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Spinal biopsy

Eva Placheta, Ines Tinhofer, Melanie Schmid, Lukas F Reissig, Igor Pona, Wolfgang Weninger, Thomas Rath, David Chwei-Chin Chuang, Chieh-Han John Tzou
INTRODUCTION: Facial reanimation surgery is performed in severe cases of facial palsy to restore facial function. In a 1-stage procedure, the spinal accessory nerve can be used as a donor nerve to power a free gracilis muscle transplant for the reanimation of the mouth. The aim of this study was to describe the surgical anatomy of the spinal accessory nerve, provide a guide for reliable donor nerve dissection, and analyze the available donor axon counts. METHODS: Dissections were performed on 10 nonembalmed cadavers (measurements of 20 nerves)...
October 6, 2016: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Ashraf S Gorgey, Zachary A Graham, William A Bauman, Christopher Cardozo, David R Gater
STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal design. OBJECTIVES: The study determined the effects of two forms of exercise training on the abundance of two proteins, (glucose transporter-4 [GLUT-4], adenosine monophosphate kinase [AMPK]) involved in glucose utilization and the transcriptional coactivator that regulates the genes involved in energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) coactivator 1 alpha [PGC-1α]), in muscles in men with chronic motor-complete spinal cord injury (SCI)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Ville-Valtteri Välimäki, Outi Mäkitie, Renata Pereira, Christine Laine, Katherine Wesseling-Perry, Jorma Määttä, Mikko Kirjavainen, Heli Viljakainen, Matti J Välimäki
CONTEXT: We previously identified two Finnish families with dominantly inherited, low-turnover osteoporosis caused by mutations in WNT1 or PLS3. OBJECTIVE: Design and Setting: This prospective, longitudinal, uncontrolled study was undertaken to evaluate whether patients with these mutations respond to teriparatide treatment. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTION: We recruited six adults (median age 54); three with a WNT1 missense mutation c.652T>G and three with a PLS3 splice mutation c...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Naoki Sasaki, Yui Imamura, Akio Sekiya, Megumi Itoh, Hidefumi Furuoka
In this study, fasciculation of the limbs and tongue was observed in four horses kept by a riding club. Neurogenic muscle atrophy was also observed in biopsy of pathological tissues. In addition, in two cases that subjected to autopsy, Bunina-like bodies of inclusion in the cell bodies of neurons in the spinal cord ventral horn were confirmed, leading to a diagnosis of equine motor neuron disease (EMND). Serum vitamin E concentrations varied between 0.3 and 0.4µg/ml, which is significantly lower than the levels in normal horses...
2016: Journal of Equine Science
Aurora Messina, Natasha Van Zyl, Michael Weymouth, Stephen Flood, Andrew Nunn, Catherine Cooper, Jodie Hahn, Mary P Galea
Loss of hand function after cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) impacts heavily on independence. Multiple nerve transfer surgery has been applied successfully after cervical SCI to restore critical arm and hand functions, and the outcome depends on nerve integrity. Nerve integrity is assessed indirectly using muscle strength testing and intramuscular electromyography, but these measures cannot show the manifestation that SCI has on the peripheral nerves. We directly assessed the morphology of nerves biopsied at the time of surgery, from three patients within 18 months post injury...
2016: Brain Sciences
Maria Teresa Mandara, Luca Motta, Pietro Calò
In cats, lymphoma (lymphosarcoma) is the most common neoplasm affecting the spinal cord and the second most common intracranial tumour. Although lymphoma commonly develops in the spinal cord as a part of a multicentric process, a primary form may occur. Lymphoma can exhibit a wide range of morphological patterns, including intraparenchymal brain mass, lymphomatosis cerebri, intravascular lymphoma, lymphomatous choroiditis and meningitis, extradural, intradural-extramedullary or intramedullary lymphoma in the spinal cord, or neurolymphomatosis in the peripheral nerves...
October 2016: Veterinary Journal
Weibo Pan, Bin Feng, Zhan Wang, Nong Lin, Zhaoming Ye
PURPOSE: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors are extremely rare in the general population and display a predilection for metastasis to the lungs. Here, we present a rare case of a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor located in the paraspinal region and highlight the importance of preoperative biopsy in diagnosis of spinal epidural peripheral nerve sheath tumors. METHODS: We describe the clinical course of the patient as well as the radiological and pathological findings of the tumor...
