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Rebecca L Walker, Marci D Cottingham, Jill A Fisher
Phase 1 healthy volunteer clinical trials-which financially compensate subjects in tests of drug toxicity levels and side effects-appear to place pressure on each joint of the moral framework justifying research. In this article, we review concerns about phase 1 trials as they have been framed in the bioethics literature, including undue inducement and coercion, unjust exploitation, and worries about compromised data validity. We then revisit these concerns in light of the lived experiences of serial participants who are income-dependent on phase 1 trials...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
Katy Wagner, Hannah Maslen, Justin Oakley, Julian Savulescu
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an experimental brain stimulation technology that may one day be used to enhance the cognitive capacities of children. Discussion about the ethical issues that this would raise has rarely moved beyond expert circles. However, the opinions of the wider public can lead to more democratic policy decisions and broaden academic discussion of this issue. METHODS: We performed a quantitative survey of members of the US public...
January 17, 2018: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
A Fioritti
On 13 May 1978, the Italian Parliament approved Law 180, universally known as 'Basaglia Law' after the name of the leader of the anti-institutional movement which promoted this radical community mental health care reform. Forty years later, Italian psychiatry still runs a community care system, albeit with degrees of solidity and quality very varied along the peninsula. Mental health care is still an integral part of the National Health System, with liberal regulations on coercion and a lowest number of general hospital and residential facilities beds...
January 16, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Sam Rowlands, Jean-Jacques Amy
BACKGROUND: The bodies of some transgender and intersex people have been mutilated and their minds subjected to immense distress. Their gender has often been determined by others. Loss of fertility used to be considered an inevitable consequence of treatment. OBJECTIVE: To review the issue of preserving the reproductive potential of transgender and intersex people. METHODS: A narrative review based on a wide-ranging search of the literature in multiple disciplines...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
Reidun Norvoll, Marit Helene Hem, Hilde Lindemann
Coercion in mental healthcare does not only affect the patient, but also the patient's families. Using data from interviews with 36 family members of adult and adolescent people with mental health problems and coercion experiences, the present narrative study explores family members' existential and moral dilemmas regarding coercion and the factors influencing these dilemmas. Four major themes are identified: the ambiguity of coercion; struggling to stay connected and establishing collaboration; worries and distress regarding compulsory care; and dilemmas regarding initiating coercion...
January 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Ethan A Marshall, Holly A Miller, Jeff A Bouffard
According to recent statistics, as many as one in five female college students are victims of sexual assault during their college career. To combat what has been called the "Campus Rape Crisis," researchers have attempted to understand what variables are associated with sexually coercive behaviors in college males. Although investigators have found support for the relationship between pornography consumption and sexually coercive behavior, researchers typically operationalize pornography use in terms of frequency of use...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Emily R Wilhite, Kim Fromme
There are startling rates of sexual coercion across college campuses, underscoring the importance of identifying risk factors and intervening early to prevent perpetration of these unwanted sexual events. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of impulsivity, sensation seeking, and alcohol use on the odds of perpetrating unwanted sexual advances (i.e., forced fondling, kissing, or petting) and sexual coercion (i.e., sexual intercourse through arguments, pressure, or physical force) during the subsequent 6 years...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Egbert Zavala, Don L Kurtz
A review of the current body of literature on intimate partner violence (IPV) shows that the most common theories used to explain this public health issue are social learning theory, a general theory of crime, general strain theory, or a combination of these perspectives. Other criminological theories have received less empirical attention. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to apply Differential Coercion and Social Support (DCSS) theory to test its capability to explain IPV. Data collected from two public universities ( N = 492) shows that three out of four measures of coercion (i...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Anna E Jaffe, Anne L Steel, David DiLillo, Terri L Messman-Moore, Kim L Gratz
Rape by an intimate partner frequently involves a precedence of sexual consent between victim and perpetrator, often does not include the use of physical force, and may not fit societal definitions of rape. Given these unique characteristics, women who are assaulted by an intimate partner may be less likely to acknowledge the experience as a rape. In turn, they might make fewer blame attributions toward themselves and their perpetrators than victims of rape by a nonpartner. Consistent with these expectations, results from 208 community women reporting rape in adulthood revealed the presence of indirect effects of perpetrator type (nonpartner vs...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Diandian Li, Lijun Zheng
In this study, we examined intimate partner violence (IPV), cold violence, and controlling behaviors in male same-sex relationships in China, with a focus on the characteristics of IPV and controlling behaviors, and their relationships with ambivalent sexism. IPV was categorized as psychological aggression, physical injury, physical assault, and sexual coercion and was measured using the revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2), an eight-item scale measuring cold violence that was designed specifically for this study...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Amy A McConnell, Terri L Messman-Moore, Kim L Gratz, David DiLillo
