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Lan Chi Vo, Christopher Snyder, Courtney McCracken, Christopher J McDougle, James T McCracken, Michael G Aman, Elaine Tierney, L Eugene Arnold, Daniel Levi, Michael Kelleman, Deirdre Carroll, John Morrissey, Benedetto Vitiello, Lawrence Scahill
OBJECTIVES: Risperidone is approved for the treatment of serious behavioral problems in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined the effects of risperidone on cardiac conduction in children with ASD. METHODS: Data were collected from an 8-week, five-site trial conducted by the Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network. Children (age 5-17 years) were randomly assigned to risperidone (n = 49) or placebo (n = 52) under double-blind conditions...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Daniel Umbricht, Marta Del Valle Rubido, Eric Hollander, James T McCracken, Frederick Shic, Lawrence Scahill, Jana Noeldeke, Lauren Boak, Omar Khwaja, Lisa Squassante, Christophe Grundschober, Heidemarie Kletzl, Paulo Fontoura
The core symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) include impaired social communication, repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. No effective pharmacotherapy for these core deficits exists. Within the domain of social communication, the vasopressin system is implicated in social cognition and social signaling deficits of ASD, and represents a potential therapeutic target. We assessed the effects of a single 20 mg intravenous dose of the arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (V1a) antagonist, RG7713, on exploratory biomarkers (eye-tracking), behavioral and clinical measures of social cognition and communication (affective speech recognition [ASR], reading the mind in the eyes [RMET], olfactory identification, scripted interaction), and safety and tolerability in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study of 19 high-functioning adult male subjects with DSM-IV Autistic Disorder (age 18-45 years; full scale IQ>70; ABC-Irritability subscale ⩽13)...
October 6, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Muhammad Atif, Muhammad Rehan Sarwar, Muhammad Azeem, Danial Umer, Abdul Rauf, Arslan Rasool, Muhammad Ahsan, Shane Scahill
BACKGROUND: Medicines are a main therapeutic intervention provided within hospitals and their proper use in the outpatient setting is important for patients and the community. The objective of this study was to evaluate drug use patterns in the outpatient departments (OPDs) of two tertiary care hospitals (Bahawal Victoria Hospital and Civil Hospital) in the Bahawalpur district of the Punjab province of Pakistan by employing the standard World Health Organization/International Network of Rational Use of Drugs (WHO/INRUD) drug use indicators...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Michael Orth, Sarah Gregory, Rachael I Scahill, Isabella Sm Mayer, Lora Minkova, Stefan Klöppel, Kiran K Seunarine, Lara Boyd, Beth Borowsky, Ralf Reilmann, G Bernhard Landwehrmeyer, Blair R Leavitt, Raymund Ac Roos, Alexandra Durr, Geraint Rees, John C Rothwell, Douglas Langbehn, Sarah J Tabrizi
While the HTT CAG-repeat expansion mutation causing Huntington's disease (HD) is highly correlated with the rate of pathogenesis leading to disease onset, considerable variance in age-at-onset remains unexplained. Therefore, other factors must influence the pathogenic process. We asked whether these factors were related to natural biological variation in the sensory-motor system. In 243 participants (96 premanifest and 35 manifest HD; 112 controls), sensory-motor structural MRI, tractography, resting-state fMRI, electrophysiology (including SEP amplitudes), motor score ratings, and grip force as sensory-motor performance were measured...
August 1, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Muhammad Atif, Arslan Bashir, Quratulain Saleem, Rabia Hussain, Shane Scahill, Zaheer-Ud-Din Babar
Pharmaceutical companies have been known to pose stress and mental harassment on medical sales representatives (MSRs) in-order to increase pharmaceutical sales. This cross sectional descriptive study, conducted during November and December 2014 in the Lahore and Bahawalpur districts of Punjab, Pakistan, evaluates the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and extent of depression among MSRs in Pakistan. The significant predictors of HRQoL and depression among the MSRs were also determined. Using a convenience sampling technique, all consenting MSRs (N = 318) of pharmaceutical companies were asked to self-complete the Short Form-36 (SF-36v2) Health Survey and Stanford Personal Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8)...
2016: SpringerPlus
Lawrence Scahill, Karen Bearss, Luc Lecavalier, Tristram Smith, Naomi Swiezy, Michael G Aman, Denis G Sukhodolsky, Courtney McCracken, Noha Minshawi, Kylan Turner, Lynne Levato, Celine Saulnier, James Dziura, Cynthia Johnson
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the impact of parent training on adaptive behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and disruptive behavior. METHODS: This was a 24-week, 6-site, randomized trial of parent training versus parent education in 180 children with ASD (aged 3-7 years; 158 boys and 22 girls) and moderate or greater behavioral problems. Parent training included specific strategies to manage disruptive behavior over 11 to 13 sessions, 2 telephone boosters, and 2 home visits...
