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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730884/the-effect-of-financial-compensation-on-willingness-to-supply-a-child-s-blood-sample-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Yubraj Acharya, Edward C Norton, Julie C Lumeng
Medical researchers frequently need to collect blood samples from study participants. The determination of whether and how much compensation to provide to the participants is challenging. Institutional review boards typically allow researchers to provide a compensation that reimburses participants for their time and effort but is not so large as to be coercive. Using a randomized controlled trial, we estimate parents' responsiveness to financial compensation in terms of their willingness to provide their child's blood sample...
September 2017: Evaluation & the Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716977/vulnerability-of-pregnant-women-in-clinical-research
#2
Indira S E van der Zande, Rieke van der Graaf, Martijn A Oudijk, Johannes J M van Delden
BACKGROUND: Notwithstanding the need to produce evidence-based knowledge on medications for pregnant women, they remain underrepresented in clinical research. Sometimes they are excluded because of their supposed vulnerability, but there are no universally accepted criteria for considering pregnant women as vulnerable. Our aim was to explore whether and if so to what extent pregnant women are vulnerable as research subjects. METHOD: We performed a conceptual and empirical analysis of vulnerability applied to pregnant women...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709462/enhancing-medical-students-reflectivity-in-mentoring-groups-for-professional-development-a-qualitative-analysis
#3
Gabriele Lutz, Nina Pankoke, Hadass Goldblatt, Marzellus Hofmann, Michaela Zupanic
BACKGROUND: Professional competence is important in delivering high quality patient care, and it can be enhanced by reflection and reflective discourse e.g. in mentoring groups. However, students are often reluctant though to engage in this discourse. A group mentoring program involving all preclinical students as well as faculty members and co-mentoring clinical students was initiated at Witten-Herdecke University. This study explores both the attitudes of those students towards such a program and factors that might hinder or enhance how students engage in reflective discourse...
July 14, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709012/de-escalation-of-aggressive-behaviour-in-healthcare-settings-concept-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Nutmeg Hallett, Geoffrey L Dickens
BACKGROUND: De-escalation is the recommended first-line response to potential violence and aggression in healthcare settings. Related scholarly activity has increased exponentially since the 1980s, but there is scant research about its efficacy and no guidance on what constitutes the gold standard for practice. OBJECTIVES: To clarify the concept of de-escalation of violence and aggression as described within the healthcare literature. DESIGN: Concept analysis guided by Rodgers' evolutionary approach...
July 4, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701292/short-text-messages-to-encourage-adherence-to-medication-and-follow-up-for-people-with-psychosis-mobile-net-randomized-controlled-trial-in-finland
#5
Maritta Välimäki, Kati Anneli Kannisto, Tero Vahlberg, Heli Hätönen, Clive E Adams
BACKGROUND: A text messaging service (short message service [SMS]) has the potential to target large groups of people with long-term illnesses such as serious mental disorders, who may have difficulty with treatment adherence. Robust research on the impact of mobile technology interventions for these patients remains scarce. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of our study was to investigate the impact of individually tailored short text messages on the rate of psychiatric hospital readmissions, health care service use, and clinical outcomes...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697769/a-nurse-delivered-clinic-based-intervention-to-address-intimate-partner-violence-among-low-income-women-in-mexico-city-findings-from-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Jhumka Gupta, Kathryn L Falb, Oriana Ponta, Ziming Xuan, Paola Abril Campos, Annabel Arellano Gomez, Jimena Valades, Gisele Cariño, Claudia Diaz Olavarrieta
BACKGROUND: Rigorous evaluations of health sector interventions addressing intimate partner violence (IPV) in low- and middle-income countries are lacking. We aimed to assess whether an enhanced nurse-delivered intervention would reduce IPV and improve levels of safety planning behaviors, use of community resources, reproductive coercion, and mental quality of life. METHODS: We randomized 42 public health clinics in Mexico City to treatment or control arms. In treatment clinics, women received the nurse-delivered session (IPV screening, supportive referrals, health/safety risk assessments) at baseline (T1), and a booster counselling session after 3 months (T2)...