September 27, 2016: European Spine Journal
Andrew A Fanous, Nathan P Olszewski, Lindsay J Lipinski, Jingxin Qiu, Andrew J Fabiano
The differential diagnoses for spinal cord lesions include spinal tumors and inflammatory processes. The distinction between these pathologies can be difficult if solely based on imaging. We report for the first time to our knowledge a case of idiopathic transverse myelitis (ITM) mimicking a discrete cervical spinal lesion in a 66-year-old man who presented with gait instability and neck pain. The patient's symptoms failed to resolve after an initial course of steroid therapy. Surgical biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of ITM...
2016: Case Reports in Pathology
Ji-Hey Lim, Natasha J Olby
OBJECTIVE To identify an optimal technique for isolation, purification, and amplification of Schwann cells (SCs) from biopsy specimens of the dorsal cutaneous branches of the cervical nerves of dogs. SAMPLE Biopsy specimens of dorsal cervical cutaneous nerves from the cadavers of three 1- to 2-year-old dogs. PROCEDURES Nerve specimens were dissected, predegenerated, and dissociated to isolate single cells. After culture to enhance SC growth, cells were immunopurified by use of magnetic beads. Cell purity was evaluated by assessing expression of cell surface antigens p75 (to detect SCs) and CD90 (to detect fibroblasts)...
October 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Caitlin G Robinson, Taylor C Duke, Ashley W Allison
True human tails are rare vestigial structures that are typically removed in childhood. Here a case is presented in which an inconspicuous sacrococcygeal tail was incidentally discovered in late adulthood. A 56-year-old man with no significant past medical history presented to a dermatology clinic with a chief complaint of a hyperpigmented lesion on his central back. However, on full body skin exam, a separate flesh-colored 0.7 cm x 0.5 cm appendage was discovered in the midline sacrococcygeal region. This lesion had been present and unchanged since childhood...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
Karthikeyan Maharajan, James Thomas Patrick Decourcy Hallinan, Prakash Sitoula, Yin Huei Pang, Aye Sandar Zaw, Naresh Kumar
BACKGROUND: Osteoblastoma is rare and accounts for 3% of all benign tumors and 1% of all bone tumors. The spine is the most common site of occurrence, constituting 32% to 45% of all osteoblastomas. It has a strong predilection for the posterior elements, most often occurring in the lumbar spine. METHOD: In this case report, we describe an unusual presentation of spinal osteoblastoma presenting as thoracic T9 vertebra plana in a 20-year-old female. She presented with discomfort over the midback with unsteadiness of gait...
September 21, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
David Dornbos, Jocelyn Morin, Joshua R Watson, Jonathan Pindrik
Osteomyelitis of the spine with associated spinal epidural abscess represents an uncommon entity in the pediatric population, requiring prompt evaluation and diagnosis to prevent neurological compromise. Cat scratch disease, caused by the pathogen Bartonella henselae, encompasses a wide spectrum of clinical presentations; however, an association with osteomyelitis and epidural abscess has been reported in only 4 other instances in the literature. The authors report a rare case of multifocal thoracic osteomyelitis with an epidural abscess in a patient with a biopsy-proven pathogen of cat scratch disease...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
C Garcia-Cabo, E S Morales-Deza, L Martinez-Rodriguez, E Murias-Quintana, A Perez-Alvarez, J Martinez-Ramos, P Vega-Valdes, P Suarez-Santos, A Garcia-Rua, G Moris
INTRODUCTION: Although spinal fistulas account for 70% of all spinal arteriovenous malformations, they are an underdiagnosed condition. The arteriovenous shunt produces vascular congestion that gives rise to a progressive myelopathy, sometimes irreversible if it is not treated in the early stages. AIM: To describe the clinicoradiological characteristics of a series of patients with spinal fistulas. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective search was conducted for patients diagnosed with a spinal fistula who were hospitalised in the neuroscience area of a tertiary care hospital...
