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in vitro diagnostics in oncology

Maria Buoncervello, Matteo Marconi, Alessandra Carè, Paola Piscopo, Walter Malorni, Paola Matarrese
The biology of sex differences deals with the study of the disparities between females and males and the related biological mechanisms. Gender medicine focuses on the impact of gender and sex on human physiology, pathophysiology and clinical features of diseases that are common to women and men. The term gender refers to a complex interrelation and integration of sex-as a biological and functional determinant-and psychological and cultural behaviours (due to ethnical, social or religious background). The attention to the impact of gender differences on the pathophysiology and, therefore, on the clinical management of the most common diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD), neurodegenerative disorders, immune and autoimmune diseases as well as several tumours, is in fact often neglected...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
Christian Brand, Valerie A Longo, Mike Groaning, Wolfgang A Weber, Thomas Reiner
PURPOSE: The folate receptor (FR) has emerged as an interesting diagnostic and therapeutic drug target with many potential applications in oncologic and inflammatory disorders. It was therefore the aim of this study to develop a folate-derived Ga-68-based positron emission tomography (PET) imaging tracer that is straightforward to radiolabel and could be broadly used in clinical studies. We validated its target binding affinity and specificity and compared it to [(99m)Tc]EC20, the folate single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging tracer that has been most extensively studied clinically so far...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Yu Fang, Dawei Wang, Xingyu Xu, Jianping Liu, Aiqin Wu, Xiang Li, Qianqian Xue, Huan Wang, Hang Wang, Huabei Zhang
Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is considered as an attractive target for oncology. A series of F-18 labeled 5-bromo-N(2)-(4-(2-fluoro-pegylated (FPEG))-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N(4)-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine-2,4-diamine derivatives were prepared and evaluated as the FAK targeted radiotracers for the early diagnoses of tumor. For the study of the FAK targeted drug molecules, this was the first attempt to develop the tumor diagnostic imaging agents on the radiopharmaceutical level. They inhibited the activity of FAK with IC50 in the range of 91...
February 15, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Dorota Koczkodaj, Agata A Filip
Conventional cytogenetics is invariably one of the most important methods used in diagnostics of chronic lymphoproliferations. It complements fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and molecular analysis. Presence of particular chromosomal alterations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia enables patients' stratification into appropriate cytogenetic risk groups and influences treatment decisions. In other non-Hodgkin lymphomas cytogenetic analyses are employed also in minimal residual disease assessment.As lymphocytes in chronic lymphoid malignancies are characterized by low proliferation rate in vitro, it is critical to induce their division in the culture properly...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Nikita Wright, Padmashree Rida, Uma Krishnamurti, Xiaoxian Li, Ritu Aneja
African Americans (AAs) are more likely than European Americans to develop aggressive breast cancer subtypes, and have higher recurrence and mortality rates; this results in a stark breast-cancer related ethnic disparity in clinical outcomes. In this era of personalized oncology, companion diagnostics (CDx) are transforming the cancer treatment narrative slowly but steadily, by enabling the use of safety and/or efficacy biomarkers to stratify patient populations, and thus ensuring more effective deployment of targeted therapeutics...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Shikha Tewari, Kainat Khan, Nuzhat Husain, Madhup Rastogi, Surendra P Mishra, Anoop K Srivastav
Diagnostic and therapeutic radiation fields are planned so as to reduce side-effects while maximising the dose to site but effects on healthy tissues are inevitable. Radiation causes strand breaks in DNA of exposed cells which can lead to chromosomal aberrations and cause malfunction and cell death. Several researchers have highlighted the damaging effects of high dose radiation but still there is a lacuna in identifying damage due to low dose radiation used for diagnostic purposes. Blood is an easy resource to study genotoxicity and to estimate the effects of radiation...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Michael G Doran, Kathryn E Carnazza, Jeffrey M Steckler, Daniel E Spratt, Charles Truillet, John Wongvipat, Charles L Sawyers, Jason S Lewis, Michael J Evans
Chromatin modifying proteins are attractive drug targets in oncology, given the fundamental reliance of cancer on altered transcriptional activity. Multiple transcription factors can be impacted downstream of primary target inhibition, thus making it challenging to understand the driving mechanism of action of pharmacologic inhibition of chromatin modifying proteins. This in turn makes it difficult to identify biomarkers predictive of response and pharmacodynamic tools to optimize drug dosing. In this report, we show that (89)Zr-transferrin, an imaging tool we developed to measure MYC activity in cancer, can be used to identify cancer models that respond to broad spectrum inhibitors of transcription primarily due to MYC inhibition...
