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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202705/moderators-and-predictors-of-response-to-behavior-therapy-for-tics-in-tourette-syndrome
#1
Denis G Sukhodolsky, Douglas W Woods, John Piacentini, Sabine Wilhelm, Alan L Peterson, Lily Katsovich, James Dziura, John T Walkup, Lawrence Scahill
OBJECTIVE: To examine moderators and predictors of response to behavior therapy for tics in children and adults with Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorders. METHODS: Data from 2 10-week, multisite studies (1 in children and 1 in adults; total n = 248) comparing comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics (CBIT) to psychoeducation and supportive therapy (PST) were combined for moderator analyses. Participants (177 male, 71 female) had a mean age of 21.5 ± 13...
February 15, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168210/white-matter-predicts-functional-connectivity-in-premanifest-huntington-s-disease
#2
Peter McColgan, Sarah Gregory, Adeel Razi, Kiran K Seunarine, Fatma Gargouri, Alexandra Durr, Raymund A C Roos, Blair R Leavitt, Rachael I Scahill, Chris A Clark, Sarah J Tabrizi, Geraint Rees, A Coleman, J Decolongon, M Fan, T Petkau, C Jauffret, D Justo, S Lehericy, K Nigaud, R Valabrègue, A Choonderbeek, E P T Hart, D J Hensman Moss, H Crawford, E Johnson, M Papoutsi, C Berna, R Reilmann, N Weber, J Stout, I Labuschagne, B Landwehrmeyer, M Orth, H Johnson
OBJECTIVES: The distribution of pathology in neurodegenerative disease can be predicted by the organizational characteristics of white matter in healthy brains. However, we have very little evidence for the impact these pathological changes have on brain function. Understanding any such link between structure and function is critical for understanding how underlying brain pathology influences the progressive behavioral changes associated with neurodegeneration. Here, we demonstrate such a link between structure and function in individuals with premanifest Huntington's...
February 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120263/investigation-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-autistic-traits-in-an-adolescent-sample-with-anorexia-nervosa
#3
Valentina Postorino, Lawrence Scahill, Lavinia De Peppo, Laura Maria Fatta, Valeria Zanna, Maria Chiara Castiglioni, Scott Gillespie, Stefano Vicari, Luigi Mazzone
This study aimed to examine the presence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in a sample of female adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) during the acute phase of illness. We also compare the level of autistic traits, social perception skills and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in four groups: AN, ASD, and two gender- and age-matched control groups. Of the 30 AN participants, only three scored above the conventional ADOS-2 threshold for ASD. The AN participants were similar to their controls on autistic trait measures, and to the ASD group on obsessive-compulsive measures, and on theory of mind ability and affect recognition measures...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033074/preoperative-feeding-neonates-with-cardiac-disease
#4
Carly J Scahill, Eric M Graham, Andrew M Atz, Scott M Bradley, Minoo N Kavarana, Sinai C Zyblewski
BACKGROUND: The potential for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in neonates requiring cardiac surgery has contributed largely to wide feeding practice variations and a hesitation to initiate enteral feeding during the preoperative period, specifically those patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of neonates undergoing cardiac surgery at a single institution between July 2011 and July 2013 was performed. The primary objective of this study was to determine if preoperative feeding was associated with NEC in neonates requiring cardiac surgery...