October 1, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
B Mark Keegan, Timothy J Kaufmann, Brian G Weinshenker, Orhun H Kantarci, William F Schmalstieg, M Mateo Paz Soldan, Eoin P Flanagan
OBJECTIVE: To report patients with progressive motor impairment resulting from an isolated CNS demyelinating lesion in cerebral, brainstem, or spinal cord white matter that we call progressive solitary sclerosis. METHODS: Thirty patients were identified with (1) progressive motor impairment for over 1 year with a single radiologically identified CNS demyelinating lesion along corticospinal tracts, (2) absence of other demyelinating CNS lesions, and (3) no history of relapses affecting other CNS pathways...
October 18, 2016: Neurology
Babatunde J Olasode, Chiazor U Onyia
The present state of pediatric neuropathology practice is in rudimentary developmental stages in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa. We sought to determine the pattern of neurosurgical lesions in children diagnosed in southwestern Nigeria and briefly address issues surrounding the practice of this aspect of pathology in Africa. We performed a retrospective review of histopathologic results of biopsies obtained from pediatric patients with neurosurgical lesions at the Department of Pathology, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, between January 2001 and December 2011...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Diana Murro Lin, Ji-Weon Park, Paolo Gattuso
Primary bladder signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) is extremely rare and associated with an aggressive course. To our knowledge, we describe the first metastatic bladder SRCC identified in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A 68-year-old male with 1 year history of primary bladder SRCC with spinal metastasis presented with multiple falls and loss of consciousness. Brain imaging showed high signal in the frontoparietal sulci and superior cerebellum. CSF analysis was significant for increased leukocytes with monocyte predominance while protein and glucose values were within normal range...
September 15, 2016: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Masahiro Nitta, Akio Hoshi, Taro Higure, Yuki Shimizu, Nobuyuki Nakajima, Kazuya Hanai, Yoshiaki Kawamura, Toshiro Terachi
A 28-year-old man was hospitalized with advancing paraplegia. Under the diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome, steroid pulse therapy was administered and plasmapheresis was performed. However, the paraplegia gradually progressed. Subsequently, a spinal cord tumor was revealed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The pathological diagnosis, obtained by open biopsy, confirmed a mixed germ cell tumor in the spinal cord. Multiple lung and lymph nodes metastases were also detected upon computed tomography, along with increased serum alpha-fetoprotein (33...
2016: Tokai Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine
Carlos Pablo de Fuenmayor-Fernández de la Hoz, Aurelio Hernández-Laín, Montse Olivé, Ana Fernández-Marmiesse, Cristina Domínguez-González
A 29-year-old man, born from consanguineous parents, started with toe walking and frequent falls during his second year of life. He developed weakness in lower limbs during the first decade that subsequently extended to upper limbs. On examination, the patient had weakness in proximal muscles of all four limbs and in the tibialis anterior muscle. In addition, he had bilateral Achilles and patellar contractures, bilateral scapular winging, asymmetric calves and a positive Beevor sign, an upward movement of the umbilicus on contraction of rectus femoris due to weakness in the lower part following a lesion of the spinal cord at T10-12...
July 16, 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
Joana Ramalho, Renato Hoffmann Nunes, Antonio José da Rocha, Mauricio Castillo
Myelopathy describes any neurologic deficit related to the spinal cord. It is most commonly caused by its compression by neoplasms, degenerative disc disease, trauma, or infection. Less common causes of myelopathy include spinal cord tumors, infection, inflammatory, neurodegenerative, vascular, toxic, and metabolic disorders. Conditions affecting the spinal cord must be recognized as early as possible to prevent progression that may lead to permanent disability. Biopsy is rarely performed, thus the diagnosis and management rely on patient׳s history, physical examination, laboratory results, and imaging findings...
October 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Mouna Khmou, Abderrahmane Malihy, Najat Lamalmi, Lamia Rouas, Zaitouna Alhamany
BACKGROUND: Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors are extremely rare tumors in the spine; only 18 cases of extra-dural peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor cervical region have been reported. The aim of this report is to highlight the challenges in diagnosis and management of this condition. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of 5-year-old Moroccan boy, who presented with torticollis for 1 month. Computed tomography scan and Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine revealed an extradural, dumbbell-shaped mass with extra-spinal extension at the left C1-C6 level...
2016: BMC Research Notes
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