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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141507/sandwiched-white-adipose-tissue-a-novel-microphysiological-system-of-human-adipose-tissue
#1
Frank H Lau, Kelly Vogel, John P Luckett, Maxwell Hunt, Alicia Meyer, Camille L Rogers, Oren Tessler, Charles L Dupin, Hugo St Hilaire, Kazi N Islam, Trivia Frazier, Jeffrey Gimble, Steven Scahill
White adipose tissue (WAT) is a critical organ in both health and disease. However, physiologically faithful tissue culture models of primary human WAT remain limited, at best. Here we describe a novel WAT culture system in which primary human WAT is sandwiched between tissue-engineered sheets of adipose-derived stromal cells. This construct, called "sandwiched white adipose tissue" (SWAT), can be defined as a Microphysiological System (MPS) since it is a tissue-engineered, multicellular, 3D organ construct produced using human cells...
November 16, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066997/recommendations-for-the-use-of-automated-gray-matter-segmentation-tools-evidence-from-huntington-s-disease
#2
Eileanoir B Johnson, Sarah Gregory, Hans J Johnson, Alexandra Durr, Blair R Leavitt, Raymund A Roos, Geraint Rees, Sarah J Tabrizi, Rachael I Scahill
The selection of an appropriate segmentation tool is a challenge facing any researcher aiming to measure gray matter (GM) volume. Many tools have been compared, yet there is currently no method that can be recommended above all others; in particular, there is a lack of validation in disease cohorts. This work utilizes a clinical dataset to conduct an extensive comparison of segmentation tools. Our results confirm that all tools have advantages and disadvantages, and we present a series of considerations that may be of use when selecting a GM segmentation method, rather than a ranking of these tools...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048234/parent-education-for-young-children-with-autism-and-disruptive-behavior-response-to-active-control-treatment
#3
Jessica Bradshaw, Karen Bearss, Courtney McCracken, Tristram Smith, Cynthia Johnson, Luc Lecavalier, Naomi Swiezy, Lawrence Scahill
This study examines parent and child characteristics in young children with autism spectrum disorder and disruptive behavior who showed a positive response to a parent education program in a randomized clinical trial of parent training. Children with autism spectrum disorder (N = 180) were randomized to parent training (PT) or parent education program (PEP) for 6 months. Using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale, masked independent evaluators rated positive response in 68.5% of children in PT compared to 39...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029679/investigating-habituation-to-premonitory-urges-in-behavior-therapy-for-tic-disorders
#4
David C Houghton, Matthew R Capriotti, Lawrence D Scahill, Sabine Wilhelm, Alan L Peterson, John T Walkup, John Piacentini, Douglas W Woods
Behavior therapy is effective for Persistent Tic Disorders (PTDs), but behavioral processes facilitating tic reduction are not well understood. One process, habituation, is thought to create tic reduction through decreases in premonitory urge severity. The current study tested whether premonitory urges decreased in youth with PTDs (N = 126) and adults with PTDs (N = 122) who participated in parallel randomized clinical trials comparing behavior therapy to psychoeducation and supportive therapy (PST). Trends in premonitory urges, tic severity, and treatment outcome were analyzed according to the predictions of a habituation model, whereby urge severity would be expected to decrease in those who responded to behavior therapy...