July 12, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695193/testing-for-voter-rigging-in-small-polling-stations
#7
Raúl Jimenez, Manuel Hidalgo, Peter Klimek
Nowadays, a large number of countries combine formal democratic institutions with authoritarian practices. Although in these countries the ruling elites may receive considerable voter support, they often use several manipulation tools to control election outcomes. A common practice of these regimes is the coercion and mobilization of large numbers of voters. This electoral irregularity is known as voter rigging, distinguishing it from vote rigging, which involves ballot stuffing or stealing. We develop a statistical test to quantify the extent to which the results of a particular election display traces of voter rigging...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690113/male-violence-and-sexual-intimidation-in-a-wild-primate-society
#8
Alice Baniel, Guy Cowlishaw, Elise Huchard
Sexual violence occurring in the context of long-term heterosexual relationships, such as sexual intimidation, is widespread across human populations [1-3]. However, its evolutionary origins remain speculative because few studies have investigated the existence of comparable forms of sexual coercion in animals [4, 5], in which repeated male aggression toward a female provides the aggressor with delayed mating benefits [6]. Here, we test whether male aggression toward females functions as sexual coercion in wild chacma baboons (Papio ursinus)...
July 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668360/reproductive-coercion-in-high-school-aged-girls-associations-with-reproductive-health-risk-and-intimate-partner-violence
#9
Jennifer L Northridge, Ellen J Silver, Hina J Talib, Susan M Coupey
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of reproductive coercion, a form of intimate partner violence (IPV) including contraceptive sabotage and pregnancy pressure, among urban high-school-aged girls and to examine its associations with reproductive health risks. DESIGN: and Setting: A self-administered survey completed by high-school-aged girls living in high-poverty neighborhoods while awaiting medical care in a pediatric emergency room, inpatient service, school-based and hospital-based clinics...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665512/-treat-me-with-respect-a-systematic-review-and-thematic-analysis-of-psychiatric-patients-reported-perceptions-of-the-situations-associated-with-the-process-of-coercion
#10
REVIEW
Ellen B Tingleff, Stephen K Bradley, Frederik A Gildberg, Gitte Munksgaard, Lise Hounsgaard
INTRODUCTION: There is a lack of research into psychiatric patients' perceptions of coercion that discriminates between different types of coercive measures, while also investigating patients' perceptions of undergoing coercion as a process. This knowledge is required to improve our understanding and provide a foundation for improving clinical practice. AIMS: To review existing research literature in order to investigate adult psychiatric patients' reported perceptions of situations before, during and after specific and defined types of coercive measures; and to investigate what patients perceive as moderating factors, in regard to the use of these coercive measures...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664607/formal-caregivers-experiences-of-aggressive-behaviour-in-older-people-living-with-dementia-in-nursing-homes-a-systematic-review
#11
Adelheid Holst, Lisa Skär
AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate formal caregivers' experiences of aggressive behaviour in older people living with dementia in nursing homes. BACKGROUND: Aggressive behaviour symptoms among older people living with dementia are reported to be prevalent. As aggressive behaviour includes both verbal and physical behaviours, such as kicking, hitting and screaming, it causes an increased burden on formal caregivers. Professionals experiencing this aggression perceived it as challenging, causing physical and psychological damage, leading to anger, stress and depression...
June 30, 2017: International Journal of Older People Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654823/supporting-the-role-of-community-members-employed-as-research-staff-perspectives-of-community-researchers-working-in-addiction-research
#12
Gala True, Leslie B Alexander, Celia B Fisher
Community researchers are laypersons who conduct research activities in their own communities. In addiction and HIV research, community researchers are valued for their insider status and knowledge. At the same time, their presence on the research team raises concerns about coercion and confidentiality when community researchers and participants know each other personally, and the work of navigating between the worlds of research and community leads to moral distress and burnout for some community researchers...
June 20, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651895/sexual-conflict-facultative-asexuality-and-the-true-paradox-of-sex
#13
REVIEW
Nathan W Burke, Russell Bonduriansky
Theory suggests that occasional or conditional sex involving facultative switching between sexual and asexual reproduction is the optimal reproductive strategy. Therefore, the true 'paradox of sex' is the prevalence of obligate sex. This points to the existence of powerful, general impediments to the invasion of obligately sexual populations by facultative mutants, and recent studies raise the intriguing possibility that a key impediment could be sexual conflict. Using Bateman gradients we show that facultative asexuality can amplify sexual conflict over mating, generating strong selection for both female resistance and male coercion...
