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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471387/heavy-cannabis-use-associated-with-reduction-in-activated-and-inflammatory-immune-cell-frequencies-in-antiretroviral-therapy-treated-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-individuals
#1
Jennifer A Manuzak, Toni M Gott, Jay S Kirkwood, Ernesto Coronado, Tiffany Hensley-McBain, Charlene Miller, Ryan K Cheu, Ann C Collier, Nicholas T Funderburg, Jeffery N Martin, Michael C Wu, Nina Isoherranen, Peter W Hunt, Nichole R Klatt
Background: Cannabis is a widely used drug in the United States, and the frequency of cannabis use in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population is disproportionately high. Previous human and macaque studies suggest that cannabis may have an impact on plasma viral load; however, the relationship between cannabis use and HIV-associated systemic inflammation and immune activation has not been well defined. Methods: The impact of cannabis use on peripheral immune cell frequency, activation, and function was assessed in 198 HIV-infected, antiretroviral-treated individuals by flow cytometry...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471282/aunps-cnos-swcnts-chitosan-nanocomposite-modified-electrochemical-sensor-for-the-label-free-detection-of-carcinoembryonic-antigen
#2
Mohammad Rizwan, Syazwani Elma, Syazana Abdullah Lim, Minhaz Uddin Ahmed
In this work, a nanocomposite of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), carbon nano-onions (CNOs), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and chitosan (CS) (AuNPs/CNOs/SWCNTs/CS) was prepared for the development of highly sensitive electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), clinical tumor marker. Firstly, layer-by-layer fabrication of the CEA-immunosensors was studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). By combining the advantages of large surface area and electronic properties of AuNPs, CNOs, SWCNTs, and film forming properties of CS, AuNPs/CNOs/SWCNTs/CS-nanocomposite-modified glassy carbon electrode showed a 200% increase in effective surface area and electronic conductivity...
February 14, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470191/characterization-of-postinfusion-phenotypic-differences-in-fresh-versus-cryopreserved-tcr-engineered-adoptive-cell-therapy-products
#3
Theodore S Nowicki, Helena Escuin-Ordinas, Earl Avramis, Bartosz Chmielowski, Thinle Chodon, Beata Berent-Maoz, Xiaoyan Wang, Paula Kaplan-Lefko, Lili Yang, David Baltimore, James S Economou, Antoni Ribas, Begoña Comin-Anduix
Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) consisting of genetically engineered T cells expressing tumor antigen-specific T-cell receptors displays robust initial antitumor activity, followed by loss of T-cell activity/persistence and frequent disease relapse. We characterized baseline and longitudinal T-cell phenotype variations resulting from different manufacturing and administration protocols in patients who received ACT. Patients with melanoma who enrolled in the F5-MART-1 clinical trial (NCT00910650) received infusions of MART-1 T-cell receptors transgenic T cells with MART-1 peptide-pulsed dendritic cell vaccination...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468827/exploration-of-antigen-induced-caco-3-nanoparticles-for-therapeutic-vaccine
#4
Shuang Wang, Dezhi Ni, Hua Yue, Nana Luo, Xiaobo Xi, Yugang Wang, Min Shi, Wei Wei, Guanghui Ma
Therapeutic vaccines possess particular advantages and show promising potential to combat burdening diseases, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, hepatitis, and even cancers. An efficient therapeutic vaccine would strengthen the immune system and eventually eliminate target cells through cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Unfortunately, insufficient efficacy in triggering such an adaptive immune response is a problem that remains unsolved. To achieve efficient cellular immunity, antigen-presenting cells must capture and further cross-present disease-associated antigens to CD8 T cells via major histocompatibility complex I molecules...
