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gastrointestinal blending

Avnish Kumar Seth, Pawan Rawal, Ruchika Bagga, Priti Jain
Forty-four-year-old male with ulcerative colitis (UC) for 11 years reported frequent relapse despite daily sulfasalazine 4 g, azathioprine 125 mg, and rectal 5-aminosalicylic acid. Repeated use of corticosteroids led to cataract. At enrollment, he was passing eight stools a day with blood with a Mayo score of 9 (3+1+3+2). Stool was negative for ova/cysts/acid fast bacilli and Clostridium difficile toxin assay. Rectal biopsy showed cryptitis, crypt abscess, and crypt distortion with no inclusion bodies, and cytomegalovirus DNA was negative...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
Honglin Dong, Laura J Sargent, Yianna Chatzidiakou, Caroline Saunders, Laura Harkness, Nicolas Bordenave, Ian Rowland, Jeremy P E Spencer, Julie A Lovegrove
Dietary fibre has been shown to increase subjective satiating ratings. However data from human trials has produced mixed results, possibly due to different types of fibre which have diverse physicochemical properties and gastrointestinal transit behaviour. The aim of the study 1 was to investigate whether orange juice (OJ) with 5.5 g of added orange pomace fibre (OPF) was as satiating as whole orange (WO, chopped AND blended to a liquid form) compared with OJ. Study 2 was to evaluate the dose-dependent satiating effect of OPF delivered in an orange-flavoured beverage...
August 27, 2016: Appetite
Mesfin Yimam, Young-Chul Lee, Ping Jiao, Mei Hong, Jeong-Bum Nam, Lidia Brownell, Eujin Hyun, Qi Jia
BACKGROUND: Pain, one of the cardinal signs of inflammation, is the most common clinical manifestations of arthritis. Conventional pain relief therapy heavily relies on the use of prescription and over the counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as the first line of defense where their long-term usage causes deleterious gastrointestinal and cardiovascular-related side-effects. Hence, there is an equivocal need for evidence-based safer and efficacious alternatives from natural sources to overcome the most prominent and disabling symptoms of arthritis...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Research
Yvan Vandenplas, Silvia Salvatore
UNLABELLED: Over 50% of all infants present with one or more functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) during the first months of life. The literature on the effect of partially hydrolyzed formula (pHF) in the management of FGIDs was reviewed. There is insufficient evidence to recommend pHFs in regurgitation, although one study suggests that a thickened pHF may be more effective than antiregurgitation formulas with intact protein. No randomized clinical trials on pHFs in infants with colicky symptoms have been published...
2016: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Carlo Calabrese, Fernando Rizzello, Paolo Gionchetti, Andrea Calafiore, Nico Pagano, Luigia De Fazio, Maria Chiara Valerii, Elena Cavazza, Antonio Strillacci, Maria Cristina Comelli, Gilberto Poggioli, Massimo Campieri, Enzo Spisni
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder, and prophylactic colectomy has been shown to decrease the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC). Duodenal cancer and desmoids are now the leading causes of death in FAP. We evaluate whether 3 months of oral supplementation with a patented blend of phytoestrogens and indigestible insoluble fibers (ADI) help the management of FAP patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). In a prospective open label study, we enrolled 15 FAP patients with IPAA and duodenal polyps who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at baseline and after 3 months of treatment...
June 2016: Carcinogenesis
R López-Froilán, E Ramírez-Moreno, N S Podio, M L Pérez-Rodríguez, M Cámara, M V Baroni, D A Wunderlin, M C Sánchez-Mata
Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world, being a source of bioactive compounds as well as flavors. Hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, and carboxylic acids have been studied in the samples of instant coffee commercialized in Spain. The studies about contents of food components should be complemented with either in vitro or in vivo bioaccessibility studies to know the amount of food components effectively available for functions in the human body. In this sense, a widely used in vitro model has been applied to assess the potential intestinal absorption of phenolic compounds and organic acids...
June 15, 2016: Food & Function
Haritha Siddam, Niranjan G Kotla, Balaji Maddiboyina, Sima Singh, Omprakash Sunnapu, Anil Kumar, Dinesh Sharma
INTRODUCTION: Oral sustained release gastro retentive dosage forms offer several advantages for drugs having absorption from the upper gastrointestinal tract to improve the bioavailability of medications which have narrow absorption window. The aim of the study was to develop a floating bioadhesive drug delivery system exhibiting a unique combination of floatation and bioadhesion to prolong the residence in the stomach using atenolol as a model drug. METHODS: Prior to compression, polymeric blend(s) were evaluated for flow properties...
