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Natalie M Bowman, Kristin Akialis, Grayson Cave, Roberto Barrera, Charles S Apperson, Steven R Meshnick
Pyrethroid-treated clothing is commonly worn for protection against mosquitoes; pyrethroids are both insecticides and repellents. Pyrethroid resistance has become increasingly common in Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue, Zika, and other arboviruses, but it is not clear whether resistance is associated with reductions in repellency. In order to determine whether long-lasting permethrin impregnated (LLPI) clothing is protective, we used Aedes aegypti from New Orleans, LA (pyrethroid-sensitive) and San Juan, PR (resistant) to measure both lethality and repellency...
2018: PloS One
Cherng Shii Leong, Indra Vythilingam, Meng Li Wong, Wan-Yusoff Wan Sulaiman, Yee Ling Lau
The resistance status of Selangor Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) larvae against four major groups of insecticides (i.e., organochlorines, carbamates, organophosphates and pyrethroids) was investigated. Aedes aegypti were susceptible against temephos (organophosphate), although resistance (RR50  = 0.21 - 2.64) may be developing. The insecticides susceptibility status of Ae. aegypti larvae were found heterogeneous among the different study sites. Results showed that Ae. aegypti larvae from Klang, Sabak Bernam and Sepang were susceptible against all insecticides tested...
May 11, 2018: Acta Tropica
Heng Qian, Lu Hu, Chaoran Liu, Huazi Wang, Haixiang Gao, Wenfeng Zhou
A novel membrane emulsification-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction method based on the solidification of floating organic drops was used to detect four pyrethroid pesticides (deltamethrin, etofenprox, fenpropathrin, and bifenthrin). In this method, [P44412 ]Br was used as a surfactant that could be removed from water via the addition of KPF6 . The extraction solvent was separated after centrifugation and solidification on the water surface. The parameters affecting the recovery of the target compounds, including the surfactant amount, [P44412 ]Br-to-KPF6 molar ratio, addition of salt, extraction solvent volume, and temperature, were individually optimized and further analyzed through an orthogonal array design (OAD) experiment...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Omar Thiaw, Souleymane Doucouré, Seynabou Sougoufara, Charles Bouganali, Lassana Konaté, Nafissatou Diagne, Ousmane Faye, Cheikh Sokhna
BACKGROUND: The use of insecticides, through indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs), is essential to control malaria vectors. However, the sustainability of these tools is challenged by the spread of insecticide resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes. This study was conducted to assess the susceptibility to insecticides and to determine the resistance mechanisms in malaria vectors in Dielmo, a rural area of western Senegal where LLINs were introduced a decade ago...
March 22, 2018: Malaria Journal
Alyssa M Piccolomini, Shavonn R Whiten, Michelle L Flenniken, Kevin M O'Neill, Robert K D Peterson
Current regulatory requirements for insecticide toxicity to nontarget insects focus on the honey bee, Apis mellifera (L.; Hymenoptera: Apidae), but this species cannot represent all insect pollinator species in terms of response to insecticides. Therefore, we characterized the toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides used for adult mosquito management (permethrin, deltamethrin, and etofenprox) on a nontarget insect, the adult alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (F.; Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in two separate studies...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Encarna Sancho, Sandra Banegas, María José Villarroel, Dolores Ferrando
The effect of the pesticide etofenprox (0.76, 0.95, 1.18, 1.48, and 1.85 μg L-1 ) on survival, reproduction, and growth of Daphnia magna organisms was monitored using 21-day exposure tests. In order to test pesticide effects on D. magna, survival, length, mean total neonates per female, mean brood size, time to first reproduction, mean number broods per female, cumulative molting, and the population parameter intrinsic rate of natural increase (r) were used. Reproduction was seriously affected by etofenprox...
