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Bhiken I Naik, Douglas A Colquhoun, Isaac A Shields, Russell E Davenport, Marcel E Durieux, Randal S Blank
PURPOSE: Thoracic surgery requiring 1-lung ventilation (OLV) is associated with significant postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) due to patient- and surgery-specific risk factors. The aim of this study is to determine whether the oxygenation index (OI) (fraction of inspired oxygen × mean airway pressure/partial pressure of oxygen) during OLV predicts the development of PPC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons General Thoracic Surgery Database at the University of Virginia was used to identify all thoracic cases in 2012 to 2014...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
Qingming Bian, Lianbing Gu, Zeping Xu, Pengyi Li, Yanning Qian, Dongya Zhu
Objective To investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine on lung injury and the expressions of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor κB p65 (NF-κB p65) and intercellular adhesion molecular 1 (ICAM-1) mRNA during one-lung ventilation (OLV) in rabbits. Methods Thirty healthy New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups ( n=10 in each group): two-lung ventilation (TLV) group (group T), OLV group (group O), dexmedetomidine used during OLV group (group D-O). The rabbits in group T were treated with TLV for 3...
September 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Yu Hong, Hai-Feng Li, Geir Olve Skeie, Fredrik Romi, Hong-Jun Hao, Xu Zhang, Xiang Gao, Jone Furlund Owe, Nils Erik Gilhus
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder with heterogeneity. Antibodies against acetylcholine receptor (AChR), muscle-specific kinase (MuSK), titin and ryanodine receptor (RyR) were examined in 437 adult Chinese MG patients. The AChR, MuSK, titin and RyR antibodies were found in 82.2%, 2.3%, 28.4% and 23.8% of all patients. Autoantibody profiles vary among different MG subgroups. Thymoma MG patients had high frequencies of AChR (99.2%), titin (50.8%) and RyR antibodies (46.9%). The titin and RyR antibodies also showed high frequencies in late onset patients (54...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Kyu Nam Kim, Dong Won Kim, Mi Ae Jeong, Yeong Hun Sin, Soo Kyung Lee
BACKGROUND: Not only arterial hypoxemia but acute lung injury also has become the major concerns of one-lung ventilation (OLV). The use of pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) for OLV offers the potential advantages of lower airway pressure and intrapulmonary shunt, which result in a reduced risk of barotrauma and improved oxygenation, respectively. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, the Cochrane central register of controlled trials and KoreaMedto find publications comparing the effects of PCV with those of volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) during intraoperative OLV in adults...
August 31, 2016: BMC Anesthesiology
Linda Møllersen, Olve Moldestad, Alexander D Rowe, Anja Bjølgerud, Ingunn Holm, Linda Tveterås, Arne Klungland, Lars Retterstøl
BACKGROUND: Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by CAG repeat expansions in the HTT gene. Somatic repeat expansion in the R6/1 mouse model of HD depends on mismatch repair and is worsened by base excision repair initiated by the 7,8-dihydroxy-8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase (Ogg1) or Nei-like 1 (Neil1). Ogg1 and Neil1 repairs common oxidative lesions. METHODS: We investigated whether anthocyanin antioxidants added daily to the drinking water could affect CAG repeat instability in several organs and behaviour in R6/1 HD mice...
2016: PLoS Currents
Hai-Feng Li, Yu Hong, Xu Zhang, Yanchen Xie, Geir Olve Skeie, Hong-Jun Hao, Nils Erik Gilhus, Bing Liang, Yao-Xian Yue, Xian-Jun Zhang, Xiang Gao, Qi Wang, Zhe Gao, Xiao-Jun Ding, Min Song
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an antibody-mediated autoimmune disease against antigens at the neuromuscular junction. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the susceptibility of MG. We undertook a case-control study to explore the contribution of genes of the auto-antigen and immune-modulating proteins in the pathogenesis of MG. We enrolled 389 adult MG patients and 487 healthy controls. Eighteen SNPs were selected from genes of cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 1 (CHRNA1), autoimmune regulator (AIRE), cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22), and interleukin-10 (IL-10)...
