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Enterosalivary pathway

Bárbara S Rocha, Mariana G Correia, Rita C Fernandes, João S Gonçalves, João Laranjinha
The clinical implications of the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway have been extensively studied in recent years. However, the physiological impact of bioactive nitrogen oxides produced from dietary nitrate has remained largely elusive. Here, we report a hitherto unrecognized nitrite-dependent nitrating pathway that targets tight junction proteins in the stomach. Inorganic nitrate, nitrite or saliva obtained after the consumption of lettuce were administered by oral gavage to Wistar rats. The enterosalivary circulation of nitrate was allowed to occur for 4 h after which the animals were euthanized and the stomach collected...
October 11, 2016: Free Radical Research
Andrew R Coggan, Linda R Peterson
Heart failure (HF) patients suffer from exercise intolerance that diminishes their ability to perform normal activities of daily living and hence compromises their quality of life. This is due largely to detrimental changes in skeletal muscle mass, structure, metabolism, and function. This includes an impairment of muscle contractile performance, i.e., a decline in the maximal force, speed, and power of muscle shortening. Although numerous mechanisms underlie this reduction in contractility, one contributing factor may be a decrease in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability...
August 2016: Current Heart Failure Reports
Catherine P Bondonno, Alex H Liu, Kevin D Croft, Natalie C Ward, Sujata Shinde, Yuben Moodley, Jon O Lundberg, Ian B Puddey, Richard J Woodman, Jonathan M Hodgson
BACKGROUND: Dietary nitrate, which is in green leafy vegetables and beetroot, decreases blood pressure through the enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway in healthy individuals. Whether similar effects would occur in individuals with treated hypertension and, therefore, at increased risk of cardiovascular disease is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether increased dietary nitrate intake by using beetroot juice for 1 wk lowers blood pressure in treated hypertensive men and women...
August 2015: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Catherine P Bondonno, Kevin D Croft, Jonathan M Hodgson
Emerging evidence strongly suggests that dietary nitrate, derived in the diet primarily from vegetables, could contribute to cardiovascular health via effects on nitric oxide (NO) status. NO plays an essential role in cardiovascular health. It is produced via the classical L-arginine-NO-synthase pathway and the recently discovered enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. The discovery of this alternate pathway has highlighted dietary nitrate as a candidate for the cardioprotective effect of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables...
September 9, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Catherine P Bondonno, Alex H Liu, Kevin D Croft, Natalie C Ward, Ian B Puddey, Richard J Woodman, Jonathan M Hodgson
Dietary nitrate, through the enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway, can improve blood pressure and arterial stiffness. How long systemic nitrate and nitrite remain elevated following cessation of high nitrate intake is unknown. In 19 healthy men and women, the time for salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite to return to baseline after 7 days increased nitrate intake from green leafy vegetables was determined. Salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite was measured at baseline [D0], end of high nitrate diet [D7], day 9 [+2D], day 14 [+7D] and day 21 [+14D]...
March 2015: Nutrients
Sami A Omar, Esther Artime, Andrew J Webb
Although both organic and inorganic nitrates/nitrites mediate their principal effects via nitric oxide, there are many important differences. Inorganic nitrate and nitrite have simple ionic structures and are produced endogenously and are present in the diet, whereas their organic counterparts are far more complex, and, with the exception of ethyl nitrite, are all medicinally synthesised products. These chemical differences underlie the differences in pharmacokinetic properties allowing for different modalities of administration, particularly of organic nitrates, due to the differences in their bioavailability and metabolic profiles...
May 15, 2012: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Catherine P Bondonno, Kevin D Croft, Ian B Puddey, Michael J Considine, Xingbin Yang, Natalie C Ward, Jonathan M Hodgson
Green leafy vegetables, high in dietary nitrate, may contribute to cardiovascular health by augmenting nitric oxide status. The exogenous enterosalivary pathway of nitrate reduction to nitrite appears to be a critical determinant of the effects of nitrate. Our primary objective was to investigate the dose-response of nitrate intake on nitric oxide status and nitrate reduction in the mouth. We also assessed whether antibacterial toothpaste can inhibit nitrate reduction and blunt subsequent increases in circulating nitric oxide...
May 2012: Food & Function
Christopher G Kevil, Gopi K Kolluru, Christopher B Pattillo, Tony Giordano
Over the past several years, investigators studying nitric oxide (NO) biology and metabolism have come to learn that the one-electron oxidation product of NO, nitrite anion, serves as a unique player in modulating tissue NO bioavailability. Numerous studies have examined how this oxidized metabolite of NO can act as a salvage pathway for maintaining NO equivalents through multiple reduction mechanisms in permissive tissue environments. Moreover, it is now clear that nitrite anion production and distribution throughout the body can act in an endocrine manner to augment NO bioavailability, which is important for physiological and pathological processes...
August 1, 2011: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Jonathan J Manning, Angela A Wirz, Kenneth E L McColl
OBJECTIVE: Saliva contains high concentrations of nitrite derived from the enterosalivary recirculation of dietary nitrate and its reduction by buccal bacteria. Acidic gastric juice converts the swallowed nitrite to varying proportions ofnitrous acid and nitric oxide (NO) depending upon ascorbic acid availability. Neuronally generated NO is the key in the pathway of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations in vivo. Furthermore, in vitro NO and nitrous acid relax the smooth muscle of the stomach, lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) and oesophageal body...
December 2007: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
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