July 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Cynthia R Johnson, Alexandra DeMand, Luc Lecavalier, Tristram Smith, Michael Aman, Emily Foldes, Lawrence Scahill
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Sleep disturbances in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are very common. Psychometrically sound instruments are essential to assess these disturbances. Children's Sleep Habit Questionnaire (CSHQ) is a widely used measure in ASD. The purpose of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of the CSHQ in a sample of children with ASD. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Parents/caregivers of 310 children (mean age: 4.7) with ASD completed the CSHQ at study enrollment...
April 2016: Sleep Medicine
Izelle Labuschagne, Amy Mulick Cassidy, Rachael I Scahill, Eileanoir B Johnson, Elin Rees, Alison O'Regan, Sarah Queller, Chris Frost, Blair R Leavitt, Alexandra Dürr, Raymond Roos, Gail Owen, Beth Borowsky, Sarah J Tabrizi, Julie C Stout
OBJECTIVES: Visuospatial processing deficits have been reported in Huntington's disease (HD). To date, no study has examined associations between visuospatial cognition and posterior brain findings in HD. METHODS: We compared 119 premanifest (55> and 64<10.8 years to expected disease onset) and 104 early symptomatic (59 stage-1 and 45 stage-2) gene carriers, with 110 controls on visual search and mental rotation performance at baseline and 12 months. In the disease groups, we also examined associations between task performance and disease severity, functional capacity and structural brain measures...
July 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Gillian P Bates, Ray Dorsey, James F Gusella, Michael R Hayden, Chris Kay, Blair R Leavitt, Martha Nance, Christopher A Ross, Rachael I Scahill, Ronald Wetzel, Edward J Wild, Sarah J Tabrizi
Huntington disease is devastating to patients and their families - with autosomal dominant inheritance, onset typically in the prime of adult life, progressive course, and a combination of motor, cognitive and behavioural features. The disease is caused by an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat (of variable length) in HTT, the gene that encodes the protein huntingtin. In mutation carriers, huntingtin is produced with abnormally long polyglutamine sequences that confer toxic gains of function and predispose the protein to fragmentation, resulting in neuronal dysfunction and death...
2015: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Lawrence Scahill, Sangchoon Jeon, Susan J Boorin, Christopher J McDougle, Michael G Aman, James Dziura, James T McCracken, Sonia Caprio, L Eugene Arnold, Ginger Nicol, Yanhong Deng, Saankari A Challa, Benedetto Vitiello
OBJECTIVE: We examine weight gain and metabolic consequences of risperidone monotherapy in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHOD: This was a 24-week, multisite, randomized trial of risperidone only versus risperidone plus parent training in 124 children (mean age 6.9 ± 2.35 years; 105 boys and 19 girls) with ASD and serious behavioral problems. We monitored height, weight, waist circumference, and adverse effects during the trial. Fasting blood samples were obtained before treatment and at week 16...
May 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Hannah Kinsey, Shane Scahill, Lynne Bye, Jeff Harrison
OBJECTIVE: To explore pharmacist's views on the shift in ethos, funding and service delivery model introduced through the New Zealand's Community Pharmacy Services Agreement (CPSA). METHODS: A purposive sampling approach drew pharmacists from a matrix who were then contacted via telephone and invited to be interviewed. Semistructured interviews were conducted face-to-face with community pharmacists (n = 17) across urban and rural New Zealand. An interview schedule exploring 12 subject areas was used to facilitate discussion and determine pharmacist's views and understanding of the CPSA...
April 28, 2016: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Michelle Rozenman, Olivia E Johnson, Susanna W Chang, Douglas W Woods, John T Walkup, Sabine Wilhelm, Alan Peterson, Lawrence Scahill, John Piacentini
Tourette's Disorder and other chronic tic disorders are common neurodevelopmental conditions. One characteristic of tic disorders is the premonitory urge, an aversive or unpleasant sensory phenomenon that may precede tics. Initial examination of premonitory urge in pediatric tic disorders suggests that awareness and experience of sensations preceding tics may be related to anxiety and OCD. However, it may be possible that specific anxiety-related symptoms, such as anxious physiologic arousal, are particularly relevant to the experience of premonitory urge...
July 1, 2015: Children's Health Care: Journal of the Association for the Care of Children's Health
Joyce Sprafkin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Lauren M Fleury, Bryan G Scahill, Rilka Taskova
A single-laboratory validation (SLV) study was conducted for the determination of sodium fluoroacetate in dairy powders by LC-tandem MS (LC-MS/MS). Linearity of response was confirmed by analysis of samples fortified over the concentration range 0.10-100 μg/kg. The LOD was estimated to be 0.028 μg/kg (0.028 ppb) from the SD of the measured concentrations of infant formula samples fortified at 0.10 μg/kg. The corresponding LOQ calculates at 0.085 μg/kg (0.085 ppb), which ensures excellent reliability of quantification at the limit of reporting of 1...