February 22, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468660/spatiotemporal-homogeneity-and-distinctness-of-the-t-cell-receptor-%C3%AE-chain-repertoires-in-epstein-barr-virus-associated-primary-and-metastatic-nasopharyngeal-carcinomas
#5
Yih-Lin Chung, Mei-Ling Wu
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoepithelioma. The aim of the present study was to characterize the homogeneity and distinctness of the T-cell repertoires within and between primary and metastatic NPCs. We used ultra-deep sequencing of the hypervariably rearranged antigen-binding CDR3 regions of T-cell receptor beta (TCRbeta ) to comprehensively profile the T-cell repertoires in NPC patients receiving definitive chemoradiotherapy with long-term follow-up. We observed not only various spatially heterogeneous patient-specific TCRbeta clone compositions that changed with time but also several commonly enriched TCRbeta subclones that were constantly shared between primary NPCs in the head and neck regions, locally recurrent tumors after treatment, and later-developed distant metastatic tumors in the liver, lung and bone...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468545/immunohistochemical-detection-of-retinoblastoma-protein-phosphorylation-in-human-tumor-samples
#6
Jaileene Pérez-Morales, Angel Núñez-Marrero, Pedro G Santiago-Cardona
The retinoblastoma protein (pRb) is an important tumor suppressor and cell cycle repressor. pRb is a phosphoprotein whose function is regulated primarily at the level of phosphorylation, and therefore, detecting pRb's phosphorylation status in human tissue samples can be clinically informative. Unfortunately, detection of phosphorylated pRb residues can be technically challenging, as these residues can often be weak antigens. In this chapter, we describe an enhanced sensitivity immunohistochemistry protocol for the staining of phosphorylated serine 249 in pRb, in human lung tumor samples...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467882/primary-pulmonary-intravascular-large-b-cell-lymphoma-a-report-of-three-cases-and-literature-review
#7
Yingwei Zhang, Lintao Bi, Yuying Qiu, Tingting Zhao, Mengshu Cao, Jingjing Ding, Fanqing Meng, Hourong Cai
The present study aimed to investigate the clinicopathological features of primary intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) of the lung. The clinical and histopathological data of three patients, and the literature was reviewed. The Ethics Committees of Drum Tower Hospital approved the current study based on the three cases. Fever and respiratory symptoms were the main presenting symptoms. Serum lactate dehydrogenase and C-reactive protein were significantly increased. Diffuse ground glass opacities or nodular consolidations were seen on high resolution computed tomography...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467878/parthenolide-facilitates-apoptosis-and-reverses-drug-resistance-of-human-gastric-carcinoma-cells-by-inhibiting-the-stat3-signaling-pathway
#8
Hua Li, Hang Lu, Meng Lv, Qingsheng Wang, Yuping Sun
In the present study, SGC-7901/DDP cells were treated with different concentrations of parthenolide (PN) (2.5-15 µmol/l), cisplatin (DDP) (1.25-15 µg/ml) and PN+DDP. The proliferation inhibition rates were measured using an MTT assay, and the synergies of PN and DDP were analyzed. The effect of PN and DDP on SGC-7901/DDP cell proliferation demonstrated a time- and concentration-dependent association, and a synergy between PN and DDP was identified. DAPI staining and flow cytometry results indicated that 15 µmol/l PN significantly induced SGC-7901/DDP apoptosis and G1 phase arrest compared with the untreated control group...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467871/abnormal-expression-of-circulating-and-tumor-infiltrating-carcinoembryonic-antigen-related-cell-adhesion-molecule-1-in-patients-with-glioma
#9
Jinhu Li, Xiaodong Liu, Yijun Duan, Hongqin Wang, Wen Su, Yazhou Wang, Guotao Zhuang, Yimin Fan
Glioma, the most prevalent primary tumor of the central nervous system, is known to evade immune surveillance and escape immune attacks by inducing immunosuppression. The homophilic interactions of the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) serve a critical function in immunoregulation. In the present study, the expression levels of CEACAM1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) from patients with gliomas were assessed. Furthermore, associations between CEACAM1 expression and multiple clinicopathological characteristics in patients with gliomas were analyzed...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467463/bifunctional-immune-checkpoint-targeted-antibody-ligand-traps-that-simultaneously-disable-tgf%C3%AE-enhance-the-efficacy-of-cancer-immunotherapy
#10
Rajani Ravi, Kimberly A Noonan, Vui Pham, Rishi Bedi, Alex Zhavoronkov, Ivan V Ozerov, Eugene Makarev, Artem V Artemov, Piotr T Wysocki, Ranee Mehra, Sridhar Nimmagadda, Luigi Marchionni, David Sidransky, Ivan M Borrello, Evgeny Izumchenko, Atul Bedi
A majority of cancers fail to respond to immunotherapy with antibodies targeting immune checkpoints, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) or programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-1 ligand (PD-L1). Cancers frequently express transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), which drives immune dysfunction in the tumor microenvironment by inducing regulatory T cells (Tregs) and inhibiting CD8+ and TH 1 cells. To address this therapeutic challenge, we invent bifunctional antibody-ligand traps (Y-traps) comprising an antibody targeting CTLA-4 or PD-L1 fused to a TGFβ receptor II ectodomain sequence that simultaneously disables autocrine/paracrine TGFβ in the target cell microenvironment (a-CTLA4-TGFβRIIecd and a-PDL1-TGFβRIIecd)...
