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Toy autism

Sharon Y Lee, Ya-Yu Lo, Yafen Lo
The researchers used a single-case, multiple probe design across three sets of toys (i.e., farm toy, doctor's clinic toy, and rescue toy) to examine the effects of video self-modeling (VSM) on the functional play skills of a 5-year-old child with autism spectrum disorder. The findings showed a functional relation between VSM and increased percentages of functional play actions across the toy sets. The participant's percentages of the targeted functional play skills for the intervention toys remained high 1 week and 2 weeks after the intervention ceased...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Chelsea K Edwards, Robin K Landa, Sarah E Frampton, M Alice Shillingsburg
Research with individuals with disabilities has demonstrated the utility of intervention approaches to address toy play, also referred to as functional leisure engagement (FLE). Examples include prompting FLE, blocking stereotypy, and differentially reinforcing appropriate FLE with social or automatic (i.e., access to stereotypy) reinforcers. Backward chaining has yet to be evaluated, but may be useful for establishing more complex FLE. The current study employed a treatment package consisting of these components with three school-aged children with autism in a therapeutic classroom...
May 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
Maggie W Guy, John E Richards, Bridgette L Tonnsen, Jane E Roberts
Neural correlates of face processing were examined in 12-month-olds at high-risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including 21 siblings of children with ASD (ASIBs) and 15 infants with fragile X syndrome (FXS), as well as 21 low-risk (LR) controls. Event-related potentials were recorded to familiar and novel face and toy stimuli. All infants demonstrated greater N290 amplitude to faces than toys. At the Nc component, LR infants showed greater amplitude to novel stimuli than to their mother's face and own toy, whereas infants with FXS showed the opposite pattern of responses and ASIBs did not differentiate based on familiarity...
March 16, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Célia Rasga, Ana Cristina Quelhas, Ruth M J Byrne
We examine false belief and counterfactual reasoning in children with autism with a new change-of-intentions task. Children listened to stories, for example, Anne is picking up toys and John hears her say she wants to find her ball. John goes away and the reason for Anne's action changes-Anne's mother tells her to tidy her bedroom. We asked, 'What will John believe is the reason that Anne is picking up toys?' which requires a false-belief inference, and 'If Anne's mother hadn't asked Anne to tidy her room, what would have been the reason she was picking up toys?' which requires a counterfactual inference...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Lynn R Gilbertson, Robert A Lutfi, Susan Ellis Weismer
Research on children with autism spectrum disorders suggests differences from neurotypical children in the preference for 'social' versus 'nonsocial' sounds. Conclusions have been based largely on the use of head-turn methodology which has various limitations as a means of establishing auditory preference. In the present study, preference was assessed by measuring the frequency with which children pressed a button to hear different sounds using an interactive toy. Contrary to prior results, both groups displayed a strong preference for the highly social sounds...
May 2017: Cognitive Processing
Erin Kang, Eliana F Klein, Angeline S Lillard, Matthew D Lerner
Although pretend play has long been linked to children's normative cognitive development, inconsistent findings call for greater rigor in examining this relation (Lillard et al., 2013). Spontaneous pretend play is often impacted in atypical development, notably in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Since ASD traits exist along a continuum in the general population, investigating how pretend play varies across the range of ASD symptoms by indexing variations in ASD traits in both typically developing and ASD populations may provide insight into how ASD symptoms may influence the relation between pretend play and associated processes in cognitive development...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Harun Toy, Arzu Hergüner, Sevcan Şimşek, Sabri Hergüner
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have shown that women with autism spectrum disorder have higher rates of menstrual problems, including irregular menstrual cycles, unusually painful periods (dysmenorrhea), and excessive menstrual bleeding. In this study, we investigated the autistic traits in female university students with primary dysmenorrhea (PD). METHODS: Seventy females with PD and 70 females without PD were enrolled in the study. The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was used to measure autistic traits and the Brief Symptom Inventory was used for evaluating anxiety and depression levels...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Matthew T Brodhead, Monerah N Al-Dubayan, Meredith Mates, Emily A Abel, Lauren Brouwers
We evaluated a brief multiple-stimulus without replacement (MSWO) preference assessment conducted in video format with four children with autism. Specifically, we compared the results of a video-based MSWO to the results of a tangible MSWO. Toys identified as highly preferred (HP) in the video-based MSWO were also HP in the tangible MSWO for three of four participants, and correlations between video-based and tangible MSWO assessment results across participants were strong and statistically significant. Therefore, video-based MSWOs may be an accurate compliment to tangible MSWOs for children with autism...
June 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Kevin C Tseng, Sung-Hui Tseng, Hsin-Yi Kathy Cheng
[Purpose] One of the characteristics of autistic children is social interaction difficulties. Although therapeutic toys can promote social interaction, however its related research remains insufficient. The aim of the present study was to build a set of cooperative play toys that are suitable for autistic children. [Subjects and Methods] This study used an innovative product design and development approach as the basis for the creation of cooperative play toys. [Results] The present study has successfully developed cooperative play toys...
July 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Emily Barbara Prince, Elizabeth S Kim, Carla Anne Wall, Eugenia Gisin, Matthew S Goodwin, Elizabeth Schoen Simmons, Kaisa Chawarska, Frederick Shic
Electrodermal activity was examined as a measure of physiological arousal within a naturalistic play context in 2-year-old toddlers ( N = 27) with and without autism spectrum disorder. Toddlers with autism spectrum disorder were found to have greater increases in skin conductance level than their typical peers in response to administered play activities. In the autism spectrum disorder group, a positive relationship was observed between restrictive and repetitive behaviors and skin conductance level increases in response to mechanical toys, whereas the opposite pattern was observed for passive toys...
