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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922559/quarantine-isolation-and-the-duty-of-easy-rescue-in-public
#1
Alberto Giubilini, Thomas Douglas, Hannah Maslen, Julian Savulescu
We address the issue of whether, why and under what conditions, quarantine and isolation are morally justified, with a particular focus on measures implemented in the developing world. We argue that the benefits of quarantine and isolation justify some level of coercion or compulsion by the state, but that the state should be able to provide the strongest justification possible for implementing such measures. While a constrained form of consequentialism might provide a justification for such public health interventions, we argue that a stronger justification is provided by a principle of State Enforced Easy Rescue: a state may permissibly compel individuals to engage in activities that entail a small cost to them but a large benefit to others, because individuals have a moral duty of easy rescue to engage in those activities...
September 18, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887703/examining-the-impact-of-intimate-partner-violence-type-and-timing-on-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-awareness-interest-and-coercion
#2
Tiara C Willie, Jamila K Stockman, Nicole M Overstreet, Trace S Kershaw
Previous research suggests that intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with acceptability of and adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). However, very few studies have examined whether the type (i.e., physical, sexual, and psychological IPV) and timing (i.e., lifetime, past-year) of IPV experiences differentially relate to PrEP awareness, interest, and perceived PrEP coercion. Therefore, the objective of this study is to examine associations between lifetime and past-year physical, sexual, and psychological IPV experiences on PrEP awareness, interest, and perceived PrEP coercion...
September 8, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885684/personality-traits-of-nurses-and-organizational-climate-in-relation-to-the-use-of-coercion-in-psychiatric-wards
#3
Tomasz Pawlowski, Piotr Baranowski
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyze the personality traits of nurses and the organizational climate in psychiatric wards affecting the frequency of the use of coercion. DESIGN AND METHODS: The study applied a descriptive, longitudinal design based on a 1-year prospective observation. FINDINGS: The best predictor for the initiation of coercion by nursing personnel was a low score on the Creative Personality Factor Scale in Adjective Check List and the low score in the area of Leadership in Kolb's Organizing Climate Questionnaire (KOQC)...
September 8, 2017: Perspectives in Psychiatric Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885401/inpatient-postpartum-long-acting-reversible-contraception-care-that-promotes-reproductive-justice
#4
Michelle H Moniz, Kayte Spector-Bagdady, Michele Heisler, Lisa Hope Harris
Inpatient insertion of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) (intrauterine devices and implants) is increasingly offered to women immediately after childbirth. Enthusiasm for this approach stems from robust safety, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness data and responsiveness to women's needs and preferences. Although clinical evidence for immediate postpartum LARC is well-established, the ethical implications of enhancing access to this care have not been fully considered. Contraceptive policies and practices often embody a tension between fostering liberal availability and potentially coercive promotion of some methods...
September 5, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882828/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-factors-that-help-or-hinder-treatment-decision-making-capacity-in-psychosis
#5
REVIEW
Amanda Larkin, Paul Hutton
BackgroundThe evidence on factors that may influence treatment decisional capacity ('capacity') in psychosis has yet to be comprehensively synthesised, which limits the development of effective strategies to improve or support it.AimsTo determine the direction, magnitude and reliability of the relationship between capacity in psychosis and a range of clinical, demographic and treatment-related factors, thus providing a thorough synthesis of current knowledge.MethodWe conducted a systematic review, meta-analytical and narrative synthesis of factors that help or hinder treatment decision-making capacity in psychosis, assessing the direction, magnitude, significance and reliability of reported associations...
September 7, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880415/pregnant-substance-abusers-in-voluntary-and-coercive-treatment-in-norway-therapists-reflections-on-change-processes-and-attachment-experiences
#6
Siv Merete Myra, Edle Ravndal, Vigdis Wie Torsteinsson, Anne Kyong Sook Øfsti
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore therapists' discourses on treatment processes, when working with pregnant substance abusers in voluntary and coercive treatment, and looking for the clinical implications of these discourses. BACKGROUND: Treatment of Substance Use Disorder (SUDs) faces many challenges. One is pregnancy and motherhood, which are vulnerable and complex processes. The literature emphasizes lack of optimal and knowledge-based treatment for this group...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875773/use-of-mechanical-and-pharmacological-restraint-over-an-eight-year-period-and-its-relation-to-clinical-factors
#7
Solveig Klæbo Reitan, Anne-Sofie Helvik, Valentina Iversen
BACKGROUND: Use of restraint and finding the balance between security and ethics is a continuous dilemma in clinical psychiatry. In daily clinic and in planning health-care service, knowledge on the characteristics of restraint situations is necessary to optimize its use and avoid abuse. METHODS: We describe characteristics in the use of pharmacological and mechanical restraint in psychiatric acute wards in a hospital in Middle Norway over an eight-year period. Data on all cases of mechanical and pharmacological restraint from 2004 to 2011 were retrospectively collected from hand-written protocols...
