mattsson, Linn Rautio, Willem Staels, Yannick Verdonck, Palle Serup, Shoen Kume, Harry Heimberg, Olov Andersson
Inhibition of notch signalling is known to induce differentiation of endocrine cells in zebrafish and mouse. After performing an unbiased in vivo screen of ∼2200 small molecules in zebrafish we identified an inhibitor of Cdk5 (roscovitine), which potentiated formation of β-cells along the intra-pancreatic duct during concurrent inhibition of notch signalling. We confirmed and characterized the effect with a more selective Cdk5 inhibitor, (R)-DRF053, which specifically increased the number of duct-derived β-cells without affecting their proliferation...
October 6, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984256/neonatal-endocrine-labomas-pitfalls-and-challenges-in-reporting-neonatal-hormonal-reports
#14
Sachin Chittawar, Deep Dutta, Deepak Khandelwal, Rajiv Singla
This review highlights pitfalls and challenges in interpreting neonatal hormone reports. Pre-analytical errors contribute to nearly 50% of all errors. Modern chemiluminescence assay are more accurate, have lower risk of Hook's effect, but continue to have problems of assay interference. Liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy is gold standard for most hormone assays. Neonatal hypoglycemia diagnostic cut-offs are lower than adults. Random growth hormone testing is of value in diagnosing growth hormone deficiency in neonates...
September 15, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982812/identifying-patterns-of-non-communicable-diseases-in-developed-eastern-coastal-china-a-longitudinal-study-of-electronic-health-records-from-12-public-hospitals
#15
Dehua Yu, Jianwei Shi, Hanzhi Zhang, Zhaoxin Wang, Yuan Lu, Bin Zhang, Ying Pan, Bo Wang, Pengfei Sun
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have examined the spectrum and trends of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in inpatients in eastern coastal China, which is transforming from an industrial economy to a service-oriented economy and is the most economically developed region in the country. This study aimed to dynamically elucidate the spectrum and characteristics of severe NCDs in eastern coastal China by analysing patients' longitudinal electronic health records (EHRs). SETTING: To monitor the spectrum of NCDs dynamically, we extracted the EHR data from 12 general tertiary hospitals in eastern coastal China from 2003 to 2014...
October 5, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981239/-diabetes-care-pathways-and-the-diabetic-convention-in-2017
#16
V de Brouckère, L Plat
Diabetes is a chronic, pandemic disorder which has a growing impact on healthcare costs and leads to severe micro- and macro-vascular complications. In 2009, Belgium introduced " care trajectories " (CT), a program which allows multidisciplinary management of this disease. CT is built on a partnership between three parties: the patient (central to the concept), the general practitioner (GP) and the diabetologist. The GP is responsible for the medical management according to an individualized care plan. The specialist's task is to update the GPs' knowledge and to coach them...
2017: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979106/acute-strength-training-promotes-responses-in-whole-blood-circulating-levels-of-mir-146a-among-older-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#17
Gilberto Santos Morais Junior, Vinicius Carolino Souza, Wilcelly Machado-Silva, Adriane Dallanora Henriques, Andressa Melo Alves, Danilo Barbosa Morais, Otávio Toledo Nóbrega, Ciro José Brito, Roberto Jerônimo Dos Santos Silva
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) consists of a set of metabolic and endocrine disorders which evolve into deficiency in insulin action and hyperglycemia. Physical exercise is considered the main intervention to prevent and control T2DM. Literature has suggested that circulating microRNAs (miRs) help to understand responses to physical activity among diabetic patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the acute effect of two interventions (strength and cardiovascular) on the total, whole blood circulating concentrations of miR-126, miR-146a and miR-155 in older adults with and without T2DM...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978225/dual-role-of-nitric-oxide-in-regulating-the-response-of-%C3%AE-cells-to-dna-damage
#18
Bryndon J Oleson, John A Corbett
SIGNIFICANCE: Cytokines released in and around pancreatic islets during islet inflammation are believed to contribute to impaired β-cell function and β-cell death during the development of diabetes. Nitric oxide, produced by β-cells in response to cytokine exposure, controls many of the responses of β-cells during islet inflammation. Recent Advances. Although nitric oxide has been shown to inhibit insulin secretion and oxidative metabolism and induce DNA damage in β-cells, it also activates protective pathways that promote recovery of insulin secretion and oxidative metabolism and repair of damaged DNA...
October 5, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977592/cftr-influences-beta-cell-function-and-insulin-secretion-through-non-cell-autonomous-exocrine-derived-factors
#19
Xingshen Sun, Yaling Yi, Weiliang Xie, Bo Liang, Michael C Winter, Nan He, Xiaoming Liu, Meihui Luo, Yu Yang, Katie Larson Ode, Aliye Uc, Andrew W Norris, John F Engelhardt
Although β-cell dysfunction in cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to diabetes, the mechanism by which the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel influences islet insulin secretion remains debated. We investigated the CFTR-dependent islet-autonomous mechanisms affecting insulin secretion by using islets isolated from CFTR knockout ferrets. Total insulin content was lower in CF as compared with wild-type (WT) islets. Furthermore, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was impaired in perifused neonatal CF islets, with reduced first, second, and amplifying phase secretion...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975503/the-environmental-pollutant-polychlorinated-biphenyls-and-cardiovascular-disease-a-potential-target-for-antioxidant-nanotherapeutics
#20
REVIEW
Prachi Gupta, Brendan L Thompson, Banrida Wahlang, Carolyn T Jordan, J Zach Hilt, Bernhard Hennig, Thomas Dziubla
Despite production having stopped in the 1970s, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) represent persistent organic pollutants that continue to pose a serious human health risk. Exposure to PCBs has been linked to chronic inflammatory diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity, as well as hepatic disorders, endocrine dysfunction, neurological deficits, and many others. This is further complicated by the PCB's strong hydrophobicity, resulting in their ability to accumulate up the food chain and to be stored in fat deposits...
October 3, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
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