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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732066/inhibition-of-pulmonary-%C3%AE-carotene-15-15-oxygenase-expression-by-glucocorticoid-involves-ppar%C3%AE
#1
Xiaoming Gong, Raju Marisiddaiah, Lewis P Rubin
β-carotene 15,15'-oxygenase (BCO1) catalyzes the first step in the conversion of dietary provitamin A carotenoids to vitamin A. This enzyme is expressed in a variety of developing and adult tissues, suggesting that its activity may regulate local retinoid synthesis. Vitamin A and related compounds (retinoids) are critical regulators of lung epithelial development, integrity, and injury repair. A balance between the actions of retinoids and glucocorticoids (GCs) promotes normal lung development and, in particular, alveolarization...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731586/pregnancy-in-women-with-non-classic-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-time-to-conceive-and-outcome
#2
Ori Eyal, Irit Ayalon-Dangur, Anat Segev-Becker, Anita Schachter-Davidov, Shoshana Israel, Naomi Weintrob
OBJECTIVE: Non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) is common among Ashkenazi Jews (1:400). It is associated with various degrees of postnatal virilization, irregular menses and infertility. Therapy of symptomatic subjects consists of physiologic doses of glucocorticoids. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of glucocorticoid treatment on fertility and on pregnancy outcome in women with NCAH. DESIGN, SETTING AND PATIENTS: This retrospective study included 75 women diagnosed with NCAH who were followed in our clinic and sought fertility between 2008 and 2015...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730856/in-vitro-drug-drug-interactions-of-budesonide-inhibition-and-induction-of-transporters-and-cytochrome-p450-enzymes
#3
Nancy Chen, Donghui Cui, Qing Wang, Zhiming Wen, Richard D Finkelman, Devin Welty
1. Budesonide is a glucocorticoid used in the treatment of several respiratory and gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases. Glucocorticoids have been demonstrated to induce cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A and the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). This study aimed to evaluate the potential of budesonide to act as a perpetrator or a victim of transporter- or CYP-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs). 2. In vitro studies were conducted for P-gp, breast cancer resistance protein and organic anion and cation transporters (OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OAT1, OAT3, OCT2) in transporter-transfected cells...
July 21, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730399/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-findings-in-susac-s-syndrome-a-case-report
#4
Rodolfo Mastropasqua, Lisa Toto, Alfonso Senatore, Alessandro D'Uffizi, Piergiorgio Neri, Cesare Mariotti, Marica Tina Maccarone, Luca Di Antonio
PURPOSE: To report clinical features of Susac's syndrome (SS) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 25-year-old Caucasian female with a history of non-pulsatile migraine, tinnitus, and verbal apraxia complaining of peripheral scotoma in left eye due to branch retinal arteriole occlusion (BRAO) was diagnosed as having SS after audiometric test, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and multimodal retinal imaging...
July 20, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729456/mechanistic-multi-tissue-modeling-of-gilz-regulation-integrating-circadian-gene-expression-with-receptor-mediated-corticosteroid-pharmacodynamics
#5
Vivaswath S Ayyar, Debra C DuBois, Richard R Almon, William J Jusko
The glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) is an important mediator of anti-inflammatory corticosteroid action. The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic/pharmacogenomic effects of acute and chronic methylprednisolone (MPL) dosing on the tissue-specific dynamics of GILZ expression were examined in rats. A mechanism-based model was developed to investigate and integrate the role of MPL and circadian rhythms on the transcriptional enhancement of GILZ in multiple tissues. Animals received a single 50 mg/kg intramuscular bolus or a seven-day 0...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729344/exogenous-stress-hormones-alter-energetic-and-nutrient-costs-of-development-and-metamorphosis
#6
Lucas J Kirschman, Marshall D McCue, Justin G Boyles, Robin W Warne
Variation in environmental conditions during larval life stages can shape development during critical windows and have lasting effects on the adult organism. Changes in larval developmental rates in response to environmental conditions, for example, can trade-off with growth to determine body size and condition at metamorphosis, which can affect adult survival and fecundity. However, it is unclear how use of energy and nutrients shape trade-offs across life stage transitions because no studies have quantified these costs of larval development and metamorphosis...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729227/computational-and-experimental-prediction-of-molecules-involved-in-the-anti-melanoma-action-of-berberine
#7
Bin Liu, Xiu-Qiong Fu, Ting Li, Tao Su, Hui Guo, Pei-Li Zhu, Anfernee Kai-Wing Tse, Shi-Ming Liu, Zhi-Ling Yu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGIC RELEVANCE: Berberine (BBR) is a naturally occurring alkaloid compound that can be found in Chinese medicinal herbs such as Rhizoma Coptidis and Phellodendri Cortex. These BBR containing herbs are commonly used by Chinese medicine doctors to treat cancers including melanoma. In this study, we explored proteins potentially involved in the anti-melanoma effects of BBR using an integrative computational and experimental approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Target proteins of BBR were predicted using the reverse pharmacophore screening, molecular docking and molecular dynamics...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729116/convergence-of-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-and-gr-signaling-in-response-to-fluoxetine-treatment-in-chronically-stressed-female-and-male-rats
#8
Milos Mitic, Zeljka Brkic, Iva Lukic, Miroslav Adzic
Accumulating evidence strongly suggest that impaired glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling is involved in stress-related mood disorders, and nominate GR as a potential target for antidepressants (ADs). It is known that different classes of ADs affects the GR action via modifying its phosphorylation, while the mechanism through which ADs alter GR phosphorylation targeted by GSK3β, a kinase modulated via serotonin neurotransmission, are unclear. On this basis, we investigated whether GSK3β-GR signaling could be a convergence point of fluoxetine action on brain function and behavior, by examining its effect on GSK3β targeted-GR phosphorylation on threonine 171 (pGR171), and expression of GR-regulated genes in the hippocampus of female and male rats exposed to chronic isolation stress...