Prior research has examined how posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are influenced by the experience of different types of rape, defined according to the method of coercion used. This work, which classifies rape experiences as either forcible or substance-involved, has yielded mixed findings regarding differences in PTSD symptoms as a function of rape type. Based on recent evidence indicating significant heterogeneity within substance-involved rapes, the present study utilized a novel four-group conceptualization of rape type to examine differences in PTSD symptom severity and associated factors across rape type...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Dawn Bounds, Kathleen R Delaney, Wrenetha Julion, Susan Breitenstein
It is estimated that annually 100,000 to 300,000 youth are at risk for sex trafficking; a commercial sex act induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or any such act where the person induced to perform such an act is younger than 18 years of age. Increasingly, such transactions are occurring online via Internet-based sites that serve the commercial sex industry. Commercial sex transactions involving trafficking are illegal; thus, Internet discussions between those involved must be veiled. Even so, transactions around sex trafficking do occur...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Alisa R Garner, Laura C Spiller, Patrick Williams
The purpose of this study was to examine whether a decision-making model of risk-taking behavior, specifically impulsivity, positive and negative outcome expectation, and sensation seeking, can be extended to motivation for perpetration of sexual coercion. Participants included 276 sexually active college students between the ages of 18 and 25 years old who completed a set of questionnaires: (a) Sexual Experiences Survey, (b) Sensation Seeking Scales, (c) Cognitive Appraisal of Risky Events, (d) Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and (e) Reckless Behavior Questionnaire...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Rena C Zito
This research builds on prior studies of intimate partner victimization by examining the impact of women's and men's relative employment, gender traditionalism, and gender distrust on coercive control and physical victimization among married, cohabiting, and noncohabiting couples with infants. It merges feminist approaches that emphasize the gendered meaning of work, power, and violence with prior insights regarding differences in levels of intimate violence across family forms. Specifically, this research recognizes that there is variation across married, cohabiting, and dating contexts in the symbolic meaning of work, the salience of traditionalism, and the tenuous status of relationships that may activate gender distrust in the production of compensatory violence and control...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Sara A McGirr, Heather D Bomsta, Cortney Vandegrift, Katie Gregory, Beth Ann Hamilton, Cris M Sullivan
Reproductive coercion (RC) is a form of intimate partner violence (IPV) that continues to lack adequate attention by both researchers and practitioners. RC is defined as "male partners' attempts to promote pregnancy in their female partners through verbal pressure and threats to become pregnant (pregnancy coercion), direct interference with contraception (birth control sabotage), and threats and coercion related to pregnancy continuation or termination (control of pregnancy outcomes)." This type of partner violence can have serious consequences on a survivor's health and well-being...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Eva Krieger, Steffen Moritz, Ricarda Weil, Matthias Nagel
Coercive interventions for psychiatric patients are controversial. Research on different preventive measures has increased over the last years. The present study examined patients' attitudes towards and understanding of previously experienced coercive measures as well as their preferences related to coercive measures and possible alternatives. In total, 213 patients who had experienced coercion and 51 patient controls (patients staying voluntarily on a closed ward with no coercive treatment) from three acute wards were examined via expert interviews and questionnaires in the framework of a naturalistic trial...
December 13, 2017: Psychiatry Research
Rahul Jalil, Geoffrey L Dickens
INTRODUCTION: Emotional regulation is important in mental health nursing practice but individual emotions may require different regulation strategies. There is ample evidence that nurses experience anger specifically during their work, for example when experiencing patient aggression. It is, therefore, important to consolidate what is known about how anger manifests in mental health nursing practice. AIM: We aimed to systematically identify, evaluate, and synthesise results from studies about mental health nurses and anger, where anger was measured objectively...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
Margo Mullinax, Stephanie A Grilo, Xiaoyu S Song, Jennifer Wagman, Sanyukta Mathur, Fred Nalugoda, Tom Lutalo, John Santelli
Little is known about men who perpetrate IPV in communities also at risk for HIV infection. Using data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS), five survey rounds were used (n = 21,157, observation from n = 10,618 men) to examine HIV risk and prevention behaviors among men who reported acts of violence against their wife/primary partner in the past 12 months. Overall, 10.4% men reported perpetrating physical violence and 17.3% perpetrating verbal violence, 3.1% reported sexual violence, 3.1% used violence to have sex with their wife/partner, and 1...
December 2017: AIDS Education and Prevention: Official Publication of the International Society for AIDS Education
Robert Noggle
Cass Sunstein and Richard Thaler recommend helping people make better decisions by employing 'nudges', which they define as noncoercive methods of influencing choice for the better. Not surprisingly, healthcare practitioners and public policy professionals have become interested in whether nudges might be a promising method of improving health-related behaviors without resorting to heavy-handed methods such as coercion, deception, or government regulation. Many nudges seem unobjectionable as they merely improve the quality and quantity available for the decision-maker...
December 28, 2017: Bioethics
Elin HÃ¥konsen Martinsen, Bente M Weimand, Reidar Pedersen, Reidun Norvoll
BACKGROUND: Young next of kin to patients with mental health problems are faced with many challenges. It is important to focus on the special needs of children and adolescents as next of kin to ensure their welfare and prevent harm. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: We aimed to investigate young next of kin's need for information and involvement, to examine the ways they cope with situations involving coercion related to the treatment of their relative, and to identify ethical challenges...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
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