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in vitro diagnostics

T Piegeler, N G Clausen, M Weiss
Background: Proper manipulation of fibreoptic bronchoscopes is essential for successful tracheal intubation or diagnostic bronchoscopy. Failure of proper navigation and rotation of the fibrescope may lead to difficulties in advancing the fibrescope and might also be responsible for (unnecessary) difficulties and delays in fibreoptic tracheal intubation, with subsequent hypoxaemia. The present study, therefore, aimed to assess the effectiveness of tip rotation in flexible bronchoscopes in different experimental conditions...
October 4, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Yayoi Adachi, Mayumi Yoshimura, Keiko Nishida, Hisanobu Usuki, Keiko Shibata, Masaya Hattori, Naoto Kondo, Yasushi Yatabe, Hiroji Iwata, Toyone Kikumori, Yasuhiro Kodera, Hayao Nakanishi
PURPOSE: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can provide a potentially minimal invasive source for monitoring chemotherapeutic effects. However, detailed in vivo dynamics of CTC after chemotherapy remain largely unknown. METHODS: We monitored CTC number and morphology early after chemotherapy using a newly developed cytology-based CTC detection device and triple-negative breast cancer mouse CTC models with spontaneous lung metastatic potential. RESULTS: Paclitaxel inhibited cell growth of breast cancer cells by mainly G2/M cell cycle arrest and partly apoptosis, whereas doxorubicin inhibited cell growth mainly by apoptosis and partly G2 cell cycle arrest in vitro...
October 12, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Myoung Hyoun Kim, Chang Guhn Kim, Seul-Gi Kim, Dae-Weung Kim
We developed a Tc-99m and fluorescence labeled peptide, Tc-99m TAMRA-GHEG-ECG-VAPG to target tumor cells, and evaluated the diagnostic performance as a dual-modality imaging agent for tumor in a murine model. TAMRA-GHEG-ECG-VAPG was synthesized using Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis. Radiolabeling of TAMRA-GHEG-ECG-VAPG with Tc-99m was done using ligand exchange via tartrate. Binding affinity and in vitro cellular uptake studies were performed. Gamma camera imaging, biodistribution and ex vivo imaging studies were performed in murine models with SW620 tumors...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
Laurent Christin
Candida is frequently found in urine cultures. Deciding whether this represents simple colonization or true infection is often difficult since Candida is a normal genital and urinary tract commensal. Urinary tract colonization is facilitated by well identified risk factors. The diagnostic of a true infection relies upon the identification of the usual clinical signs which cannot be attributed to another pathogen ; also, plasma level of beta-D-glucan can contribute to confirm the diagnostic. Treatment success depends upon the possibility to correct the risk factors and appropriate anti-fungal therapy according to in vitro susceptibility testing...
October 11, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
Arnaud Larbuisson, Dominique Raick, Stephanie Demelenne, Annick Delvigne
BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective study is to investigate the relevance of dividing oocytes and using some for traditional in vitro fertilization (IVF) and others for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) as of the first IVF cycle in patients with unexplained infertility who have undergone 4 intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles which produced no pregnancies. METHODS: This retrospective study includes patients with unexplained infertility who have failed to become pregnant, after 4 IUI, despite normal semen parameters after sperm capacitation...
2017: Basic and Clinical Andrology
Sébastien Morin, Nelli Bazarova, Philippe Jacon, Stefano Vella
In vitro diagnostic devices (IVDs) help clinicians determine specific conditions, monitor therapeutic efficacy and prevent drug resistance development. While stringent regulatory authorities (SRAs) regulate IVDs in most high-income countries, regulatory authorities in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are non-existent or do not enforce rigorous standards. In 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) established its Prequalification of In Vitro Diagnostics (PQDx) Programme to ensure "access to safe, appropriate and affordable" IVDs, especially in LMICs with little or no domestic regulatory frameworks, thereby reaching underserved populations...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Hen Moshe, Yuval Davizon, Maya Menaker Raskin, Alejandro Sosnik
In this work, we report a new type of poly(vinyl alcohol)-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PVA-g-PNiPAAm) amphiphilic nanogel produced by the non-covalent crosslinking of PVA polyol domains in preformed polymeric micelles with boric acid. The nanomaterials showed sizes in the 100-250 nm range (DLS) and a spherical morphology (HR-SEM). We demonstrated that the size of the polymeric micelles could be fine-tuned by changing the concentration (and the aggregation pattern) of the polymeric amphiphile in water. Upon crosslinking, the polymeric micelles turned into physically stable amphiphilic nanogels that displayed both size and size distribution similar to the micellar precursor for up to two weeks, even under disfavored conditions of concentration and temperature that, in the case of non-crosslinked counterparts, resulted in quick disassembly...