July 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728884/glucocorticoid-programming-of-neuroimmune-function
#9
REVIEW
David J Walker, Karen A Spencer
Throughout life physiological systems strive to maintain homeostasis and these systems are susceptible to exposure to maternal or environmental perturbations, particularly during embryonic development. In some cases, these perturbations may influence genetic and physiological processes that permanently alter the functioning of these physiological systems; a process known as developmental programming. In recent years, the neuroimmune system has garnered attention for its fundamental interactions with key hormonal systems, such as the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis...
July 17, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728455/asparagine-preserves-intestinal-barrier-function-from-lps-induced-injury-and-regulates-crf-crfr-signaling-pathway
#10
Huiling Zhu, Dingan Pi, Weibo Leng, Xiuying Wang, Chien-An Andy Hu, Yongqing Hou, Jianglin Xiong, Chunwei Wang, Qin Qin, Yulan Liu
Stress causes intestinal inflammation and barrier dysfunction. Corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)/CRF receptor (CRFR) signaling pathway has been shown to be important for stress-induced intestinal mucosal alteration. L-Asparagine (ASN) is a powerful stimulator of ornithine decarboxylase and cell proliferation in a variety of cell types, including colonic cells. In the present study, we investigated whether dietary ASN supplementation could alleviate the damage of intestinal barrier function caused by LPS through modulation of CRF/CRFR signaling pathway...
January 1, 2017: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728257/-eosinophilic-esophagitis-in-children-analysis-of-22-cases
#11
M F Sun, W Z Gu, K R Peng, M N Liu, X L Shu, L Q Jiang, M Z Jiang
Objective: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune-mediated esophageal disease.The current domestic reports of EoE in children is rare.The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical features, the diagnosis and treatment advance of EoE in children by case analysis and literature review. Method: Clinical data of 22 children with EoE from January, 2011 to December, 2015 in Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine were recorded, retrospective analysis was performed on clinical presentation, gastroendoscopy and histopathological examination features and the treatment...
July 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728173/glucocorticoid-induced-leucine-zipper-protects-the-retina-from-light-induced-retinal-degeneration-by-inducing-bcl-xl-in-rats
#12
Ruiping Gu, Wenyi Tang, Boya Lei, Xinyi Ding, Cheng Jiang, Gezhi Xu
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) in a light-induced retinal degeneration model and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Intravitreal injection of recombinant GILZ-overexpressing lentivirus (OE-GILZ-rLV) and short hairpin RNA targeting GILZ recombinant lentivirus (shRNA-GILZ-rLV) was performed to up- and downregulate retinal GILZ, respectively. Three days after stable transduction, rats were exposed to continuous bright light (5000 lux) for 2 days...
July 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727940/intestinal-transit-time-and-cortisol-mediated-stress-in-zebrafish
#13
Clayton Brady, Maxwell Denora, Ian Shannon, Karl J Clark, Adam Rich
Intestinal motility, the spontaneous and rhythmic smooth muscle contraction, is a complex process that is regulated by overlapping and redundant regulatory mechanisms. Primary regulators intrinsic to the gastrointestinal tract include interstitial cells of Cajal, enteric neurons, and smooth muscle cells. Extrinsic primary regulators include the autonomic nervous system, immune system, and the endocrine system. Due to this complexity, a reductionist approach may be inappropriate if the ultimate goal is to understand motility regulation in vivo...
July 20, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727902/glucocorticoid-assessment-in-the-domestic-horse-the-impact-of-time-and-climatic-variables-on-sample-integrity
#14
K Yarnell, S L Walker
BACKGROUND: Assessment of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM) offers a non-invasive method of monitoring adrenal activity in domestic horses. Sample collection is on an opportunistic basis, and if samples are not fresh or have been exposed to the elements before they are identified, then they may not accurately reflect FGM concentration. OBJECTIVES: To explore the impact of a range of environmental conditions upon the integrity of FGM levels in equine faeces...