January 2017: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995047/the-relationship-between-epilepsy-and-sexual-dysfunction-a-review-of-the-literature
#5
REVIEW
Muhammad Atif, Muhammad Rehan Sarwar, Shane Scahill
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Regardless of the disease states that people suffer from, maintaining sexual function is an important indicator of quality of life. The objective of this review was to figure out the relationship between epilepsy, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and sexual dysfunction. RESULTS: In various epidemiological and clinical studies, epilepsy has been correlated with a reduction in sexual function. This sexual dysfunction is not always detected in epileptic patients until systematic efforts are put in place, as part of the assessment and treatment process...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939917/corrigendum-to-increased-central-microglial-activation-associated-with-peripheral-cytokine-levels-in-premanifest-huntington-s-disease-gene-carriers-neurobiol-dis-83-2015-115-121
#6
Marios Politis, Nayana Lahiri, Flavia Niccolini, Paul Su, Kit Wu, Paolo Giannetti, Rachael I Scahill, Federico E Turkheimer, Sarah J Tabrizi, Paola Piccini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933228/who-inrud-prescribing-indicators-and-prescribing-trends-of-antibiotics-in-the-accident-and-emergency-department-of-bahawal-victoria-hospital-pakistan
#7
Muhammad Atif, Muhammad Azeem, Muhammad Rehan Sarwar, Samia Shahid, Sidra Javaid, Huria Ikram, Uzma Baig, Shane Scahill
A descriptive, retrospective and cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prescribing practices and antibiotic use patterns in the Accident and Emergency department of the Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur, Pakistan. A sample of 4320 prescriptions (systematic random sampling) was drawn out of a total of 1,080,000 prescriptions written during the period 1st January-31st December 2014. The standard World Health Organization/International Network for Rational Use of Drugs prescribing indicators were used to determine the prescribing practices of physicians...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917460/moderators-of-parent-training-for-disruptive-behaviors-in-young-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Luc Lecavalier, Tristram Smith, Cynthia Johnson, Karen Bearss, Naomi Swiezy, Michael G Aman, Denis G Sukhodolsky, Yanhong Deng, James Dziura, Lawrence Scahill
We conducted a 6 month, randomized trial of parent training (PT) versus a parent education program (PEP) in 180 young children (158 boys, 22 girls), ages 3-7 years, with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). PT was superior to PEP in decreasing disruptive and noncompliant behaviors. In the current study, we assess moderators of treatment response in this trial. Thirteen clinical and demographic variables were evaluated as potential moderators of three outcome variables: the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability subscale (ABC-I), Home Situations Questionnaire (HSQ), and Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement Scale (CGI-I)...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893955/using-a-patient-centered-outcome-measure-to-test-methylphenidate-versus-placebo-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Lawrence Scahill, Karen Bearss, Rena Sarhangian, Christopher J McDougle, L Eugene Arnold, Michael G Aman, James T McCracken, Elaine Tierney, Scott Gillespie, Valentina Postorino, Benedetto Vitiello
OBJECTIVES: Parent rating scales are commonly used to evaluate change in clinical trials. Despite advantages, these measures may not capture parental impression of the child's most salient problems. We examine the use of parent target problems (PTPs) in a randomized trial of methylphenidate (MPH) in children with autism spectrum disorder and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. METHODS: This multisite, 4-week, randomized crossover trial compared three dose levels (low, medium, and high) of MPH with placebo...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864156/neurocognitive-predictors-of-treatment-response-to-randomized-treatment-in-adults-with-tic-disorders
#10
Amitai Abramovitch, Lauren S Hallion, Hannah E Reese, Douglas W Woods, Alan Peterson, John T Walkup, John Piacentini, Lawrence Scahill, Thilo Deckersbach, Sabine Wilhelm
Tourette's disorder (TS) and chronic tic disorder (CTD) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by involuntary vocal and motor tics. Consequently, TS/CTD have been conceptualized as disorders of cognitive and motor inhibitory control. However, most neurocognitive studies have found comparable or superior inhibitory capacity among individuals with TS/CTD relative to healthy controls. These findings have led to the hypothesis that individuals with TS/CTD develop increased inhibitory control due to the constant need to inhibit tics...