March 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Stephanie L Richards, Jo Anne G Balanay, Avian V White, Joe Hope, Kurt Vandock, Brian D Byrd, Michael H Reiskind
Mosquitoes exposed to sublethal doses of insecticides may be selected for resistance to insecticide active ingredients (AIs). Mosquitoes are exposed to AIs through agricultural, public/private mosquito control programs, homeowners, and other sources. Hence, mosquito control programs should routinely measure the resistance/susceptibility status of mosquito populations of public health concern. The objectives here were to determine resistance status for six AIs used in adult mosquito control in the United States to assess how resistance/susceptibility differs between AI, mosquito species (states where > 1 species collected), and between years (some populations sampled for 2 yr)...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Haina Sun, Shinji Kasai, Jeffrey G Scott
The house fly, Musca domestica, is a serious pest because it transmits a large diversity of human and veterinary diseases. Insecticides, particularly pyrethroids, are commonly used to control house flies. However, the evolution of pyrethroid resistance has reduced the effectiveness of these insecticides. A major mechanism of resistance to pyrethroids is target site insensitivity caused by the mutations in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel (Vssc) gene (e.g. kdr [L1014F] and super-kdr [M918T+L1014F]). Recently, two novel Vssc alleles, super-kdr+D600N and kdr+T929I were detected in a field collected resistant house fly population in Kansas, USA in 2013...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Letícia B Smith, Shinji Kasai, Jeffrey G Scott
BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti is a vector of several important human pathogens. Control efforts rely primarily on pyrethroid insecticides for adult mosquito control, especially during disease outbreaks. A. aegypti has developed resistance nearly everywhere it occurs and insecticides are used. An important mechanism of resistance is due to mutations in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel (Vssc) gene. Two mutations, in particular, S989P + V1016G, commonly occur together in parts of Asia. RESULTS: We have created a strain (KDR:ROCK) that contains the Vssc mutations S989P + V1016G as the only mechanism of pyrethroid resistance within the genetic background of Rockefeller (ROCK), a susceptible lab strain...
March 2018: Pest Management Science
Natasha M Agramonte, Jeffrey R Bloomquist, Ulrich R Bernier
Emerging insecticide resistance is a major issue for vector control. It decreases the effectiveness of insecticides, thereby requiring greater quantities for comparable control with a net increase in risk of disease resurgence, product cost, and damage risk to the ecosystem. Pyrethroid resistance has been documented in Puerto Rican populations of Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes. In this study, topical toxicity of five insecticides (permethrin, etofenprox, deltamethrin, DDT, transfluthrin) was determined for susceptible (Orlando-ORL) and resistant (Puerto Rico-PR) strains of Ae...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jochen P Zubrod, Rebecca Bundschuh, Dominic Englert, Markus Rohrberg, Matthias V Wieczorek, Nikita Bakanov, Ralf Schulz, Mirco Bundschuh
Invertebrate-mediated leaf litter decomposition is frequently used to assess stress-related implications in stream ecosystem integrity. In situ measures such as the mass loss from leaf bags or the feeding of caged invertebrates deployed for days or weeks may, however, fail to detect transient effects due to recovery or compensatory mechanisms. We assessed the relevance of transient effects using the peak exposure towards an insecticide (i.e., etofenprox) as a model scenario at three levels of complexity. These were 1) the assessment of the decomposition realised by invertebrate communities in stream mesocosms over 21 days via leaf bags, 2) 7-days lasting in situ bioassays quantifying the leaf consumption of Gammarus fossarum, and 3) a laboratory experiment determining the daily feeding rate of the same species over 7 days...
December 2017: Environmental Pollution
In Kyung Kim, Sung-Woo Kim, A M Abd El-Aty, Md Musfiqur Rahman, Md Humayun Kabir, Han Sol Lee, Hyung Suk Chung, Ji Hoon Jeong, Ho-Chul Shin, Jae-Han Shim
The present study was designed to investigate the residual decline pattern and the risk assessment of 10 different class pesticides, namely azoxystrobin, boscalid, diazinon, diethofencarb, difenoconazole, etofenprox, flubendiamide, paclobutrazol, and pyraclostrobin in young vegetative amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus) sprayed once or twice under greenhouse growing conditions. Field-incurred samples, collected at 3, 7, or 10 days after application of both treatments, were extracted and purified with the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe "QuEChERS" citrate-buffered method and analyzed with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in positive ion mode...
November 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Aline Aparecida Franco, Odimar Zanuzo Zanardi, Cynthia Renata de Oliveira Jacob, Monique Bárbara Rosa de Oliveira, Pedro Takao Yamamoto
Euseius concordis (Chant) is an important predatory mite found in citrus orchards. The toxicity of 19 pesticides used in citrus orchards on biological and population parameters of this mite was assessed. Our results indicated that formetanate hydrochloride, dimethoate and phosmet were highly harmful (100% mortality) to E. concordis. Carbosulfan, diflubenzuron, fenpropathrin, gamma-cyhalothrin, imidacloprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam, mineral and vegetable oils, spinosad and thiamethoxam reduced the female's survival and/or fecundity, and were moderately harmful to E...