November 2017: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988339/teaching-parents-behavioral-strategies-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd-effects-on-stress-strain-and-competence
#5
Suzannah Iadarola, Lynne Levato, Bryan Harrison, Tristram Smith, Luc Lecavalier, Cynthia Johnson, Naomi Swiezy, Karen Bearss, Lawrence Scahill
We report on parent outcomes from a randomized clinical trial of parent training (PT) versus psychoeducation (PEP) in 180 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and disruptive behavior. We compare the impact of PT and PEP on parent outcomes: Parenting Stress Index (PSI), Parent Sense of Competence (PSOC), and Caregiver Strain Questionnaire (CGSQ). Mixed-effects linear models evaluated differences at weeks 12 and 24, controlling for baseline scores. Parents in PT reported greater improvement than PEP on the PSOC (ES = 0...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975278/survival-end-points-for-huntington-disease-trials-prior-to-a-motor-diagnosis
#6
Jeffrey D Long, James A Mills, Blair R Leavitt, Alexandra Durr, Raymund A Roos, Julie C Stout, Ralf Reilmann, Bernhard Landwehrmeyer, Sarah Gregory, Rachael I Scahill, Douglas R Langbehn, Sarah J Tabrizi
Importance: Predictive genetic testing in Huntington disease (HD) enables therapeutic trials in HTT gene expansion mutation carriers prior to a motor diagnosis. Progression-free survival (PFS) is the composite of a motor diagnosis or a progression event, whichever comes first. Objective: To determine if PFS provides feasible sample sizes for trials with mutation carriers who have not yet received a motor diagnosis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study uses data from the 2-phase, longitudinal cohort studies called Track and from a longitudinal cohort study called the Cooperative Huntington Observational Research Trial (COHORT)...
November 1, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962599/predictors-of-unsuccessful-interim-treatment-outcomes-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients
#7
Muhammad Atif, Arslan Bashir, Nafees Ahmad, Razia Kaneez Fatima, Sehar Saba, Shane Scahill
BACKGROUND: Interim treatment outcomes at 6-months for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment are among the most basic performance monitoring and key evaluation indicators in the Stop and End TB strategy of the World Health Organization (WHO). Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the interim treatment outcomes of MDR-TB patients in Pakistan. METHODS: This study was conducted at the Programmatic Management Unit for Drug-resistance TB (PMDT) site of the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP), Pakistan...
September 29, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947121/structural-imaging-in-premanifest-and-manifest-huntington-disease
#8
Rachael I Scahill, Ralph Andre, Sarah J Tabrizi, Elizabeth H Aylward
Huntington disease (HD) neuropathology has a devastating effect on brain structure and consequently brain function; neuroimaging provides a means to assess these effects in gene carriers. In this chapter we first outline the unique utility of structural imaging in understanding HD and discuss some of the acquisition and analysis techniques currently available. We review the existing literature to summarize what we know so far about structural brain changes across the spectrum of disease from premanifest through to manifest disease...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942805/randomized-clinical-trial-of-dialectical-behavior-therapy-for-preadolescent-children-with-disruptive-mood-dysregulation-disorder-feasibility-and-outcomes
#9
Francheska Perepletchikova, Donald Nathanson, Seth R Axelrod, Caitlin Merrill, Amy Walker, Meredith Grossman, James Rebeta, Lawrence Scahill, Joan Kaufman, Barbara Flye, Elizabeth Mauer, John Walkup
OBJECTIVE: Persistent irritability and behavior outbursts in disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) are associated with severe impairment in childhood and with negative adolescent and adult outcomes. There are no empirically established treatments for DMDD. This study examined the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of dialectical behavior therapy adapted for preadolescent children (DBT-C) with DMDD. METHOD: Children 7 to 12 years old with DMDD (N = 43) were randomly assigned 1:1 to DBT-C or treatment as usual (TAU)...
October 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906031/design-optimization-for-clinical-trials-in-early-stage-manifest-huntington-s-disease
#10
Chris Frost, Amy Mulick, Rachael I Scahill, Gail Owen, Elizabeth Aylward, Blair R Leavitt, Alexandra Durr, Raymund A C Roos, Beth Borowsky, Julie C Stout, Ralf Reilmann, Douglas R Langbehn, Sarah J Tabrizi, Cristina Sampaio
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to inform the design of randomized clinical trials in early-stage manifest Huntington's disease through analysis of longitudinal data from TRACK-Huntington's Disease (TRACK-HD), a multicenter observational study. METHODS: We compute sample sizes required for trials with candidate clinical, functional, and imaging outcomes, whose aims are to reduce rates of change. The calculations use a 2-stage approach: first using linear mixed models to estimate mean rates of change and components of variability from TRACK-HD data and second using these to predict sample sizes for a range of trial designs...