April 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
Mesfin Yimam, Young-Chul Lee, Breanna Moore, Ping Jiao, Mei Hong, Jeong-Bum Nam, Mi-Ran Kim, Tae-Woo Kim, Hyun-Jin Kim, Eu-Jin Hyun, Min Chu, Lidia Brownell, Qi Jia
BACKGROUND: Though, the initial etiologies of arthritis are multifactorial, clinically, patients share pain as the prime complaints. Present day pain relief therapeutics heavily relies on the use of prescription and over the counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as the first line of defense where their long-term usage causes gastrointestinal and cardiovascular-related side effects. Hence, the need for evidence-based safer and efficacious alternatives from natural sources to overcome the most prominent and disabling symptoms of arthritis is an overdue...
April 2016: Pharmacognosy Research
Pushkor Mukerji, Jason M Roper, Buffy Stahl, Amy B Smith, Frank Burns, Jessica Caverly Rae, Nicolas Yeung, Anna Lyra, Laura Svärd, Markku T Saarinen, Esa Alhoniemi, Alvin Ibarra, Arthur C Ouwehand
AB-LIFE(®) is a probiotic product consisting of equal parts of three strains of Lactobacillus plantarum (CECT 7527, 7528, and 7529) blended with inert excipients. Whole genome sequencing was performed on each of the three strains. Antibiotic resistance was evaluated by genomic mining for resistance genes, and assessment for transferability. No risk of transfer potential was identified for any antibiotic resistance genes in the three strains. AB-LIFE(®) was evaluated for potential subchronic oral toxicity in rats, with dosages of 300 and 1000 mg/kg BW/day (equivalent to 5...
June 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli, Adi Ratriyanto, Dagmar Jezierny, Nadja Sauer, Meike Eklund, Rainer Mosenthin
A study was carried out to investigate whether blends of betaine, organic acids and inulin may improve their efficacy to modulate intestinal bacterial populations in weaned pigs compared with the single application of these additives. Moreover, potential postprandial diurnal variations in ileal bacterial numbers were determined in piglets fed the control diet. Twenty-four piglets in two consecutive experiments received a wheat-barley-soybean meal control diet (Con) or the Con diet supplemented with betaine (BET; 0...
2009: Archives of Animal Nutrition
Vivek Gupta, Byeong-Hee Hwang, Nishit Doshi, Amrita Banerjee, Aaron C Anselmo, Samir Mitragotri
A major disadvantage associated with current diabetes therapy is dependence on injectables for long-term disease management. In addition to insulin, incretin hormone replacement therapies including exenatide have added a new class of drugs for Type-2 diabetes. Although efficacious, patient compliance with current diabetic therapy is poor due to requirement of injections, inability to cross the intestinal epithelium and instability in the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we report the efficacy of a mucoadhesive device in providing therapeutic concentrations of insulin and exenatide via oral administration...
June 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
P M Munyaka, N K Nandha, E Kiarie, C M Nyachoti, E Khafipour
The effects of a xylanase and β-glucanase (XB) blend (2,500 U of xylanase and 250 U of β-glucanase per kg of complete feed) on growth performance, nutrients utilization and digesta microbiota in broiler chickens were investigated. A total of 140 day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 7 replicate cages and fed experimental diets. Diets were based on either corn or wheat without or with supplemental XB. Performance was monitored weekly and excreta were collected from d 17 to 20 for nutrients digestibility and AMEn measurements...
March 2016: Poultry Science
Danièle Debruyne, Reynald Le Boisselier
New psychoactive drugs that have appeared over the last decade are typically dominated by cathinones and synthetic cannabinoids (SCs). SCs have been emerging as recreational drugs because they mimic the euphoria effect of cannabis while still being legal. Sprayed on natural herb mixtures, SCs have been primarily sold as "herbal smoking blends" or "herbal incense" under brand names like "Spice" or "K2". Currently, SCs pure compounds are available from websites for the combination with herbal materials or for the use in e-cigarettes...