July 20, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727040/genome-wide-association-studies-and-meta-analysis-reveal-novel-quantitative-trait-loci-and-pleiotropic-loci-for-swine-head-related-traits
#15
H Chen, T Huang, Z Zhang, B Yang, C Jiang, J Wu, Z Zhou, H Zheng, W Xin, M Huang, M Zhang, C Chen, J Ren, H Ai, L Huang
The pig is an important domestic animal that provides a larger amount of meat and serves as a biomedical animal model for human. Head and facial features are closely linked to identity recognition in mammal communication. To uncover the genetic architecture of swine head and facial features, we constructed 5 experimental pig populations and accurately measured 10 traits related to head and facial features, for which genome-wide association studies and meta-analysis were later carried out. As a result, we identified a total of 24 loci harboring 437 SNP on 8 swine chromosomes (SSC) that surpassed suggestively significant levels, of which 17 loci on 6 chromosomes exceeded the 5% genome-wide significance thresholds...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726773/t-cell-autonomous-death-induced-by-regeneration-of-inert-glucocorticoid-metabolites
#16
Lourdes Rocamora-Reverte, Holger M Reichardt, Andreas Villunger, GJan Wiegers
Glucocorticoids (GC) are essential regulators of T-cell development and function. Activation of the immune system increases systemic adrenal-derived GC levels which downregulate immune activity as part of a negative feedback control system. Increasing evidence shows, however, that GC can also be derived from extra-adrenal sources such as the thymus or intestine, thus providing local control of GC-mediated effects. The thymus reportedly produces GC, but whether thymic epithelial cells or thymocytes produce GC acting either in an autocrine or paracrine fashion is not clear...
July 20, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726113/glucocorticoid-sparing-effect-of-zoledronic-acid-in-sarcoid-hypercalcemia
#17
Mohammad Shafi Kuchay, Sunil Kumar Mishra, Beena Bansal, Khalid Jamal Farooqui, Lalitha Sekhar, Ambrish Mithal
INTRODUCTION: Glucocorticoids are regarded as first-line therapy in the management of hypercalcemia associated with sarcoidosis. However, prolonged glucocorticoid therapy leads to metabolic abnormalities, Cushingoid habitus, and impairment of bone health. This study demonstrates the efficacy and glucocorticoid-sparing effect of zoledronic acid in sarcoid hypercalcemia. METHODS: We present three patients with sarcoid hypercalcemia. They were successfully managed with oral glucocorticoids for many months...
December 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725994/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-photobiomodulation-on-vertebras-in-two-rat-models-of-experimental-osteoporosis
#18
Mohammadjavad Fredoni, Mahdi Ghatrehsamani, Mohammad-Amin Abdollahifar, Sahar Bayat, Mohammad Bayat
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of photobiomodulation (PBM) on cancellous bone in rat models of ovariectomized induced osteoporosis (OVX-D) and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP). The experiment comprised of nine groups. A group of healthy rats was used for baseline evaluations. The OVX-D rats were further divided into groups as follows: control rats with osteoporosis, OVX-D rats that received alendronate (1 mg/kg 60 days), OVX-D rats treated with pulsed wave laser (890 nm, 80 Hz, 900 s, 0...
July 19, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725412/corticosterone-a-costly-mediator-of-signal-honesty-in-sand-lizards
#19
Willow R Lindsay, Erik Wapstra, Bengt Silverin, Mats Olsson
The mechanisms underlying honest signal expression remain elusive and may involve the integration of social and physiological costs. Corticosterone is a socially modulated metabolic hormone that mediates energy investment and behavior and may therefore function to deter dishonest signal expression. We examined the relationship between corticosterone and green badge coloration in male sand lizards (Lacerta agilis), hypothesizing that physiological and behavioral costs resulting from elevated baseline glucocorticoids function in maintenance of honest signal expression...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725311/nafcillin-induced-allergic-eosinophilic-cholestatic-hepatitis
#20
Mark V Guido, Warit Jithpratuck, Graham E Parks, Guha Krishnaswamy
A 71-year-old female with no history of liver disease or antibiotic allergy developed jaundice with elevated liver enzymes and eosinophilia following treatment with nafcillin for septic arthritis. Further workup demonstrated hepatocellular dysfunction and liver biopsy showed expansion of portal tracts by lymphocytes and eosinophils consistent with a hypersensitivity reaction. Nafcillin and related antibiotics were withdrawn, and her symptoms resolved 3 months later. We searched PubMed using terms of "nafcillin cholestasis" and "nafcillin hepatitis", and a review of the literature showed other reports of nafcillin-induced hepatitis and cholestasis...
June 2017: Gastroenterology Research
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