September 14, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806732/loss-of-the-chromatin-modifier-kdm2aa-causes-brafv600e-independent-spontaneous-melanoma-in-zebrafish
#11
Catherine M Scahill, Zsofia Digby, Ian M Sealy, Sonia Wojciechowska, Richard J White, John E Collins, Derek L Stemple, Till Bartke, Marie E Mathers, E Elizabeth Patton, Elisabeth M Busch-Nentwich
KDM2A is a histone demethylase associated with transcriptional silencing, however very little is known about its in vivo role in development and disease. Here we demonstrate that loss of the orthologue kdm2aa in zebrafish causes widespread transcriptional disruption and leads to spontaneous melanomas at a high frequency. Fish homozygous for two independent premature stop codon alleles show reduced growth and survival, a strong male sex bias, and homozygous females exhibit a progressive oogenesis defect. kdm2aa mutant fish also develop melanomas from early adulthood onwards which are independent from mutations in braf and other common oncogenes and tumour suppressors as revealed by deep whole exome sequencing...
August 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723227/extended-release-guanfacine-does-not-show-a-large-effect-on-tic-severity-in-children-with-chronic-tic-disorders
#12
Tanya K Murphy, Thomas V Fernandez, Barbara J Coffey, Omar Rahman, Allison Gavaletz, Camille E Hanks, Caitlin S Tillberg, Laura Ibanez Gomez, Denis G Sukhodolsky, Lily Katsovich, Lawrence Scahill
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the tolerability, safety, and preliminary efficacy of extended-release guanfacine in children with chronic tic disorders, including Tourette's disorder (collectively referred to as CTD). METHODS: This was a multisite, 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The primary outcome measure was the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) total score. Key secondary outcomes included the Improvement item of Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) scale and the Tic Symptom Self-report (TSSR)...
November 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701745/a-single-dose-randomized-controlled-proof-of-mechanism-study-of-a-novel-vasopressin-1a-receptor-antagonist-rg7713-in-high-functioning-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Daniel Umbricht, Marta Del Valle Rubido, Eric Hollander, James T McCracken, Frederick Shic, Lawrence Scahill, Jana Noeldeke, Lauren Boak, Omar Khwaja, Lisa Squassante, Christophe Grundschober, Heidemarie Kletzl, Paulo Fontoura
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/npp.2016.232.
August 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632204/successful-pharmacotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-severe-feeding-aversion-with-mechanistic-insights-from-cross-species-neuronal-remodeling
#14
W G Sharp, A G Allen, K H Stubbs, K K Criado, R Sanders, C E McCracken, R G Parsons, L Scahill, S L Gourley
Pediatric feeding disorders affect up to 5% of children, causing severe food intake problems that can result in serious medical and developmental outcomes. Behavioral intervention (BI) is effective in extinguishing feeding aversions, and also expert-dependent, time/labor-intensive and not well understood at a neurobiological level. Here we first conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing BI with BI plus d-cycloserine (DCS). DCS is a partial N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonist shown to augment extinction therapies in multiple anxiety disorders...
June 20, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601668/developmental-and-clinical-predictors-of-comorbidity-for-youth-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#15
Tara S Peris, Michelle Rozenman, R Lindsey Bergman, Susanna Chang, Joseph O'Neill, John Piacentini
OBJECTIVE: To date, few studies of childhood obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have been adequately powered to examine patterns and predictors of comorbidity, despite the frequency with which it occurs. We address this gap, drawing on a large sample of youth with OCD who were systematically assessed through research and clinical programs in a university-based specialty program for children and adolescents with OCD. We examine patterns of comorbidity across different epochs of development and predict specific classes of OCD (comorbidity internalizing/externalizing/both) from key demographic and clinical variables that may be useful in guiding individualized treatment...