October 11, 2017: Biomaterials Science
Simone Tosoni, Vincenzo Tarzia, Andrea Colli, Gino Gerosa, Andrea Bagno
The formation of thrombotic deposits affects the functionality of mechanical prosthetic heart valves; as a consequence, mechanical valves thrombosis needs early diagnosis to prevent thromboembolic events. This paper compares the acoustic signals produced by two commercial bileaflet mechanical heart valves in the closing phase to detect the presence of thrombi. The closing sounds were recorded in vitro by means of a phonocardiographic device under different hydrodynamic conditions. Thrombotic deposits of different weight and shape were applied onto the valve leaflet and the annular housing, until the movement of one leaflet was completely blocked...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
Shoaib Haidar, Paresh B Bhanushali, Kunal K Shukla, Deepak Modi, Chander P Puri, Shamkant B Badgujar, Manoj Chugh
Cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) is a key biomarker, currently used for understanding the onset and prognosis of breast cancer. In present investigation CA15-3 has been purified from the culture supernatant of breast cancer T47-D cell line with 76% yield and 3350 fold purification. Isolated CA15-3 was analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), immunoblotting (western blotting), chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). CA15-3 is a monomeric protein with an apparent molecular mass in between ∼250 to 350kDa...
October 7, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
M Chudy, C M Nübling, J Blümel, A Daas, A Costanzo
Detection of viral contamination in plasma donations is critical to prevent transmission of infectious diseases. The European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) monograph 1646 'Human plasma (pooled and treated for virus inactivation)', requires that plasma pools used for the manufacture of this product be tested, among others, for the presence of hepatitis A virus RNA by nucleic acid testing (NAT) using a positive control containing 100 International Units (IU) of hepatitis A virus (HAV) RNA per mL. To this end, the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM, Council of Europe) organised an international collaborative study under the aegis of the Biological Standardisation Programme, for the establishment of the 1(st) Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) for HAV RNA for NAT testing...
2017: Pharmeuropa Bio & Scientific Notes
Shin-Woo Ha, Hee-Sang Cho, Young Il Yoon, Moon-Sun Jang, Kwan Soo Hong, Emmanuel Hui, Jung Hee Lee, Tae-Jong Yoon
BACKGROUND: Multimodal nanomaterials are useful for providing enhanced diagnostic information simultaneously for a variety of in vivo imaging methods. According to our research findings, these multimodal nanomaterials offer promising applications for cancer therapy. RESULTS: Melanin nanoparticles can be used as a platform imaging material and they can be simply produced by complexation with various imaging active ions. They are capable of specifically targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-expressing cancer cells by being anchored with a specific antibody...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Maha R Farhat, Karen R Jacobson, Molly F Franke, Devinder Kaur, Megan Murray, Carole D Mitnick
Background: Molecular diagnostics that rapidly and accurately predict fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance promise to improve treatment outcomes for individuals with multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB). Mutations in the gyr genes, though, can cause variable levels of in vitro FQ resistance, and some in vitro resistance remains unexplained by gyr mutations alone, but the implications of these discrepancies for treatment outcome are unknown. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 172 subjects with MDR/extensively drug-resistant TB subjects and sequenced the full gyrA and gyrB open reading frames in their respective sputum TB isolates...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Cong Yu, Lifu Li, Fei Xie, Shichao Guo, Fayuan Liu, Nianguo Dong, Yongjun Wang
Aims: Emerging evidence indicates that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a vital role in cardiovascular physiology and pathology. Although the lncRNA TUG1 is implicated in atherosclerosis, its function in calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) remains unknown. Methods and Results: In this study, we found that TUG1 was highly expressed in human aortic valves and primary valve interstitial cells (VICs). Moreover, TUG1 knockdown induced inhibition of osteoblast differentiation in CAVD both in vitro and in vivo ...