September 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Na Yu, Jiahua Tian, Yixi Zhang, Zhong Li, Zewen Liu
BACKGROUND: Fitness costs associated with insecticide resistance in pest insects have mainly been studied under optimal laboratory conditions. However, resistant insects face more stressors than just insecticides in the field, and how the resistant population reacts to these stressors is of practical importance for the control of pest insects such as the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. The aim of the present study was to explore the impact of population density on the competitiveness of resistant and susceptible individuals...
January 2018: Pest Management Science
Kenia Fernanda Aguiar Santos, Odimar Zanuzo Zanardi, Matheus Rovere de Morais, Cynthia Renata Oliveira Jacob, Monique Bárbara de Oliveira, Pedro Takao Yamamoto
Hippodamia convergens is an important predator found in different agroecosystems. We evaluated the impacts of six insecticides on eggs, larvae and adults of this predator. For eggs, all insecticides reduced larval hatching rates, but did not affect egg duration. Chlorpyrifos and phosmet reduced larval survival; and chlorpyrifos, etofenprox and phosmet prolonged the larva development time. The survival and duration of pupae were not affected by all insecticides tested. Chlorpyrifos reduced fecundity, fertility and longevity when eggs were sprayed...
November 2017: Chemosphere
Alexander Ccanccapa-Cartagena, Ana Masiá, Yolanda Picó
A simple and environmentally friendly dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method coupled with electrospray ionization liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of 17 synthetic and natural pyrethroids. A comparison of solid-phase extraction (SPE) versus DLLME for water samples and only "dilute and shoot" versus the additional extract cleanup by DLLME for sediment samples is reported. Chloroform was the extracting solvent in the DLLME technique for both water and sediment samples...
August 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Jennifer Teerlink, Jorge Hernandez, Robert Budd
Fipronil and fipronil degradates have been reported in treated wastewater effluent at concentrations that exceed USEPA Aquatic Life Benchmarks, posing a potential risk to the surface waters to which they discharge. Fipronil is a common insecticide found in spot-on flea and tick treatment products that have the potential for down-the-drain transport and direct washoff into surface water. Volunteers currently treating their dogs with a fipronil-containing spot-on product were recruited. Dogs were washed either 2, 7, or 28days after product application, and rinsate from 34 discrete bathing events were analyzed by LC-MS/MS for fipronil and fipronil degradates (collectively known as fiproles)...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Juliano de Bastos Pazini, Rafael Antonio Pasini, Enio Júnior Seidel, Matheus Rakes, José Francisco da Silva Martins, Anderson Dionei Grützmacher
Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) is an important agent for the biological control of stink bug eggs in irrigated rice areas and the best strategy for its preservation is the use of selective pesticides. The aim of this study was to know the side-effects of pesticides used in Brazilian irrigated rice areas on egg parasitoid T. podisi. We evaluated, under laboratory conditions, 13 insecticides, 11 fungicides, 11 herbicides, and a control (distilled water) in choice and no-choice tests. In the no-choice tests, the pesticides were sprayed at pre and post-parasitism stages (egg and larval stages of T...
August 2017: Ecotoxicology
K Hamamoto, K Iwatsuki, R Akama, R Koike
Many multiresidue methods for the determination of pesticides in vegetables and fruits have been reported to date. However, few such methods have been employed to investigate pesticide residues in animal tissue. In this study, an LC-MS/MS multiresidue method coupled with modified QuEChERS extraction was developed and validated for the investigation of eight pesticide residues: prallethrin (PR), resmethrin (RMT), imidacloprid (IMC), diflubenzuron (DFB), cyromazine (CYR), etofenprox (EFP), dinotefuran (DNT) and phthalthrin (PTLT)...
July 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Stephanie L Richards, Jo Anne G Balanay, Melinda Fields, Kurt Vandock
Mosquitoes may develop resistance to insecticide active ingredients (AI). Thus, mosquitoes should be tested for resistance to confirm efficacy of insecticide-based control, inform management decisions, and protect public and environmental health. Our objectives were to determine a baseline of resistance for six AIs used in mosquito control in the United States to assess how resistance differs between mosquito collection location, AI, and mosquito species (container-ovipositing Aedes and Culex that may oviposit in containers or other sources)...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
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