October 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601473/neurofilament-light-protein-in-blood-as-a-potential-biomarker-of-neurodegeneration-in-huntington-s-disease-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis
#16
Lauren M Byrne, Filipe B Rodrigues, Kaj Blennow, Alexandra Durr, Blair R Leavitt, Raymund A C Roos, Rachael I Scahill, Sarah J Tabrizi, Henrik Zetterberg, Douglas Langbehn, Edward J Wild
BACKGROUND: Blood biomarkers of neuronal damage could facilitate clinical management of and therapeutic development for Huntington's disease. We investigated whether neurofilament light protein NfL (also known as NF-L) in blood is a potential prognostic marker of neurodegeneration in patients with Huntington's disease. METHODS: We did a retrospective analysis of healthy controls and carriers of CAG expansion mutations in HTT participating in the 3-year international TRACK-HD study...
August 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600643/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-parent-training-for-disruptive-behavior-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
REVIEW
Valentina Postorino, William G Sharp, Courtney E McCracken, Karen Bearss, T Lindsey Burrell, A Nichole Evans, Lawrence Scahill
Parent training (PT) has emerged as a promising treatment for disruptive behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This review summarizes the essential elements of PT for disruptive behavior in children with ASD and evaluates the available evidence for PT using both descriptive and meta-analytic procedures. We searched Medline, PsycINFO, and PubMed databases (1980-2016) in peer-reviewed journals for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of PT for disruptive behavior in children with ASD. The systematic search of 2023 publications yielded eight RCTs involving a total of 653 participants...
December 2017: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465825/investigation-of-antimicrobial-use-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-southern-punjab-pakistan-using-who-methodology
#18
Muhammad Atif, Muhammad Azeem, Anum Saqib, Shane Scahill
BACKGROUND: Globally, between 20 to 50% of antimicrobial consumption is inappropriate, causing significant impact on the quality of care, cost of therapy and incidence of adverse drug reactions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prescribing patterns and utilization of antimicrobials in ten selected wards at Bahawal Victoria Hospital (BVH), Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was designed using the World Health Organization (WHO) indicators for antimicrobial use...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422761/topological-length-of-white-matter-connections-predicts-their-rate-of-atrophy-in-premanifest-huntington-s-disease
#19
Peter McColgan, Kiran K Seunarine, Sarah Gregory, Adeel Razi, Marina Papoutsi, Jeffrey D Long, James A Mills, Eileanoir Johnson, Alexandra Durr, Raymund A C Roos, Blair R Leavitt, Julie C Stout, Rachael I Scahill, Chris A Clark, Geraint Rees, Sarah J Tabrizi, The Track-On Hd Investigators
We lack a mechanistic explanation for the stereotyped pattern of white matter loss seen in Huntington's disease (HD). While the earliest white matter changes are seen around the striatum, within the corpus callosum, and in the posterior white matter tracts, the order in which these changes occur and why these white matter connections are specifically vulnerable is unclear. Here, we use diffusion tractography in a longitudinal cohort of individuals yet to develop clinical symptoms of HD to identify a hierarchy of vulnerability, where the topological length of white matter connections between a brain area and its neighbors predicts the rate of atrophy over 24 months...
April 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399433/embodied-emotion-impairment-in-huntington-s-disease
#20
Iris Trinkler, Sévérine Devignevielle, Amal Achaibou, Romain V Ligneul, Pierre Brugières, Laurent Cleret de Langavant, Beatrice De Gelder, Rachael Scahill, Sophie Schwartz, Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Lévi
Theories of embodied cognition suggest that perceiving an emotion involves somatovisceral and motoric re-experiencing. Here we suggest taking such an embodied stance when looking at emotion processing deficits in patients with Huntington's Disease (HD), a neurodegenerative motor disorder. The literature on these patients' emotion recognition deficit has recently been enriched by some reports of impaired emotion expression. The goal of the study was to find out if expression deficits might be linked to a more motoric level of impairment...
March 18, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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