September 4, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
Wenwen Liu, Ye Chen, Hua Xie, Yongmin Guo, Dandan Ren, Yupeng Li, Xu Jing, Dongliang Li, Xiao Wang, Miaoqing Zhao, Tianfeng Zhu, Ziying Wang, Xinbing Wei, Fei Gao, Xiaojie Wang, Suxia Liu, Yan Zhang, Fan Yi
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in the invasiveness and metastasis of gastric cancer. Therefore, identifying key molecules involved in EMT will provide new therapeutic strategy for treating patients with gastric cancer. TIPE1 is a newly identified member of the TIPE (TNFAIP8) family, and its contributions to progression and metastasis have not been evaluated. In this study, we found that the levels of TIPE1 were significantly reduced and inversely correlated with differentiation status and distant metastasis in primary gastric cancer tissues...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Eva M Sevick-Muraca, Richard A Frank, Maryellen L Giger, James L Mulshine
Medical imaging is essential to screening, early diagnosis, and monitoring responses to cancer treatments and, when used with other diagnostics, provides guidance for clinicians in choosing the most effective patient management plan that maximizes survivorship and quality of life. At a gathering of agency officials, patient advocacy organizations, industry/professional stakeholder groups, and clinical/basic science academicians, recommendations were made on why and how one should build a "cancer knowledge network" that includes imaging...
October 9, 2017: Cancer Research
Chunan Zhong, Jijun Liu, Yuzhe Zhang, Jianping Luo, Jia Zheng
AIMS: Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone malignancy that affects adolescents. Although great attention has been paid to the diagnosis of and therapy for OS, the 5-year survival rate of patients with this disease remains poor. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs involved in pathogenesis and progression of human malignancies. MiR-139 has been implicated in several human cancers. However, the role played by miR-139 in pathogenesis of human OS has remained largely unknown. MAIN METHODS: Realtime PCR was used to detect the expression of miR-139...
October 6, 2017: Life Sciences
Hanjun Cheng, Yufeng Liu, Yihui Hu, Yubin Ding, Shichao Lin, Wen Cao, Qian Wang, Jiangjiexing Wu, Faheem Muhammad, Xiaozhi Zhao, Dan Zhao, Zhe Li, Hang Xing, Hui Wei
Metal-organic framework (MOF) nanosheets are a class of two-dimensional (2D) porous and crystalline materials that hold promise for catalysis and biodetection. Although 2D MOF nanosheets have been utilized for in vitro assays, ways of engineering them into diagnostic tools for live animals are much less explored. In this work, a series of MOF nanosheets are successfully engineered into a highly sensitive and selective diagnostic platform for in vivo monitoring of heparin (Hep) activity. The iron-porphyrin derivative is selected as ligand to synthesize a series of archetypical MOF nanosheets with intrinsic heme-like catalytic sites, mimicking pe-roxidase...
October 10, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Miguel Angel Reina, Anna Puigdellívol-Sánchez, Stephen P Gatt, José De Andrés, Alberto Prats-Galino, André van Zundert
BACKGROUND: It has been customary to attribute postdural puncture headache (PDPH) incidence and severity to size and nature of the dural hole produced during major neuraxial blockade or diagnostic dural puncture. Needle orientation in relation to the direction of dural fibers was thought to be of importance because of the propensity for horizontal bevel placement to cause cutting rather than splitting of the dural fibers. METHODS: In vitro punctures of stringently quality-controlled human dural sac specimens were obtained with 27-gauge (27G) Whitacre needle (n = 33), with 29G Quincke used parallel to the spinal axis (n = 30), and with 29G Quincke in perpendicular approach (n = 40)...
October 5, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Dominik Bettenworth, Arne Bokemeyer, Christopher Poremba, Nik Sheng Ding, Steffi Ketelhut, Philipp Lenz, Björn Kemper
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by a chronic relapsing disease course. As uncontrolled intestinal inflammation can result in severe disease complications, recent treatment targets of IBD evolved toward seeking the absence of mucosal and histological inflammation. However, this approach requires adequate histological evaluation of IBD disease activity. The diagnostic challenge of histological examination of intestinal inflammation is documented by the multitude of proposed histological scoring systems...
October 9, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
Wei Yuan, Du Wang, Yang Liu, Dongdong Tian, Yang Wang, Ranxi Zhang, Liangjun Yin, Zhongliang Deng
Tumorigenesis is a multistep process involving various cell growth‑associated factors. Accumulated evidence indicates that the disordered regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) contributes to tumorigenesis. However, the detailed mechanism underlying the involvement of miRNAs in oncogenesis remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the repressed expression of microRNA (miR)‑494 was identified in 18 patients with osteosarcoma (OS) and OS cell lines, compared with corresponding controls. To determine whether deregulated miR‑494 exerts tumor‑suppressive effects in the development of OS, the effects of miR‑494 on cell proliferation and metastasis were evaluated...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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