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Sabrina Gabrielle Anjara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Kate Francombe Pridham, Arash Nakhost, Lorne Tugg, Nicole Etherington, Vicky Stergiopoulos, Samuel Law
As medical, ethical and clinical effectiveness debates about the use of compulsory psychiatric treatment continues, it is important to further explore the actual experiences and perspectives of all relevant stakeholders in community treatment orders (CTOs). This qualitative pilot study engaged a total of twenty-seven clients, their family members, and care providers in Toronto, Canada. Semi-structured, one-on-one interviews were conducted between February and July 2013 and analyzed using thematic analysis. Top key themes from all the participants identified include, among others: 1) clients' experiences of coercion while treated under CTO, but a preference for CTOs compared to involuntary hospitalization, nevertheless; 2) limited real opportunities for collaboration in treatment decisions expressed by clients and family members; 3) acceptance of the potential for clinical recovery on CTOs while debating the role of CTO in a broader recovery journey by all stakeholders; 4) general preservation of therapeutic relationships between clients and care providers, while acknowledging the tension of taking on an "enforcer" role by providers; and 5) existence of different avenues for asserting agency by clients...
March 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Juliane Horvath, Tilman Steinert, Susanne Jaeger
BACKGROUND: Despite the major encroachment of coercive measures on the fundamental rights of affected forensic psychiatric patients, there is relatively few research done in this field. Considering the relevance of this subject for psychiatric care and the recent changes of the legal basis of coercive treatment in Germany, more studies are needed. The present study examines forensic psychiatric inpatients' perception of coercion regarding the prescribed antipsychotic medication and factors associated with the perception of coercion...
March 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Olaf Gjerløw Aasland, Tonje Lossius Husum, Reidun Førde, Reidar Pedersen
More knowledge is needed on how to reduce the prevalence of formal and informal coercion in Norwegian mental health care. To explore possible reasons for the widespread differences in coercive practice in psychiatry and drug addiction treatment in Norway, and the poor compliance to change initiatives, we performed a nationwide survey. Six vignettes from concrete and realistic clinical situations where coercive measures were among the alternative courses of action, and where the difference between authoritarian (paternalistic) and dialogical (user participation) practices was explicitly delineated, were presented in an electronic questionnaire distributed to five groups of professionals: psychiatrists, psychologists, nurses, other professionals and auxiliary treatment staff...
March 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
David Kavaler, Vladimir Filkov
Stack Overflow is a popular crowdsourced question and answer website for programming-related issues. It is an invaluable resource for software developers; on average, questions posted there get answered in minutes to an hour. Questions about well established topics, e.g., the coercion operator in C++, or the difference between canonical and class names in Java, get asked often in one form or another, and answered very quickly. On the other hand, questions on previously unseen or niche topics take a while to get a good answer...
2018: PloS One
Natalie Colaneri, Mark Sheldon, Andrew Adesman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Given the pervasiveness of psychotropic medication in the youth population and an increasingly competitive culture regarding educational performance, children, teenagers, and/or their parents may increasingly seek psychotropic substances in an effort to enhance a student's cognitive abilities and/or academic performance. Physicians must become aware of this very important and clinically relevant issue and work to ensure that medications remain in the hands of patients seeking wellness and not enhancement...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
John W Wax, Amy W An, Nicole Kosier, Timothy E Quill
Voluntary stopping of eating and drinking (VSED) is a deliberate, self-initiated attempt to hasten death in the setting of suffering refractory to optimal palliative interventions or prolonged dying that a person finds intolerable. Individuals who consider VSED tend to be older, have a serious but not always imminently terminal illness, place a high value on independence, and have significant illness burden. VSED can theoretically be performed independent of clinician assistance and therefore avoids many of the ethical and legal concerns associated with physician-assisted dying or other palliative measures of last resort, However, VSED is an intense process fraught with new sources of somatic and emotional suffering for individuals and their caregivers, so VSED is best supervised by an experienced, well-informed clinician who can provide appropriate pre-intervention assessment, anticipatory guidance, medical treatment of symptoms, and emotional support...
March 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Linda S Pagani, Caroline Fitzpatrick
PURPOSE: We examined the prospective influence of early child problematic behavior on later coercive interactions and binge drinking by mothers. DESIGN AND METHODS: Canadian participants are from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, born between spring 1997 and 1998, which allowed a longitudinal birth cohort design. At the 41months, 628 parents reported on children's oppositional, aggressive, turbulent, and inattentive/hyperactive behavior. Mothers then reported on their own coercive and binge drinking behavior at the 60month follow-up...
March 2018: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
Julie Jomeen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Andrea Lavazza
There are many kinds of neural prostheses available or being researched today. In most cases they are intended to cure or improve the condition of patients affected by some cerebral deficiency. In other cases, their goal is to provide new means to maintain or improve an individual's normal performance. In all these circumstances, one of the possible risks is that of violating the privacy of brain contents (which partly coincide with mental contents) or of depriving individuals of full control over their thoughts (mental states), as the latter are at least partly detectable by new prosthetic technologies...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Camilla Stenfelt, Gabriela Armuand, Kjell Wånggren, Agneta Skoog Svanberg, Gunilla Sydsjö
INTRODUCTION: To investigate attitudes and opinions towards surrogacy among physicians working within obstetrics and reproductive medicine in Sweden. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Physicians working within medically assisted reproduction (MAR), antenatal care and obstetrics were invited to participate in a cross sectional nationwide survey study. The study-specific questionnaire measured attitudes and experiences in three domains: Attitudes towards surrogacy, Assessment of prospective surrogate mothers, and Antenatal and obstetric care for surrogate mothers...