2015: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
María Janeth Rodríguez-Roque, Begoña de Ancos, Rogelio Sánchez-Vega, Concepción Sánchez-Moreno, M Pilar Cano, Pedro Elez-Martínez, Olga Martín-Belloso
The biological activity of carotenoids depends on their bioaccessibility and solubilization in the gastrointestinal tract. These compounds are poorly dispersed in the aqueous media of the digestive tract due to their lipophilic nature. Thus, it is important to analyze the extent to which some factors, such as the food matrix and food processing, may improve their bioaccessibility. Beverages formulated with a blend of fruit juices and water (WB), milk (MB) or soymilk (SB) were treated by high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) (35 kV cm(-1) with 4 μs bipolar pulses at 200 Hz for 1800 μs), high-pressure processing (HPP) (400 MPa at 40 °C for 5 min) or thermal treatment (TT) (90 °C for 1 min) in order to evaluate the influence of food matrix and processing on the bioaccessibility of carotenoids and on the lipophilic antioxidant activity (LAA)...
January 2016: Food & Function
Thomas Borody, Monika Fischer, Scott Mitchell, Jordana Campbell
At its height, the Clostridium difficile infection epidemic caused approximately 7000 infections and 300 deaths per day in the USA. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has demonstrated extraordinary clinical resolution, C. difficile infection cure rates of over 90%, and low recurrence. In tandem with the rise of FMT, the gastrointestinal microbiome has emerged as a 'vital' organ armed with a wealth of microbe 'soldiers' more powerful than known antibiotics. FMTs' reputation has diffused into many new 'indications' yet these appear to be merely the tip of the iceberg when considering its potential applications...
2015: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Jonghwan Lee, Choon Hyuck David Kwon, Jong Man Kim, Milljae Shin, Jae-Won Joh
BACKGROUNDS/AIMS: To evaluate the effect of early enteral nutrition after hepatectomy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients on postoperative gastrointestinal motility recovery and admission days, liver function and nutrition recovery, and postoperative complication. METHODS: From August 2010 to July 2011, 102 patients with primary HCC underwent hepatectomy. Forty two patients took a sip of water (SOW) at postoperative day (POD)#1, soft blended diet (SBD) at POD#2 (early diet group, ED group), otherwise 60 patients took a SOW at POD#3, SBD at POD#4 (conventional diet group, CD group)...
November 2012: Korean Journal of Hepato-biliary-pancreatic Surgery
Alejandra Ramirez-Hernandez, John Rupnow, Robert W Hutkins
Campylobacter infections are a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and are a major cause of diarrheal disease throughout the world. Colonization and subsequent infection and invasion of Campylobacter require that the bacteria adhere to the surface of host cells. Agents that inhibit adherence could be used prophylactically to reduce Campylobacter carriage and infection. Mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) have been used as a feed supplement in livestock animals to improve performance and to replace growth-promoting antibiotics...
August 2015: Journal of Food Protection
M S Nieto-Bobadilla, F Siepmann, M Djouina, L Dubuquoy, N Tesse, J-F Willart, L Dubreuil, J Siepmann, C Neut
Coated pellets and mini-tablets were prepared containing a new broad spectrum antibacterial agent: CIN-102, a well-defined, synergistic blend of trans-cinnamaldehyde, trans-2-methoxycinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl acetate, linalool, β-caryophyllene, cineol and benzyl benzoate. The aim was to provide a new treatment method for colitis, especially for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) patients. Since the simple oral gavage of CIN-102 was not able to reduce the pathogenic bacteria involved in colitis (rat model), the drug was incorporated into multiparticulates...
October 2015: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Feng Zhang
The purpose of this study is to characterize the properties of Eudragit® FS-based granules prepared using melt extrusion process for colonic drug delivery. 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), theophylline, and diclofenac sodium were used as the model compounds. Drug and polymer blends were melt-extruded into thin rods using a single screw extruder. Drugs were found to be dispersed as crystalline particles in the granules. A hammer mill was used to reduce the extrudate into 16-40 mesh granules, which were mixed with lactose and filled into hard gelatin capsules...
February 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
Mesfin Yimam, Young-Chul Lee, Tae-Woo Kim, Breanna Moore, Ping Jiao, Mei Hong, Hyun-Jin Kim, Jeong-Bum Nam, Mi-Ran Kim, Jin-Sun Oh, Sabrina Cleveland, Eu-Jin Hyun, Min Chu, Qi Jia
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic debilitating degenerative joint disease characterized by cartilage degradation and synovial inflammation exhibited by clinical symptoms such as joint swelling, synovitis, and inflammatory pain. Present day pain relief therapeutics heavily relies on the use of prescription and over the counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as the first line of defense where their long-term usage causes detrimental gastrointestinal and cardiovascular-related side-effects...
June 2015: Pharmacognosy Research
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