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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549178/rhoa-rock-inhibition-improves-the-beneficial-effects-of-glucocorticoid-treatment-in-dystrophic-muscle-implications-for-stem-cell-depletion
#1
Xiaodong Mu, Ying Tang, Koji Takayama, Wanqun Chen, Aiping Lu, Bing Wang, Kurt Weiss, Johnny Huard
Glucocorticoid treatment represents a standard palliative treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients, but various adverse effects have limited this treatment. In an effort to understand the mechanism(s) by which glucocorticoids impart their effects on the dystrophic muscle, and potentially reduce the adverse effects, we have studied the effect of prednisolone treatment in dystrophin/utrophin double knockout (dKO) mice, which exhibit a severe dystrophic phenotype due to rapid muscle stem cell depletion...
May 26, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548945/soluble-antigens-from-the-neurotropic-pathogen-angiostrongylus-cantonensis-directly-induce-thymus-atrophy-in-a-mouse-model
#2
Zhen Liu, Dong-Ming Su, Zi-Long Yu, Feng Wu, Rui-Feng Liu, Shi-Qi Luo, Zhi-Yue Lv, Xin Zeng, Xi Sun, Zhong-Dao Wu
The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A.C.) is a neurotropic pathogen; stage-III larva invade the human (non-permissive host) central nervous system (CNS) to cause eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalitis accompanied by immunosuppression. In an A.C.-infectedmouse (another non-permissive host) model, CNS damage-associated T cell immune deficiency and severe inflammation were proposed to result from activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, glucocorticoids are anti-inflammatory agents...
May 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548900/corticosterone-response-as-an-age-specific-mediator-of-nestling-body-mass-in-a-wild-passerine
#3
Vallo Tilgar, Marianne Lind, Jaanis Lodjak, Kadri Moks
The environment can affect individual performance directly via resource availability or indirectly through resource allocation among competing fitness components, such as body growth and maintenance activities related to short-term survival. Corticosterone (CORT), the main glucocorticoid in birds, may be an important mediator of energy allocation to different organismal functions, but its effect on the plasticity of fitness-related traits has rarely been investigated at different ontogenetic stages. Here, we evaluated the role of baseline and stress-induced CORT on nestling development of wild great tits (Parus major) under different growth conditions and at different developmental stages...
July 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548590/prenatal-exposure-to-neurotoxic-metals-is-associated-with-increased-placental-glucocorticoid-receptor-dna-methylation
#4
Allison A Appleton, Brian P Jackson, Margaret Karagas, Carmen J Marsit
Epigenetic alterations related to prenatal neurotoxic metals exposure may be key in understanding the origins of cognitive and neurobehavioral problems in children. Placental glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) methylation has been linked to neurobehavioral risk in early life, but has not been examined in response to neurotoxic metals exposure despite parallel lines of research showing metals exposure and NR3C1 methylation each contribute to a similar set of neurobehavioral phenotypes. Thus, we conducted a study of prenatal neurotoxic metals exposure and placental NR3C1 methylation in a cohort of healthy term singleton pregnancies from Rhode Island, USA (n = 222)...
May 26, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548544/neuropsychological-impairment-in-hashimoto-s-encephalopathy-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#5
Liorah Sabbah-Talasazan, Irene Piryatinsky
Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) is a rare neurological syndrome characterized by the presence of positive serum antithyroid antibodies, altered mental status, and clinical response to glucocorticoid therapy. Although HE has been documented in the literature from a medical standpoint, reports on the neuropsychological presentation of this syndrome are scarce. This article presents a literature review of cognitive deficits reported in HE cases. In addition, we describe the case of a 76-year-old Russian speaking woman diagnosed with HE in May 2012...
May 26, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546232/genetic-defects-in-pediatric-onset-adrenal-insufficiency-in-japan
#6
Naoko Amano, Satoshi Narumi, Mie Hayashi, Masaki Takagi, Kazuhide Imai, Toshirou Nakamura, Rumi Hachiya, Goro Sasaki, Keiko Homma, Tomohiro Ishii, Tomonobu Hasegawa
CONTEXT: Most patients with pediatric-onset primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI), such as 21-hydroxylase deficiency, can be diagnosed by measuring the urine or serum levels of steroid metabolites. However, the etiology is often difficult to determine in a subset of patients lacking characteristic biochemical findings. OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of genetic defects in Japanese children with biochemically uncharacterized PAI, and characterize the phenotypes of mutation-carrying patients...
May 25, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545908/influence-of-postnatal-glucocorticoids-on-hippocampal-dependent-learning-varies-with-elevation-patterns-and-administration-methods
#7
Dragana I Claflin, Kevin D Schmidt, Zachary D Vallandingham, Michal Kraszpulski, Michael B Hennessy
Recent interest in the lasting effects of early-life stress has expanded to include effects on cognitive performance. An increase in circulating glucocorticoids is induced by stress exposure and glucocorticoid effects on the hippocampus likely underlie many of the cognitive consequences. Here we review studies showing that corticosterone administered to young rats at the conclusion of the stress-hyporesponsiveness period affects later performance in hippocampally-mediated trace eyeblink conditioning. The nature and even direction of these effects varies with the elevation patterns (level, duration, temporal fluctuation) achieved by different administration methods...