March 7, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Jeremy K Ward, James Colgrove, Pierre Verger
France is one of the countries with the highest prevalence of vaccine hesitancy in the world. In an attempt to raise vaccination coverages, the French government made on January 1, 2018 eight more vaccines mandatory in addition to the three required until then. The process that led to this policy choice is of particular interest. We describe how vaccines became contentious in France and how French authorities came to view mandatory vaccination as the solution to the rise in vaccine hesitancy. In a bold move, French public health authorities turned to a new type of institutional device grounded in the ideal of democracy and public participation to political decision-making: "a citizen consultation"...
March 2, 2018: Vaccine
H Zachor, J C Chang, S Zelazny, K A Jones, E Miller
To explore the effect of provider communication-skills training on frequency of intimate partner violence (IPV) and reproductive coercion (RC) assessment, four family planning clinics were randomized to IPV/RC communication-skills building workshop or standard knowledge-based IPV/RC training and compared to historical controls from the same clinics (before any training). Female patients aged 16-29 completed after-visit surveys. Primary outcomes included provider discussion about IPV/RC, receipt of safety card with IPV/RC resources and patient disclosure of IPV/RC...
February 28, 2018: Health Education Research
C T Thomsen, M E Benros, T Maltesen, L H Hastrup, P K Andersen, D Giacco, M Nordentoft
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether implementing patient-controlled admission (PCA) can reduce coercion and improve other clinical outcomes for psychiatric in-patients. METHODS: During 2013-2016, 422 patients in the PCA group were propensity score matched 1:5 with a control group (n = 2110) that received treatment as usual (TAU). Patients were followed up for at least one year using the intention to treat principle utilising nationwide registers. In a paired design, the outcomes of PCA patients during the year after signing a contract were compared with the year before...
March 4, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Charlene Y Senn, Misha Eliasziw, Karen L Hobden, Ian R Newby-Clark, Paula C Barata, H Lorraine Radtke, Wilfreda E Thurston
We report the secondary outcomes and longevity of efficacy from a randomized controlled trial that evaluated a novel sexual assault resistance program designed for first-year women university students. Participants ( N = 893) were randomly assigned to receive the Enhanced Assess, Acknowledge, Act (EAAA) program or a selection of brochures (control). Perception of personal risk, self-defense self-efficacy, and rape myth acceptance was assessed at baseline; 1-week postintervention; and 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month postrandomization...
June 2017: Psychology of Women Quarterly
Laura Lara, Javier López-Cepero
The Dating Violence Questionnaire (DVQ) is a 42-item questionnaire that measures victimization in romantic relationships between young people, through eight interrelated scales assessing detachment, humiliation, coercion, emotional punishment, gender-based, sexual, physical, and instrumental violence. It has been validated in a myriad of countries and languages and is commonly used in Spanish-speaking countries; however, two scales (emotional punishment and instrumental violence) have shown reliability issues...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Bridget Haire, Paul Komesaroff, Rose Leontini, C Raina MacIntyre
Vaccination is a highly effective public health strategy that provides protection to both individuals and communities from a range of infectious diseases. Governments monitor vaccination rates carefully, as widespread use of a vaccine within a population is required to extend protection to the general population through "herd immunity," which is important for protecting infants who are not yet fully vaccinated and others who are unable to undergo vaccination for medical or other reasons. Australia is unique in employing financial incentives to increase vaccination uptake, mainly in the form of various childcare payments and tax benefits linked to timely, age-appropriate vaccination...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
Tomasz Pawlowski, Piotr Baranowski
Background: Coercive measures are applied in psychiatry as a last resort to control self- and hetero-aggressive behaviors in situations where all other possible strategies have failed. For ethical and clinical reasons, the number of instances of coercion should be reduced as far as possible. Aim: The aim of the study was to identify sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients that were associated with coercion during hospital treatment. Materials and Methods: The study has a descriptive, longitudinal design, based on a 1 year prospective observation of patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital consisting of six inpatient psychiatric wards with a total of 236 beds...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Sigrid Fry-Revere, Deborah Chen, Bahar Bastani, Simin Golestani, Rachana Agarwal, Howsikan Kugathasan, Melissa Le
This article updates the qualitative research on Iran reported in the 2012 article by Tong et al. "The experiences of commercial kidney donors: thematic synthesis of qualitative research" (Tong et al. in Transpl Int 25:1138-1149, 2012). The basic approach used in the Tong et al. article is applied to a more recent and more comprehensive study of Iranian living organ donors, providing a clearer picture of what compensated organ donation is like in Iran since the national government began regulating compensated donation...
February 26, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Mikkel Højlund, Lene Høgh, Anders Bo Bojesen, Povl Munk-Jørgensen, Elsebeth Stenager
BACKGROUND: Decrease in coercive measures can lead to increased exposure to antipsychotics and benzodiazepines. This is not desirable as these drugs are associated with harmful side effects and reduced life expectancy. AIM: To quantify and compare the use of antipsychotic and anxiolytic medications in connection with the implementation of a programme to reduce coercion and restraint. METHODS: Observational study in a general psychiatric ward comparing psychopharmacological treatment after implementation of non-pharmacological interventions to reduce coercion and mechanical restraint with a historical reference cohort from the same ward...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
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