February 21, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467338/tcr-mimic-bispecific-antibodies-targeting-lmp2a-show-potent-activity-against-ebv-malignancies
#11
Mahiuddin Ahmed, Andres Lopez-Albaitero, Dmitry Pankov, Brian H Santich, Hong Liu, Su Yan, Jingyi Xiang, Pei Wang, Aisha N Hasan, Annamalai Selvakumar, Richard J O'Reilly, Cheng Liu, Nai-Kong V Cheung
EBV infection is associated with a number of malignancies of clinical unmet need, including Hodgkin lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric cancer, and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD), all of which express the EBV protein latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A), an antigen that is difficult to target by conventional antibody approaches. To overcome this, we utilized phage display technology and a structure-guided selection strategy to generate human T cell receptor-like (TCR-like) monoclonal antibodies with exquisite specificity for the LMP2A-derived nonamer peptide, C426LGGLLTMV434 (CLG), as presented on HLA-A*02:01...
February 22, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467311/epstein-barr-virus-nuclear-antigen-leader-protein-co-activates-ep300
#12
Chong Wang, Hufeng Zhou, Yong Xue, Jun Liang, Yohei Narita, Catherine Gerdt, Amy Y Zheng, Runsheng Jiang, Stephen Trudeau, Chih-Wen Peng, Benjamin Gewurz, Bo Zhao
Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen (EBNA) leader protein (EBNALP) is one of the first viral genes expressed upon B-cell infection. EBNALP is essential for EBV-mediated B cell immortalization. EBNALP is thought to function primarily by co-activaing EBNA2-mediated transcription. Chromatin immune precipitation followed by deep-sequencing (ChIP-seq) studies highlight that EBNALP frequently co-occupies DNA sites with host cell transcription factors (TFs), in particular EP300, implicating a broader role in transcription regulation...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466990/targeting-her2-breast-tumors-with-scfv-decorated-bimodal-nanoprobes
#13
Christophe Alric, Katel Hervé-Aubert, Nicolas Aubrey, Souad Melouk, Laurie Lajoie, William Même, Sandra Même, Yann Courbebaisse, Anastasia A Ignatova, Alexey V Feofanov, Igor Chourpa, Emilie Allard-Vannier
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in nanomedicine have shown the great interest of active targeting associated to nanoparticles. Single chain variable fragments (scFv) of disease-specific antibodies are very promising targeting entities because they are small, not immunogenic and able to bind their specific antigens. The present paper is devoted to biological properties in vitro and in vivo of fluorescent and pegylated iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs-Cy-PEG-scFv) functionalized with scFv targeting Human Epithelial growth Receptor 2 (HER2)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466971/perioperative-dynamics-and-significance-of-plasma-free-amino-acid-profiles-in-colorectal-cancer
#14
Kayoko Katayama, Akio Higuchi, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Atsuko Ikeda, Shinya Kikuchi, Manabu Shiozawa
BACKGROUND: For early detection of cancer, we have previously developed the AminoIndex Cancer Screening (AICS) system, which quantifies 6 plasma-free amino acids (PFAAs) in blood samples. Herein, we examined the usefulness of the AICS in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) by comparing the preoperative and postoperative PFAA profiles. METHODS: Our study cohort consisted of 62 patients who had undergone curative resection for CRC at our cancer center, with no recurrence at the time of the study...
February 21, 2018: BMC Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466753/human-t-cell-development-localization-and-function-throughout-life
#15
REVIEW
Brahma V Kumar, Thomas J Connors, Donna L Farber
Throughout life, T cells coordinate multiple aspects of adaptive immunity, including responses to pathogens, allergens, and tumors. In mouse models, the role of T cells is studied in the context of a specific type of pathogen, antigen, or disease condition over a limited time frame, whereas in humans, T cells control multiple insults simultaneously throughout the body and maintain immune homeostasis over decades. In this review, we discuss how human T cells develop and provide essential immune protection at different life stages and highlight tissue localization and subset delineation as key determinants of the T cell functional role in immune responses...