March 6, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843007/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-intensive-multidisciplinary-intervention-for-pediatric-feeding-disorders-how-standard-is-the-standard-of-care
#11
William G Sharp, Valerie M Volkert, Lawrence Scahill, Courtney E McCracken, Barbara McElhanon
OBJECTIVE: To assess models of care and conduct a meta-analysis of program outcomes for children receiving intensive, multidisciplinary intervention for pediatric feeding disorders. STUDY DESIGN: We searched Medline, PsycINFO, and PubMed databases (2000-2015) in peer-reviewed journals for studies that examined the treatment of children with chronic food refusal receiving intervention at day treatment or inpatient hospital programs. Inclusion criteria required the presentation of quantitative data on food consumption, feeding behavior, and/or growth status before and after intervention...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726426/no-apparent-cardiac-conduction-effects-of-acute-treatment-with-risperidone-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Lan Chi Vo, Christopher Snyder, Courtney McCracken, Christopher J McDougle, James T McCracken, Michael G Aman, Elaine Tierney, L Eugene Arnold, Daniel Levi, Michael Kelleman, Deirdre Carroll, John Morrissey, Benedetto Vitiello, Lawrence Scahill
OBJECTIVES: Risperidone is approved for the treatment of serious behavioral problems in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined the effects of risperidone on cardiac conduction in children with ASD. METHODS: Data were collected from an 8-week, five-site trial conducted by the Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network. Children (age 5-17 years) were randomly assigned to risperidone (n = 49) or placebo (n = 52) under double-blind conditions...
December 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711048/a-single-dose-randomized-controlled-proof-of-mechanism-study-of-a-novel-vasopressin-1a-receptor-antagonist-rg7713-in-high-functioning-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Daniel Umbricht, Marta Del Valle Rubido, Eric Hollander, James T McCracken, Frederick Shic, Lawrence Scahill, Jana Noeldeke, Lauren Boak, Omar Khwaja, Lisa Squassante, Christophe Grundschober, Heidemarie Kletzl, Paulo Fontoura
The core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) include impaired social communication, repetitive behaviors, and restricted interests. No effective pharmacotherapy for these core deficits exists. Within the domain of social communication, the vasopressin system is implicated in social cognition and social signaling deficits of ASD, and represents a potential therapeutic target. We assessed the effects of a single 20 mg intravenous dose of the arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (V1a) antagonist, RG7713, on exploratory biomarkers (eye tracking), behavioral and clinical measures of social cognition and communication (affective speech recognition (ASR), reading the mind in the eyes, olfactory identification, scripted interaction), and safety and tolerability in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study of 19 high-functioning adult male subjects with DSM-IV Autistic Disorder (age 18-45 years; full scale IQ >70; ABC-Irritability subscale ⩽13)...
November 16, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688887/assessment-of-who-inrud-core-drug-use-indicators-in-two-tertiary-care-hospitals-of-bahawalpur-punjab-pakistan
#14
Muhammad Atif, Muhammad Rehan Sarwar, Muhammad Azeem, Danial Umer, Abdul Rauf, Arslan Rasool, Muhammad Ahsan, Shane Scahill
BACKGROUND: Medicines are a main therapeutic intervention provided within hospitals and their proper use in the outpatient setting is important for patients and the community. The objective of this study was to evaluate drug use patterns in the outpatient departments (OPDs) of two tertiary care hospitals (Bahawal Victoria Hospital and Civil Hospital) in the Bahawalpur district of the Punjab province of Pakistan by employing the standard World Health Organization/International Network of Rational Use of Drugs (WHO/INRUD) drug use indicators...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477323/natural-variation-in-sensory-motor-white-matter-organization-influences-manifestations-of-huntington-s-disease
#15
Michael Orth, Sarah Gregory, Rachael I Scahill, Isabella Sm Mayer, Lora Minkova, Stefan Klöppel, Kiran K Seunarine, Lara Boyd, Beth Borowsky, Ralf Reilmann, G Bernhard Landwehrmeyer, Blair R Leavitt, Raymund Ac Roos, Alexandra Durr, Geraint Rees, John C Rothwell, Douglas Langbehn, Sarah J Tabrizi
While the HTT CAG-repeat expansion mutation causing Huntington's disease (HD) is highly correlated with the rate of pathogenesis leading to disease onset, considerable variance in age-at-onset remains unexplained. Therefore, other factors must influence the pathogenic process. We asked whether these factors were related to natural biological variation in the sensory-motor system. In 243 participants (96 premanifest and 35 manifest HD; 112 controls), sensory-motor structural MRI, tractography, resting-state fMRI, electrophysiology (including SEP amplitudes), motor score ratings, and grip force as sensory-motor performance were measured...