September 6, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874106/an-opportunity-view-of-child-sexual-offending-investigating-nonpersuasion-and-circumstances-of-offending-through-criminological-lens
#8
Benoit Leclerc, Jean Proulx
The empirical evidence indicating that sexual offenders against children manipulate their victims to participate in sexual activities dominates the literature on sex offenders and their modus operandi. However, recent evidence suggests that a high proportion of these offenders do not try to persuade their victims for sexual contact in the first place by using coercion or manipulation but simply assault them when an opportunity arises. Using self-reported data from a sample of incarcerated adult sexual offenders against children, we investigate whether sexual offenses against children committed by the use of nonpersuasion are characterized by little planning and by offense features that are indicative of opportunistic offending...
September 1, 2017: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869030/use-of-coercion-at-danish-psychiatric-wards-by-day-of-week-and-time-of-day
#9
Susanne Mølgaard Leerbeck, Jan Mainz, Henrik Bøggild
INTRODUCTION: Mechanical restraint and other forms of coercion may be used under certain circumstances at psych-iatric wards. The use of coercion receives considerable focus, yet little is known about its diurnal distribution. We examined the initiation of mechanical restraint, sedative drug administration, physical retention, door locking and personal shielding by time of day and week. METHODS: Group 3 protocols in the national Register of Coercion for patients aged ≥ 18 years in the years 2010-2012 were analysed...
August 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868634/effects-of-video-feedback-intervention-on-harmonious-parent-child-interaction-and-sensitive-discipline-of-parents-with-intellectual-disabilities-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
M W Hodes, M Meppelder, M de Moor, S Kef, C Schuengel
BACKGROUND: This study tested whether video-feedback intervention based on attachment and coercion theory increased harmonious parent-child interaction and sensitive discipline of parents with mild intellectual disabilities or borderline intellectual functioning. METHODS: Observer ratings of video-recorded structured interaction tasks at home formed pretest, post-test, and 3-month follow-up outcome data in a randomized controlled trial with 85 families. Repeated measures analyses of variance and covariance were conducted to test for the intervention effect and possible moderation by IQ and adaptive functioning...
September 3, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866956/youth-experiences-in-accessing-sexual-healthcare-services-in-vietnam
#11
Anh Hoang, Chinh Quoc Nguyen, Cong Dinh Duong
Poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes among youth are reflective of the many barriers members of this group face in accessing health services. This study provides an in-depth account of the unique challenges that young people face in accessing sexual healthcare services in Vietnam. We surveyed 130 men and women aged 18-24 years at two major reproductive health sites in Ho Chi Minh City. We identified and explored seven domains: health insurance status, modern contraception use, HIV/STI testing, cervical cancer screening, unintended pregnancy, reproductive coercion and the patient-provider relationship...
September 4, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866330/aggression-and-violence-in-psychiatric-hospitals-with-and-without-open-door-policies-a-15-year-naturalistic-observational-study
#12
Andres R Schneeberger, Eva Kowalinski, Daniela Fröhlich, Katrin Schröder, Stefanie von Felten, Martin Zinkler, Karl H Beine, Andreas Heinz, Stefan Borgwardt, Undine E Lang, Donald A Bux, Christian G Huber
Aggressive behavior and violence in psychiatric patients have often been quoted to justify more restrictive settings in psychiatric facilities. However, the effects of open vs. locked door policies on aggressive incidents remain unclear. This study had a naturalistic observational design and analyzed the occurrence of aggressive behavior as well as the use of seclusion or restraint in 21 German hospitals. The analysis included data from 1998 to 2012 and contained a total of n = 314,330 cases, either treated in one of 17 hospitals with (n = 68,135) or in one of 4 hospitals without an open door policy (n = 246,195)...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839939/how-mental-health-service-systems-are-organized-may-affect-the-rate-of-acute-admissions-to-specialized-care-report-from-a-natural-experiment-involving-5338-admissions
#13
Lars Henrik Myklebust, Knut Sørgaard, Rolf Wynn
OBJECTIVES: Studies on the dynamics between service organization and acute admissions to psychiatric specialized care have given ambiguous results. We studied the effect of several variables, including service organization, coercion, and patient characteristics on the rate of acute admissions to psychiatric specialist services. In a natural experiment-like study in Norway, we compared a "deinstitutionalized" and a "locally institutionalized" model of mental health services. One had only community outpatient care and used beds at a large Central Mental Hospital; the other also had small bed-units at the local District Psychiatric Centre...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832408/reproductive-coercion-among-women-living-with-hiv-an-unexplored-risk-factor-for-negative-sexual-and-mental-health-outcomes
#14
Jocelyn C Anderson, Karen Trister Grace, Elizabeth Miller
BACKGROUND: Unintended pregnancy is prevalent among women living with HIV, and is associated with poor health outcomes for women and babies. Reproductive coercion may be one unexplored mechanism for this elevated risk. METHODS: Past year reproductive coercion data were obtained via self-reported survey from a sample of women receiving HIV specialty care in Baltimore, MD. RESULTS: Eleven of the 67 women (16.4%) included in the sample reported past year reproductive coercion...