January 2016: Journal of AOAC International
Krishnapriya Ramanujam, Michael B Himle, Loran P Hayes, Douglas W Woods, Lawrence Scahill, Denis G Sukhodolsky, Sabine Wilhelm, Thilo Deckersbach, Alan L Peterson, Matt Specht, John T Walkup, Susanna Chang, John Piacentini
Although tics are the defining feature of chronic tic disorders (CTD), many children experience comorbid internalizing and externalizing problems that contribute to impairment across several domains, including family functioning. The current study examined clinical correlates and predictors of caregiver strain in parents of children with CTD. Participants were 123 children and adolescents diagnosed with a CTD who participated in a randomized-controlled trial of behavior therapy for reducing tics. Results showed that a combination of disruptive behavior, inattention/hyperactivity, and tic intensity best explained objective strain and a combination of inattention/hyperactivity and tic intensity were the best predictors of subjective caregiver strain...
2015: Children's Health Care: Journal of the Association for the Care of Children's Health
Shane Scahill, Jane L Fowler, H Laetitia Hattingh, Fiona Kelly, Amanda J Wheeler
OBJECTIVE: Mental health-related problems pose a serious issue for primary care, and community pharmacy could make a significant contribution, but there is a dearth of information. METHODS: This article reports synthesis of the literature on mental health interventions across a range of pharmacy models, and pharmacy services in contexts beyond mental health. To best inform the design of a community pharmacy medication support intervention for mental health consumers, the literature was reported as a conceptual schema and subsequent recommendations for development, implementation and evaluation of the service...
2015: SAGE Open Medicine
Alan L Peterson, Joseph F McGuire, Sabine Wilhelm, John Piacentini, Douglas W Woods, John T Walkup, John P Hatch, Robert Villarreal, Lawrence Scahill
Over the past six decades, behavior therapy has been a major contributor to the development of evidence-based psychotherapy treatments. However, a long-standing concern with behavior therapy among many nonbehavioral clinicians has been the potential risk for symptom substitution. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate symptom substitution in response to behavioral treatments, largely due to measurement and definitional challenges associated with treated psychiatric symptoms. Given the overt motor and vocal tics associated with Tourette's disorder, it presents an excellent opportunity to empirically evaluate the potential risk for symptom substitution associated with behavior therapy...
January 2016: Behavior Therapy
Sarah Gregory, James H Cole, Ruth E Farmer, Elin M Rees, Raymund A C Roos, Reiner Sprengelmeyer, Alexandra Durr, Bernhard Landwehrmeyer, Hui Zhang, Rachael I Scahill, Sarah J Tabrizi, Chris Frost, Nicola Z Hobbs
BACKGROUND: Huntington's disease is marked by progressive neuroanatomical changes, assumed to underlie the development of the disease's characteristic symptoms. Previous work has demonstrated longitudinal macrostructural white-matter atrophy, with some evidence of microstructural change focused in the corpus callosum. OBJECTIVE: To more accurately characterise longitudinal patterns, we examined white matter microstructural change using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data from three timepoints over a 15 month period...
2015: Journal of Huntington's Disease
Megan Jeffreys, Michelle Rozenman, Araceli Gonzalez, Erin M Warnick, Christine Dauser, Lawrence Scahill, Joseph Woolston, V Robin Weersing
The current investigation examined the internal structure and discriminant validity of the parent-report Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ-P), a commonly used measure of depressive symptoms in youth. A total of 1493 families with youth ages 5 to 18 (61.02 % male) presenting for treatment at an outpatient mental health clinic were randomly allocated to an Exploratory Sample 1 or to a Replication Sample 2. Internal structure of the MFQ-P was examined using exploratory factor analysis in Sample 1 (N = 769) and then replicated using confirmatory factor analysis in Sample 2 (N = 724)...
August 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Stefan Klöppel, Sarah Gregory, Elisa Scheller, Lora Minkova, Adeel Razi, Alexandra Durr, Raymund A C Roos, Blair R Leavitt, Marina Papoutsi, G Bernhard Landwehrmeyer, Ralf Reilmann, Beth Borowsky, Hans Johnson, James A Mills, Gail Owen, Julie Stout, Rachael I Scahill, Jeffrey D Long, Geraint Rees, Sarah J Tabrizi
BACKGROUND: Cognitive and motor task performance in premanifest Huntington's disease (HD) gene-carriers is often within normal ranges prior to clinical diagnosis, despite loss of brain volume in regions involved in these tasks. This indicates ongoing compensation, with the brain maintaining function in the presence of neuronal loss. However, thus far, compensatory processes in HD have not been modeled explicitly. Using a new model, which incorporates individual variability related to structural change and behavior, we sought to identify functional correlates of compensation in premanifest-HD gene-carriers...
October 2015: EBioMedicine
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