December 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462496/health-related-quality-of-life-and-depression-among-medical-sales-representatives-in-pakistan
#16
Muhammad Atif, Arslan Bashir, Quratulain Saleem, Rabia Hussain, Shane Scahill, Zaheer-Ud-Din Babar
Pharmaceutical companies have been known to pose stress and mental harassment on medical sales representatives (MSRs) in-order to increase pharmaceutical sales. This cross sectional descriptive study, conducted during November and December 2014 in the Lahore and Bahawalpur districts of Punjab, Pakistan, evaluates the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and extent of depression among MSRs in Pakistan. The significant predictors of HRQoL and depression among the MSRs were also determined. Using a convenience sampling technique, all consenting MSRs (N = 318) of pharmaceutical companies were asked to self-complete the Short Form-36 (SF-36v2) Health Survey and Stanford Personal Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8)...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27343887/effect-of-parent-training-on-adaptive-behavior-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-disruptive-behavior-results-of-a-randomized-trial
#17
Lawrence Scahill, Karen Bearss, Luc Lecavalier, Tristram Smith, Naomi Swiezy, Michael G Aman, Denis G Sukhodolsky, Courtney McCracken, Noha Minshawi, Kylan Turner, Lynne Levato, Celine Saulnier, James Dziura, Cynthia Johnson
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the impact of parent training on adaptive behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and disruptive behavior. METHODS: This was a 24-week, 6-site, randomized trial of parent training versus parent education in 180 children with ASD (aged 3-7 years; 158 boys and 22 girls) and moderate or greater behavioral problems. Parent training included specific strategies to manage disruptive behavior over 11 to 13 sessions, 2 telephone boosters, and 2 home visits...
July 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318219/psychometric-properties-of-the-children-s-sleep-habits-questionnaire-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Cynthia R Johnson, Alexandra DeMand, Luc Lecavalier, Tristram Smith, Michael Aman, Emily Foldes, Lawrence Scahill
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Sleep disturbances in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are very common. Psychometrically sound instruments are essential to assess these disturbances. Children's Sleep Habit Questionnaire (CSHQ) is a widely used measure in ASD. The purpose of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of the CSHQ in a sample of children with ASD. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Parents/caregivers of 310 children (mean age: 4.7) with ASD completed the CSHQ at study enrollment...
April 2016: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27211109/visuospatial-processing-deficits-linked-to-posterior-brain-regions-in-premanifest-and-early-stage-huntington-s-disease
#19
Izelle Labuschagne, Amy Mulick Cassidy, Rachael I Scahill, Eileanoir B Johnson, Elin Rees, Alison O'Regan, Sarah Queller, Chris Frost, Blair R Leavitt, Alexandra Dürr, Raymond Roos, Gail Owen, Beth Borowsky, Sarah J Tabrizi, Julie C Stout
OBJECTIVES: Visuospatial processing deficits have been reported in Huntington's disease (HD). To date, no study has examined associations between visuospatial cognition and posterior brain findings in HD. METHODS: We compared 119 premanifest (55> and 64<10.8 years to expected disease onset) and 104 early symptomatic (59 stage-1 and 45 stage-2) gene carriers, with 110 controls on visual search and mental rotation performance at baseline and 12 months. In the disease groups, we also examined associations between task performance and disease severity, functional capacity and structural brain measures...
July 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27188817/huntington-disease
#20
REVIEW
Gillian P Bates, Ray Dorsey, James F Gusella, Michael R Hayden, Chris Kay, Blair R Leavitt, Martha Nance, Christopher A Ross, Rachael I Scahill, Ronald Wetzel, Edward J Wild, Sarah J Tabrizi
Huntington disease is devastating to patients and their families - with autosomal dominant inheritance, onset typically in the prime of adult life, progressive course, and a combination of motor, cognitive and behavioural features. The disease is caused by an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat (of variable length) in HTT, the gene that encodes the protein huntingtin. In mutation carriers, huntingtin is produced with abnormally long polyglutamine sequences that confer toxic gains of function and predispose the protein to fragmentation, resulting in neuronal dysfunction and death...
23, 2015: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
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