February 20, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466034/astragalus-saponins-and-liposome-constitute-an-efficacious-adjuvant-formulation-for-cancer-vaccines
#16
Xiao-Ping Zhang, Ying-Dong Li, Lu-Lu Luo, Yong-Qi Liu, Yang Li, Chao Guo, Zhen-Dong Li, Xiao-Rong Xie, Hai-Xia Song, Li-Ping Yang, Shao-Bo Sun, Fang-Yu An
Cancer vaccines mostly aim to induce cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) against tumors. An appropriate adjuvant is of fundamental importance for inducing cellular immune response. Since the antigen in particulate form is substantially more immunogenic than soluble form antigen, it is beneficial to interact with antigen-presenting cells membrane to induce robust CD8+ T cell activation following vaccination. Based on previous research, we designed an adjuvant formulation by combining Astragalus saponins, cholesterol, and liposome to incorporate antigen into a particulate delivery system, so as to enhance cellular immune response...
February 2018: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465830/toll-like-receptor-3-signal-augments-radiation-induced-tumor-growth-retardation-in-a-murine-model
#17
Sumito Yoshida, Hiroaki Shime, Yohei Takeda, Jin-Min Nam, Ken Takashima, Misako Matsumoto, Hiroki Shirato, Masanori Kasahara, Tsukasa Seya
Radiotherapy induces anti-tumor immunity by induction of tumor antigens and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). DNA, a representative DAMP in radiotherapy, activates the STING pathway which enhances the immune response. However, the immune response does not always parallel the inflammation associated with radiotherapy. This lack of correspondence may in part explain the radiation-resistance of tumors. Additive immunotherapy is expected to revive tumor-specific CTLs facilitating radiation-resistant tumor shrinkage...
February 21, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465790/forkhead-box-c2-promotes-the-invasion-ability-of-human-trophoblast-cells-through-hedgehog-hh-signaling-pathway
#18
Yuhong Zhang, Yangjia Zhang
Embryonic development depends on the normal invasion of trophoblast cells. Forkhead box C2 (FOXC2) is a member of Forkhead box family, which is involved in the tumor cells invasion. The aim of this study was to explore the roles of FOXC2 on the invasion of human trophoblast cells, and further study its molecular mechanism. The mRNA and protein levels of FOXC2 in human normal trophoblast and choriocarcinoma cell lines were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot assays, respectively...
February 21, 2018: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465612/patient-with-2-hematologic-malignancies-presenting-as-neurolymphomatosis
#19
Ahmad Daher, Carlos Kamiya-Matsuoka, Karin Woodman
Peripheral nervous system damage from hematologic malignancies is related to neoplastic cells infiltration of peripheral nerves or to monoclonal antibody production cross-reacting with peripheral nerves' antigens. Neurolymphomatosis (NL), a rare manifestation of hematologic malignancies, occurs when malignant cells invade the peripheral nerves leading to various manifestations. Here, we report a case of NL with 2 hematologic malignancies in a 79-year-old woman presenting with lower extremity pain/weakness. Investigation revealed anemia, IgM kappa monoclonal gammopathy, and elevated anti-MAG titer...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464699/immune-checkpoint-blockade-combined-with-il-6-and-tgf-%C3%AE-inhibition-improves-the-therapeutic-outcome-of-mrna-based-immunotherapy
#20
Lukasz Bialkowski, Kevin Van der Jeught, Sanne Bevers, Patrick Tjok Joe, Dries Renmans, Carlo Heirman, Joeri L Aerts, Kris Thielemans
Improved understanding of cancer immunology has provided insight into the phenomenon of frequent tumor recurrence after initially successful immunotherapy. A delicate balance exists between the capacity of the immune system to control tumor growth and various resistance mechanisms that arise to avoid or even counteract the host's immune system. These resistance mechanisms include, but are not limited to (1) adaptive expression of inhibitory checkpoint molecules in response to the pro-inflammatory environment and (2) amplification of cancer stem cells, a small fraction of tumor cells possessing the capacity for self-renewal and mediating treatment resistance and formation of metastases after long periods of clinical remission...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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