August 8, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Izumi Kawagoe, Tsukasa Kohchiyama, Masakazu Hayashida, Daizoh Satoh, Kenji Suzuki, Eiichi Inada
A 60-year-old male patient with left hilar lung cancer was scheduled to undergo left pneumonectomy or left sleeve lower lobectomy. Preoperative computer tomographic and bronchoscopic examinations revealed that the bronchus (B1) to the right apical segment (S1) was a tracheal bronchus (TB) originating from the trachea approximately 10 mm above the carina. Because the left main bronchus was to be dissected, a right-sided double-lumen tube (DLT) was selected to completely protect the right lung from spillage of secretions or cancer cells from the left lung...
June 2016: Masui. the Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology
Ze-Ping Xu, Lian-Bing Gu, Qing-Ming Bian, Peng-Yi Li, Li-Jun Wang, Xiao-Xiang Chen, Jing-Yuan Zhang
There is no standard method by which to establish a right one-lung ventilation (OLV) model in rabbits. In the present study, a novel method is proposed to compare with two other methods. After 0.5 h of baseline two-lung ventilation (TLV), 40 rabbits were randomly divided into sham group (TLV for 3 h as a contrast) and three right-OLV groups (right OLV for 3 h with different methods): Deep intubation group, clamp group and blocker group (deeply intubate the self-made bronchial blocker into the left main bronchus, the novel method)...
August 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Brian J Kempf, Olve B Peersen, David J Barton
UNLABELLED: RNA recombination is important in the formation of picornavirus species groups and the ongoing evolution of viruses within species groups. In this study, we examined the structure and function of poliovirus polymerase, 3D(pol), as it relates to RNA recombination. Recombination occurs when nascent RNA products exchange one viral RNA template for another during RNA replication. Because recombination is a natural aspect of picornavirus replication, we hypothesized that some features of 3D(pol) may exist, in part, to facilitate RNA recombination...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Junji Egawa, Satoki Inoue, Tadashi Nishiwada, Takashi Tojo, Michitaka Kimura, Takeshi Kawaguchi, Shigeki Taniguchi, Hitoshi Furuya, Masahiko Kawaguchi
PURPOSE: One-lung ventilation (OLV) may impair cerebral oxygen balance and induce postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). It is unclear whether the type of anesthetic influences the incidence of POCD in patients undergoing OLV. This prospective study compared the incidence of POCD and intraoperative cerebral oxygen desaturation in OLV patients anesthetized with propofol vs sevoflurane during lung surgery. METHODS: There were 148 participants enrolled in this study and randomized equally to either the propofol or the sevoflurane group...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Nina Svensen, Olve B Peersen, Samie R Jaffrey
Methods for displaying large numbers of peptides on solid surfaces are essential for high-throughput characterization of peptide function and binding properties. Here we describe a method for converting the >10(7) flow cell-bound clusters of identical DNA strands generated by the Illumina DNA sequencing technology into clusters of complementary RNA, and subsequently peptide clusters. We modified the flow-cell-bound primers with ribonucleotides thus enabling them to be used by poliovirus polymerase 3D(pol) ...
September 2, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Jonathan P Karr, Olve B Peersen
The RNA-dependent RNA polymerases from positive-strand RNA viruses, such as picornaviruses and flaviviruses, close their active sites for catalysis via a unique NTP-induced conformational change in the palm domain. Combined with a fully prepositioned templating nucleotide, this mechanism is error-prone and results in a distribution of random mutations in the viral progeny often described as a quasi-species. Here we examine the extent to which noncognate NTPs competitively inhibit single-cycle elongation by coxsackievirus B3 3D(pol), a polymerase that generates three to four mutations per 10 kb of RNA synthesized during viral infection...
July 19, 2016: Biochemistry
Chunshan Dong, Junma Yu, Qi Liu, Chao Wu, Yao Lu
Deterioration of gas exchange during one-lung ventilation (OLV) is caused by both total collapse of the nondependent lung and partial collapse of the dependent lung. Alveolar recruitment maneuver improves lung function during general anesthesia. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is an indirect relationship between the changes of CO2 expirogram and the selective lung recruitment. To further improve the oxygenation and gas exchange, we compare adjust setting of ventilated parameters based on CO2 expirogram and a preset setting of ventilated parameters during OLV in patients undergoing right-side thoracic surgery...