August 21, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810941/coercive-control-and-the-stay-leave-decision-the-role-of-latent-tactics-among-a-sample-of-abused-pregnant-women
#15
Martha Alves, Sandra Graham-Bermann, Erin Hunter, Laura Miller-Graff, Sarah Schomer
Prior research on intimate partner violence (IPV) and a survivor's decision whether to remain in or leave a violent relationship has often been framed by the question "why do they stay?" This study looks reframe the discussion and examine one facet of this stay-leave decision: abusers' use of coercive control tactics. Using a qualitative approach with a sample of pregnant women exposed to IPV, we sought to expand on the current knowledge by looking at coercive control more broadly via an open-ended assessment...
August 15, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805122/the-inear-programme-an-existential-positive-psychology-intervention-for-resilience-and-emotional-wellbeing
#16
Aneta D Tunariu, Rachel Tribe, Dan Frings, Ian P Albery
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new psychological intervention, the iNEAR, which is a resilience and wellbeing programme consisting of a classroom based set of activities designed to facilitate the formation of positive identities through the acquisition of skills for growth and personal flourishing. Three hundred and fifty-four young people aged 11 and 12, matched for age and gender, were randomly allocated to the intervention (84 girls; 80 boys) and control conditions (93 girls; 96 boys)...
August 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796537/heterosexual-women-s-anal-sex-attitudes-and-motivations-a-focus-group-study
#17
Kimberly R McBride
Focus group methods were used to explore heterosexual women's receptive anal sex attitudes and motivations. Behaviors under investigation included penile-anal intercourse (PAI), manual-anal stimulation, oral-anal contact, and the use of sex toys. A total of 33 self-identified heterosexual women ages 18 to 30 recruited from two metropolitan areas in the Midwestern United States participated in one of six focus groups. The findings suggest that women viewed heterosexual anal sex as an emerging norm. Attitudes and motivations were complex and varied by behavior...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794548/informed-consent-process-foundation-of-the-researcher-participant-bond
#18
Amrita Sil, Nilay Kanti Das
Consenting to participate in a clinical research study after being properly and correctly informed upholds the basic ethical principle of "autonomy" in human research. The informed consent is a process by which the physician sensitizes the patient about the nature, procedures, risks benefits, treatment schedules, etc of the study in a language that is non-technical and understandable by the study participant. Informed consent document (ICD) has got two parts: the 'Subject Information Sheet' and the 'Informed Consent Form' (ICF); and they have to be approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee (IEC) before administration...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777973/predicting-risky-sexual-behaviors-among-college-student-drinkers-as-a-function-of-event-level-drinking-motives-and-alcohol-use
#19
Tess M Kilwein, Alison Looby
BACKGROUND: Risky sexual behaviors (e.g., sex without protection against pregnancy or sexually transmitted infections, sexual coercion, sex with unknown partners) are common among college students. To effectively decrease these behaviors, it is necessary to further understand factors associated with their occurrence. Drinking motives are a known predictor of both alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences, which may theoretically include risky sex. This study aimed to understand how drinking motivation interacts with alcohol use to predict risky sexual behaviors among college student drinkers...
July 25, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762534/perceptions-of-voluntary-consent-among-jail-diverted-veterans-with-co-occurring-disorders
#20
Max L Trojano, Paul P Christopher, Debra A Pinals, Autumn Harnish, David Smelson
This study assessed perceptions of voluntary consent among 69 veterans who enrolled in a "jail diversion" program for co-occurring disorders. Perceptions were measured using modified items from the MacArthur Perceived Coercion and Negative Pressure Scales. A majority reported that they "chose to" (88.4%) or "felt free to" (85.5%) enroll. Most reported having "control over" (69.6%) and "more influence than anyone else" regarding (60.9%) their participation. About half reported that enrollment was "their idea" (49...
August 1, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
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