May 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545898/risk-averse-personalities-have-a-systemically-potentiated-neuroendocrine-stress-axis-a-multilevel-experiment-in-parus-major
#8
Alexander T Baugh, Rebecca A Senft, Marian Firke, Abigail Lauder, Julia Schroeder, Simone L Meddle, Kees van Oers, Michaela Hau
Hormonal pleiotropy-the simultaneous influence of a single hormone on multiple traits-has been hypothesized as an important mechanism underlying personality, and circulating glucocorticoids are central to this idea. A major gap in our understanding is the neural basis for this link. Here we examine the stability and structure of behavioral, endocrine and neuroendocrine traits in a population of songbirds (Parus major). Upon identifying stable and covarying behavioral and endocrine traits, we test the hypothesis that risk-averse personalities exhibit a neuroendocrine stress axis that is systemically potentiated-characterized by stronger glucocorticoid reactivity and weaker negative feedback...
May 22, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545490/glutamate-signaling-through-the-nmda-receptor-reduces-the-expression-of-scleraxis-in-plantaris-tendon-derived-cells
#9
Christoph Spang, Ludvig J Backman, Sandrine Le Roux, Jialin Chen, Patrik Danielson
BACKGROUND: A body of evidence demonstrating changes to the glutaminergic system in tendinopathy has recently emerged. This hypothesis was further tested by studying the effects of glutamate on the tenocyte phenotype, and the impact of loading and exposure to glucocorticoids on the glutamate signaling machinery. METHODS: Plantaris tendon tissue and cultured plantaris tendon derived cells were immunohisto-/cytochemically stained for glutamate, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor 1 (NMDAR1) and vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2)...
May 25, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545025/oncogenic-mnk-signalling-regulates-the-metastasis-suppressor-ndrg1
#10
Shuye Tian, Xuemin Wang, Christopher G Proud
The protein N-myc down-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) represses tumour metastasis. It is phosphorylated at several sites by serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1). Here we show that NDRG1 is also regulated by the oncogenic MAP kinase-interacting kinase (MNK) pathway, a target for cancer therapy.Inhibiting MNKs increases the expression of NDRG1 protein and mRNA in breast cancer cells. MNK inhibition also decreases the phosphorylation of NDRG1. Phosphorylation of NDRG1 is reduced in cells lacking MNK1, but not MNK2-knockout cells, indicating that NDRG1 phosphorylation is a specific target for MNK1...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544900/kinetics-of-glucocorticoid-exposure-in-developing-zebrafish-a-tracer-study
#11
Peter Johannes Steenbergen, Nabila Bardine, Faiza Sharif
In the current study the dynamics of glucocorticoid uptake by zebrafish chorionated embryos from the surrounding medium were studied, using 2.5 μM cortisol or dexamethasone solutions complemented with their tritiated variant. We measured the uptake of radioactive cortisol by embryos during a 1 h submersion. Interestingly, the signal in chorionated embryos was 85% (exposure: 1-2 hpf) or 78% (exposure: 48-49 hpf) of the signal present in an equal volume medium. By comparing embryos measured without chorion, we found that 18-20% of the radioactivity present in chorionated embryos is actually bound to the chorion or located in the perivitelline space...
May 12, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544686/regulatory-t-cells-and-ctla-4-in-idiopathic-nephrotic-syndrome
#12
Shoji Tsuji, Takahisa Kimata, Sohsaku Yamanouchi, Tetsuya Kitao, Jiro Kino, Chikushi Suruda, Kazunari Kaneko
The pathogenesis of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) remains unknown. Recently, it was postulated that suppression of regulatory T cells (Treg) leads to massive proteinuria in INS, although there is some controversy. Considering the important role of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) in Treg-mediated immune suppression, the aim of this study was therefore to clarify the involvement of Treg and CTLA-4 in the pathogenesis of INS. Fifteen patients with INS were enrolled. Their blood was sampled twice, once at onset and once at remission induced by glucocorticoid...