June 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Nicole R Sexton, Everett Clinton Smith, Hervé Blanc, Marco Vignuzzi, Olve B Peersen, Mark R Denison
UNLABELLED: Positive-sense RNA viruses encode RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps) essential for genomic replication. With the exception of the large nidoviruses, such as coronaviruses (CoVs), RNA viruses lack proofreading and thus are dependent on RdRps to control nucleotide selectivity and fidelity. CoVs encode a proofreading exonuclease in nonstructural protein 14 (nsp14-ExoN), which confers a greater-than-10-fold increase in fidelity compared to other RNA viruses. It is unknown to what extent the CoV polymerase (nsp12-RdRp) participates in replication fidelity...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
Chang-Hoon Koo, Yoo Sun Jung, Yong-Hun Lee, Hyun-Chang Kim, Jae-Hyon Bahk, Jeong-Hwa Seo
During one-lung ventilation (OLV) in the lateral position, the dependent, ventilated lung receives more blood flow than the non-dependent, non-ventilated lung owing to gravity, improving the match of ventilation and perfusion. Conversely, in the rare clinical situations when OLV is applied to the non-dependent lung, arterial oxygenation can get worse due to considerable shunt flow to the dependent non-ventilated lung. We report a case of severe hypoxemia during carinal resection under OLV of a non-dependent lung...
June 2016: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
Yong Feng, Jianyue Wang, Yang Zhang, Shiduan Wang
BACKGROUND To investigate the protective effects of additional ipsilateral ventilation of low tidal volume and high frequency on lung functions in the patients receiving lobectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS Sixty patients receiving lung lobectomy were randomized into the conventional one-lung ventilation (CV) group (n=30) and the ipsilateral low tidal volume high frequency ventilation (LV) group (n=30). In the CV group, patients received only contralateral OLV. In the LV group, patients received contralateral ventilation and additional ipsilateral ventilation of low tidal volume of 1-2 ml/kg and high frequency of 40 times/min...
2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Kentaro Tojo, Takahisa Goto, Kiyoyasu Kurahashi
BACKGROUND: The use of one-lung ventilation (OLV) to facilitate intrathoracic surgery is a cause of lung injury. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesised that application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to a nonventilated lung during OLV would prevent alveolar hypoxia and blood flow shift from the nonventilated to the ventilated lung, thereby attenuating lung injury. DESIGN: Controlled animal study. SETTINGS: University laboratory...
October 2016: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Jean S Bussières, Jacques Somma, José Luis Carrasco Del Castillo, Jérôme Lemieux, Massimo Conti, Paula A Ugalde, Nathalie Gagné, Yves Lacasse
INTRODUCTION: Double-lumen endotracheal tubes (DL-ETT) and bronchial blockers (BB) have both been used for lung isolation in video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). Though not well studied, it is widely thought that a DL-ETT provides faster and better quality lung collapse. The aim of this study was to compare a BB technique vs a left-sided DL-ETT strategy with regard to the time and quality of lung collapse during one-lung ventilation (OLV) for elective VATS. METHODS: Forty patients requiring OLV for VATS were randomized to receive a BB (n = 20) or a left-sided DL-ETT (n = 20)...
July 2016: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Seth McDonald, Andrew Block, Stéphanie Beaucourt, Gonzalo Moratorio, Marco Vignuzzi, Olve B Peersen
Positive strand RNA viruses replicate via a virally encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) that uses a unique palm domain active site closure mechanism to establish the canonical two-metal geometry needed for catalysis. This mechanism allows these viruses to evolutionarily fine-tune their replication fidelity to create an appropriate distribution of genetic variants known as a quasispecies. Prior work has shown that mutations in conserved motif A drastically alter RdRP fidelity, which can be either increased or decreased depending on the viral polymerase background...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Nils Erik Gilhus, Geir Olve Skeie, Fredrik Romi, Konstantinos Lazaridis, Paraskevi Zisimopoulou, Socrates Tzartos
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder caused by autoantibodies that target the neuromuscular junction, leading to muscle weakness and fatigability. Currently available treatments for the disease include symptomatic pharmacological treatment, immunomodulatory drugs, plasma exchange, thymectomy and supportive therapies. Different autoantibody patterns and clinical manifestations characterize different subgroups of the disease: early-onset MG, late-onset MG, thymoma MG, muscle-specific kinase MG, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 MG, seronegative MG, and ocular MG...
May 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
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