June 23, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648583/resistance-to-breastfeeding-a-foucauldian-analysis-of-breastfeeding-support-from-health-professionals
#14
Narges Alianmoghaddam, Suzanne Phibbs, Cheryl Benn
BACKGROUND: Despite widespread consensus regarding the health benefits of breastfeeding, the prevalence of six months exclusive breastfeeding is very low in developed countries including New Zealand. AIM: This paper aims to evaluate the role that health professionals play in promoting exclusive breastfeeding in New Zealand. METHODS: Qualitative research involving face to face postpartum interviews conducted four to six weeks after the birth with 30 new mothers who lived in New Zealand and had identified in a short antenatal questionnaire that they intended to practice exclusive breastfeeding for six months...
June 22, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645986/feasibility-study-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial-to-investigate-the-effectiveness-of-using-a-humanoid-robot-to-improve-the-social-skills-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-kaspar-rct-a-study-protocol
#15
Silvana E Mengoni, Karen Irvine, Deepshikha Thakur, Garry Barton, Kerstin Dautenhahn, Karen Guldberg, Ben Robins, David Wellsted, Shivani Sharma
INTRODUCTION: Interventions using robot-assisted therapy may be beneficial for the social skills development of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are lacking. The present research aims to assess the feasibility of conducting an RCT evaluating the effectiveness of a social skills intervention using Kinesics and Synchronisation in Personal Assistant Robotics (Kaspar) with children with ASD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Forty children will be recruited...
June 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644159/investigation-of-the-rosenbaum-concussion-knowledge-and-attitudes-survey-in-collegiate-athletes
#16
Erin B Chapman, Alan Nasypany, Jim May, Timothy Henry, Chris Hummel, Hyung-Pil Jun
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine whether the Rosenbaum Concussion Knowledge and Attitudes Survey (RoCKAS) is an appropriate outcome measure to assess knowledge and attitudes toward concussion in collegiate student-athletes as determined through validity and reliability testing. STUDY DESIGN: Convenience study. SETTING: The researcher recruited all athletic teams at a Division III National Collegiate Athletic Association institution...
June 14, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639335/a-systematic-review-on-identifying-risk-factors-associated-with-early-sexual-debut-and-coerced-sex-among-adolescents-and-young-people-in-communities
#17
REVIEW
Regina Lai Tong Lee, Alice Yuen Loke, Tsz Man Tommy Hung, Howard Sobel
AIM: To review literature on identifying the risk factors associated with early sexual coerced debut with the aim to facilitate the health care workers' planning of relevant health services to improve intervention strategies for delaying of early coerced sexual debut or forced sexual debut (CSD/FSD) in the communities. BACKGROUND: Identifying the risk factors associated with coercion at first sex is crucial for developing appropriate sexual and reproductive health information and health promotion in response...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637579/abortion-findings-from-women-and-men-participating-in-the-understanding-fertility-management-in-contemporary-australia-national-survey
#18
Heather Rowe, Sara Holton, Maggie Kirkman, Christine Bayly, Lynne Jordan, Kathleen McNamee, John McBain, Vikki Sinnott, Jane Fisher
Background: There are few reliable Australian abortion data. The aim was to investigate prevalence, sexual experiences and socioeconomic characteristics of women and men who report having had or being a partner in an abortion. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of women and men aged 18-50 years randomly selected from the Australian Electoral Roll was used. Weighted multivariable analyses were conducted. Results: Data from 2235 returned (of 15480) mailed surveys were analysed. One in six women and one in 10 men had experienced or been a partner in an abortion...
June 22, 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612732/-loss-of-agency-without-coercion
#19
Jean-Baptiste Van der Henst
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612731/-coercion-and-loss-of-agency
#20
Emilie A Caspar
The experiments conducted by the psychologist Stanley Milgram have shown the extent to which people behaviours can be modified under coercion. Nonetheless, the mechanisms that could explain how coercion influences moral behaviours have been largely unexplored. In the present article, I propose a new perspective to try to understand these mechanisms: this involves the neuroscience of consciousness and how consciousness can influence our behaviours.
May 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
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