February 1, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
James J Kwan, Rachel Myers, Christian M Coviello, Susan M Graham, Apurva R Shah, Eleanor Stride, Robert C Carlisle, Constantin C Coussios
Ultrasound-induced bubble activity (cavitation) has been recently shown to actively transport and improve the distribution of therapeutic agents in tumors. However, existing cavitation-promoting agents are micron-sized and cannot sustain cavitation activity over prolonged time periods because they are rapidly destroyed upon ultrasound exposure. A novel ultrasound-responsive single-cavity polymeric nanoparticle (nanocup) capable of trapping and stabilizing gas against dissolution in the bloodstream is reported...
October 21, 2015: Small
Patrick McClure, Ahmed Elnakib, Mohamed Abou El-Ghar, Fahmi Khalifa, Ahmed Soliman, Tarek El-Diasty, Jasjit S Suri, Adel Elmaghraby, Ayman El-Baz
This paper overviews one of the most important, interesting, and challenging problems in oncology, early diagnosis of prostate cancer. Developing effective diagnostic techniques for prostate cancer is of great clinical importance and can improve the effectiveness of treatment and increase the patient's chance of survival. The main focus of this study is to overview the different in-vitro and in-vivo technologies for diagnosing prostate cancer. This review discusses the current clinically used in-vitro cancer diagnostic tools, such as biomarker tests and needle biopsies and including their applications, advantages, and limitations...
October 2014: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Rongrong Zhang, Farhang Modaresi, Oleg Borisenko
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to identify and review the methodological quality of health economic evaluations of medical devices performed in the People's Republic of China. To our knowledge, no such investigations have been performed to date. METHODS: A systematic literature review involving searches of Medline, Medline In-Process, the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database, the Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry of the Tufts Medical Center, and the Wanfang Database was performed...
2015: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
Christian Ndong, Seiko Toraya-Brown, Katsiaryna Kekalo, Ian Baker, Tillman U Gerngross, Steven N Fiering, Karl E Griswold
Active molecular targeting has become an important aspect of nanoparticle development for oncology indications. Here, we describe molecular targeting of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) to the folate receptor alpha (FOLRα) using an engineered antibody fragment (Ffab). Compared to control nanoparticles targeting the non-relevant botulinum toxin, the Ffab-IONP constructs selectively accumulated on FOLRα-overexpressing cancer cells in vitro, where they exhibited the capacity to internalize into intracellular vesicles...
2015: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Xin Yu, Yixin Luo, Jie Liu, Yuehua Liu, Qiuning Sun
Mycosis fungoides (MF) is a low-grade lymphoma characterized by clonal expansion of atypical CD4+ skin-homing T lymphocytes. Herein, we examined the role of thymocytes selection associated HMG-box (TOX), a gene previously found to be unregulated in MF skin biopsies, in MF pathogenesis. TOX encodes a high-mobility group family (HMG) domain DNA binding nuclear protein, which regulates the differentiation of developing T-cells. First, we confirmed that TOX expression levels in MF were increased compared with those in benign inflammatory dermatitis (BID) and normal skin...
2015: PloS One
Yu Chen, Chaoliang Tan, Hua Zhang, Lianzhou Wang
The increasing demand of clinical biomedicine and fast development of nanobiotechnology has substantially promoted the generation of a variety of organic/inorganic nanosystems for biomedical applications. Biocompatible two-dimensional (2D) graphene analogues (e.g., nanosheets of transition metal dichalcogenides, transition metal oxides, g-C3N4, Bi2Se3, BN, etc.), which are referred to as 2D-GAs, have emerged as a new unique family of nanomaterials that show unprecedented advantages and superior performances in biomedicine due to their unique compositional, structural and physicochemical features...