May 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Bryant C Silbaugh, Terry S Falcomata
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of a lag schedule of positive reinforcement on variability in food consumed by a boy with autism and food selectivity. METHODS: Using single-subject experimental design methodology, an ABAB design was employed. During lag 0 (condition A), high-preferred toys were delivered contingent on consumption of any food. During lag 1 (condition B), high-preferred toys were delivered contingent on consumption of different foods within session...
March 28, 2016: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
Amanda C Kentner, Antoine Khoury, Erika Lima Queiroz, Molly MacRae
Environmental enrichment (EE) has been successful at rescuing the brain from a variety of early-life psychogenic stressors. However, its ability to reverse the behavioral and neural alterations induced by a prenatal maternal infection model of schizophrenia is less clear. Moreover, the specific interactions between the components (i.e. social enhancement, novelty, physical activity) of EE that lead to its success as a supportive intervention have not been adequately identified. In the current study, standard housed female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered either the inflammatory endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100μg/kg) or pyrogen-free saline (equivolume) on gestational day 15...
October 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Clare Harrop, Jonathan Green, Kristelle Hudry
While sex differences in play have been extensively observed in typical development, only a handful of studies have explored this phenomenon in depth with children with autism spectrum disorders. This study explored sex differences in play complexity and toy engagement within caregiver-child interaction samples for preschool-aged children (2-5 years 11 months) with an autism spectrum disorder who were matched to typically developing children on sex and non-verbal development. Overall we found that girls and boys with autism spectrum disorder were largely equivalent in their play complexity...
January 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Irini Giannopulu, Valérie Montreynaud, Tomio Watanabe
Atypical neural architecture causes impairment in communication capabilities and reduces the ability of representing the referential statements of other people in children with autism. During a scenery of "speaker-listener" communication, we have analyzed verbal and emotional expressions in neurotypical children (n = 20) and in children with autism (n = 20). The speaker was always a child, and the listener was a human or a minimalistic robot which reacts to speech expression by nodding only. Although both groups performed the task, everything happens as if the robot could allow children with autism to elaborate a multivariate equation encoding and conceptualizing within his/her brain, and externalizing into unconscious emotion (heart rate) and conscious verbal speech (words)...
May 2016: Cognitive Processing
Sharon Ostfeld-Etzion, Ruth Feldman, Yael Hirschler-Guttenberg, Nathaniel Laor, Ofer Golan
Regulatory difficulties are common in children with autism spectrum disorder. This study focused on an important aspect of self-regulation-the ability to willingly comply with frustrating demands of socialization agents, termed "self-regulated compliance." We studied compliance to parental demands in 40 preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder and 40 matched typically developing preschoolers, during separate interactions with mother and father, while engaging in two paradigms: toy pick-up and delayed gratification, which tap the "do" and "don't" aspects of self-regulated socialization at this age...
October 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Daniel P Sheppard, Lia Kvavilashvili, Nuala Ryder
BACKGROUND: There is a growing body of research into the development of prospective memory (PM) in typically developing children but research is limited in autistic children (Aut) and rarely includes children with more severe symptoms. AIMS: This study is the first to specifically compare event-based PM in severely autistic children to mildly autistic and typically developing children. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Fourteen mildly autistic children and 14 severely autistic children, aged 5-13 years, were matched for educational attainment with 26 typically developing children aged 5-6 years...
February 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Mikhail Kissine, Julie Cano-Chervel, Sophie Carlier, Philippe De Brabanter, Lesley Ducenne, Marie-Charlotte Pairon, Nicolas Deconinck, Véronique Delvenne, Jacqueline Leybaert
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder are often said to present a global pragmatic impairment. However, there is some observational evidence that context-based comprehension of indirect requests may be preserved in autism. In order to provide experimental confirmation to this hypothesis, indirect speech act comprehension was tested in a group of 15 children with autism between 7 and 12 years and a group of 20 typically developing children between 2:7 and 3:6 years. The aim of the study was to determine whether children with autism can display genuinely contextual understanding of indirect requests...
2015: PloS One
Douglas W Maynard, T A McDonald, Trini Stickle
This paper is a single case study involving a visit to a diagnostic clinic for autism spectrum disorder. A young boy finds a toy that he can hold with one hand and spin with another. In order to retrieve the toy and leave it in the clinic, the parents engage in a team effort. We describe this achievement in terms of two styles of practice or interactional routines with differing participation frameworks.We examine not only how the parents work as a team using these styles, but also how they improvise to extract the spinning toy from their son’s grasp with minimal protest on his part...
February 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Blythe A Corbett, Alexandra P Key, Lydia Qualls, Stephanie Fecteau, Cassandra Newsom, Catherine Coke, Paul Yoder
The efficacy of a peer-mediated, theatre-based intervention on social competence in participants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was tested. Thirty 8-to-14 year-olds with ASD were randomly assigned to the treatment (n = 17) or a wait-list control (n = 13) group. Immediately after treatment, group effects were seen on social ability, (d = .77), communication symptoms (d = -.86), group play with toys in the company of peers (d = .77), immediate memory of faces as measured by neuropsychological (d = .75) and ERP methods (d = ...
February 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Daniel R Mitteer, Patrick W Romani, Brian D Greer, Wayne W Fisher
Problem behavior exhibited by individuals with autism can be disruptive to family traditions, such as decorating for the holidays. We present data for a 6-year-old girl who engaged in automatically reinforced pica and destruction of holiday decorations. Treatment was evaluated within an ABCDCD reversal design. During baseline (Phases A and B), we observed elevated rates of problem behavior. We implemented differential reinforcement of alternative behavior in Phase C to teach a response to compete with problem behavior...
December 2015: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
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