May 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543623/regulatory-effect-of-microrna-34a-on-osteogenesis-and-angiogenesis-in-glucocorticoid-induced-osteonecrosis-of-the-femoral-head
#13
Xiaolong Zha, Bolin Sun, Rufan Zhang, Chen Li, Zuoqin Yan, Jifei Chen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (GIOFH) is a common and devastating orthopedic disease, and its underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the role of microRNA-34a (mir-34a) in GIOFH. METHODS: C57 mouse mesenchymal stem cells (mMSCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured with dexamethasone (Dex). A total of 48 adult rats were treated with glucocorticoids, and after the onset of GIOFH, each femoral head was removed...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542805/downregulation-of-cholesteryl-ester-transfer-protein-by-glucocorticoids-a-randomized-study-on-hdl
#14
Jorien Werumeus Buning, Lidya G Dimova, Frank G Perton, Uwe J F Tietge, André P van Beek, Robin P F Dullaart
BACKGROUND: High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is not decreased in hypercortisolism despite high triglycerides, which may be ascribed to effects on the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) pathway. We explored if CETP mRNA expression is modulated by glucocorticoid treatment in vitro. Effects of doubling the hydrocortisone (HCT) replacement dose on plasma CETP activity and HDL characteristics were tested in patients with secondary adrenal insufficiency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human THP-1 macrophages were incubated with corticosterone in vitro in the presence or absence of a liver X receptor (LXR) agonist, followed by determination of CETP mRNA levels by quantitative real-time PCR...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542414/the-intestinal-torc2-signaling-pathway-contributes-to-associative-learning-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#15
Naoko Sakai, Hayao Ohno, Masahiro Tomioka, Yuichi Iino
Several types of associative learning are dependent upon the presence or absence of food, and are crucial for the survival of most animals. Target of rapamycin (TOR), a kinase which exists as a component of two complexes, TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TOR complex 2 (TORC2), is known to act as a nutrient sensor in numerous organisms. However, the in vivo roles of TOR signaling in the nervous system remain largely unclear, partly because its multifunctionality and requirement for survival make it difficult to investigate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542361/granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-blockade-enables-dexamethasone-to-inhibit-lipopolysaccharide-induced-murine-lung-neutrophils
#16
Jesus Banuelos, Yun Cao, Soon Cheon Shin, Bruce S Bochner, Pedro Avila, Shihong Li, Xin Jiang, Mark W Lingen, Robert P Schleimer, Nick Z Lu
Glucocorticoids promote neutrophilic inflammation, the mechanisms of which are poorly characterized. Using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute murine lung injury model, we determined the role of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in mouse lung neutrophil numbers in the absence and presence of dexamethasone, a potent glucocorticoid. G-CSF was blocked using a neutralizing antibody. Airway neutrophil numbers, cytokine levels, and lung injury parameters were measured. Glucocorticoid treatment maintained LPS-induced airway G-CSF while suppressing TNF and IL-6...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541072/associations-between-spontaneous-parental-perspective-taking-and-stimulated-cytokine-responses-in-children-with-asthma
#17
Erika M Manczak, Cynthia S Levine, Katherine B Ehrlich, Devika Basu, Dan P McAdams, Edith Chen
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive empathy in parents-reflecting the extent to which one considers the perspectives and emotions of others-is hypothesized to contribute to family social environments in ways that affect youths' physical health. Using a novel assessment technique for cognitive empathy, the current study examined associations between spontaneous parental perspective-taking and key inflammatory processes implicated in pediatric asthma. METHOD: One hundred thirty children (ages 9-17) with physician-diagnosed asthma, along with 1 parent, participated in the current study...
May 25, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540625/pituitary-dysfunction-in-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis
#18
REVIEW
Daniela Esposito, Penelope Trimpou, Dario Giugliano, Mats Dehlin, Oskar Ragnarsson
PURPOSE: Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a multisystem disease, characterized by necrotizing small-vessel vasculitis, which mainly affects the respiratory tract and the kidneys. Pituitary involvement in GPA is rare, present in about 1% of all cases of GPA. To date, only case reports or small case series have been published. Herein we report clinical features, imaging findings, treatment and outcomes in three patients with GPA-related pituitary dysfunction (PD). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of three cases of GPA-related PD was conducted, followed by systematic review of the English medical literature using PubMed...
May 24, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540057/rituximab-in-minimal-change-disease-mechanisms-of-action-and-hypotheses-for-future-studies
#19
REVIEW
Nima Madanchi, Martin Bitzan, Tomoko Takano
Treatment with rituximab, a monoclonal antibody against the B-lymphocyte surface protein CD20, leads to the depletion of B cells. Recently, rituximab was reported to effectively prevent relapses of glucocorticoid-dependent or frequently relapsing minimal change disease (MCD). MCD is thought to be T-cell mediated; how rituximab controls MCD is not understood. In this review, we summarize key clinical studies demonstrating the efficacy of rituximab in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome, mainly MCD. We then discuss immunological features of this disease and potential mechanisms of action of rituximab in its treatment based on what is known about the therapeutic action of rituximab in other immune-mediated disorders...
2017: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539819/dexamethasone-treatment-at-the-myoblast-stage-enhanced-c2c12-myocyte-differentiation
#20
Der-Sheng Han, Wei-Shiung Yang, Tung-Wei Kao
Background: Glucocorticoids induce skeletal muscle atrophy in many clinical situations; however, their hypertrophic and pro-differentiation effects on myotubes have rarely been reported. We hypothesized that dexamethasone (DEX) has a dual effect on muscle differentiation, and aimed to develop a new differentiation protocol for C2C12 cell line. Methods: Dose- and time-dependent effect of DEX on C2C12 myoblast cell line was analyzed at myoblast and myotube stage, respectively. The level of differentiation was determined by myh1, pax7, atrogin-1, and myostatin mRNA expression and fusion index...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
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