May 7, 2015: Chemical Society Reviews
Maria Gazouli, Penelope Bouziotis, Anna Lyberopoulou, John Ikonomopoulos, Apostolos Papalois, Nicholas P Anagnou, Efstathios P Efstathopoulos
BACKGROUND/AIM: The basic role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cancer is underscored by the approval of bevacizumab for first-line treatment of cancer patients. Recent anticancer therapeutics based on active tumor targeting by conjugating tumor-specific antibodies has become of great interest in oncology. Current progress in nanomedicine has exploited the possibility of designing tumor-targeted nanocarriers able to deliver specific molecule payloads in a selective manner to improve the efficacy and safety of cancer imaging and therapy...
November 2014: In Vivo
Yang Sun, Yuanyi Zheng, Pan Li, Dong Wang, Chengcheng Niu, Yuping Gong, Rongzhong Huang, Zhibiao Wang, Zhigang Wang, Haitao Ran
BACKGROUND: Superparamagnetic poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-coated Fe3O4 microcapsules are receiving increased attention as potential diagnostic and therapeutic modalities in the field of oncology. In this study, PLGA-coated Fe3O4 microcapsules were combined with a magnetic resonance imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-guided HIFU) platform, with the objective of investigating the effects of these composite microcapsules regarding MR-guided HIFU liver cancer surgery in vivo...
2014: BMC Cancer
I Martínez, L Fernández, J Valentín, C Castillo, C Chamorro, A Pérez-Martínez
AIM: To determine the role of natural killer (NK) cytotoxic activity in patients with suspected hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis syndrome (HLH). DESIGN: A prospective study was conducted from September 2008 to February 2014. SCOPE: The study was carried out in the Hematological Oncology Laboratory of Hospital Infantil Universitario Niño Jesús, Madrid (Spain). PATIENTS: We analyzed 30 peripheral blood samples from intensive care patients with suspected HLH...
May 2015: Medicina Intensiva
P Kovaříková, E Michalova, L Knopfová, P Bouchal
Migration and invasiveness are phenotypic characteristics of cells that contribute to physiological processes, such as wound healing or embryogenesis and they are involved in serious pathological processes, namely in tumor cell metastasis. Availability of methods for studying migration and invasiveness of the cells is important for understanding molecular basis of these processes. In the case of cancer, migration, invasiveness and metastatic potential of tumor cells are key factors that determine clinical prognosis of the patients...
2014: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
L A Walsh, D M Roy, M Reyngold, D Giri, A Snyder, S Turcan, C R Badwe, J Lyman, J Bromberg, T A King, T A Chan
Metastasis is the primary cause of cancer-related death in oncology patients. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms that cancer cells usurp to promote metastatic dissemination is critical for the development and implementation of novel diagnostic and treatment strategies. Here we show that the membrane protein RECK (Reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs) controls breast cancer metastasis by modulating a novel, non-canonical and convergent signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3)-dependent angiogenic program...
April 23, 2015: Oncogene
Barbara Angulo, Fernando Lopez-Rios, David Gonzalez
The cobas(®) (Roche) portfolio of companion diagnostics in oncology currently has three assays CE-marked for in vitro diagnostics. Two of these (EGFR and BRAF) are also US FDA-approved. These assays detect clinically relevant mutations that are correlated with response (BRAF, EGFR) or lack of response (KRAS) to targeted therapies such as selective mutant BRAF inhibitors in malignant melanoma, tyrosine kinases inhibitor in non-small cell lung cancer and anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies in colorectal cancer, respectively...
June 2014: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Aristeidis Chiotellis, Adrienne Müller, Karin Weyermann, Dominique S Leutwiler, Roger Schibli, Simon M Ametamey, Stefanie D Krämer, Linjing Mu
Amino acid transport is an attractive target for oncologic imaging. Despite a high demand of cancer cells for cationic amino acids, their potential as PET probes remains unexplored. Arginine, in particular, is involved in a number of biosynthetic pathways that significantly influence carcinogenesis and tumor biology. Cationic amino acids are transported by several cationic transport systems including, ATB(0,+) (SLC6A14), which is upregulated in certain human cancers including cervical, colorectal and estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer...
August 2014: Amino Acids
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