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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906490/mapping-national-surveillance-of-surgical-site-infections-ssis-to-national-needs-and-priorities-an-assessment-of-england-s-surveillance-landscape
#1
Rachael Troughton, Gabriel Birgand, Alan P Johnson, Nichola Naylor, Myriam Gharbi, Paul Aylin, Susan Hopkins, Usman Jaffer, Alison Holmes
BACKGROUND: The rise in antimicrobial resistance has highlighted the importance of surgical site infection (SSI) prevention with effective surveillance strategies playing a key role in improving patient safety. This study maps national needs and priorities for SSI surveillance against current national surveillance activity. METHODS: This study analysed SSI surveillance in NHS hospitals in England covering 23 surgical procedures. Data collected were: (i) annual number of procedures, (ii) SSI rates from national reports, (iii) national reporting requirement (mandatory, voluntary, not offered), (iv) priority ranking from a survey of 84 English NHS hospitals, (v) excess length of stay and costs from the literature...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906231/role-of-endothelial-microrna-23-clusters-in-angiogenesis-in-vivo
#2
Satoshi Oikawa, Shogo Wada, Minjung Lee, Seiji Maeda, Takayuki Akimoto
The capillary network is distributed throughout the body, and its reconstruction is induced under various pathophysiological conditions. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression via post-transcriptional mechanisms and are involved in many biological functions including angiogenesis. Previous studies have shown that each miRNA of the miR-23 cluster, composed of the miR-23a cluster (miR-23a~27a~24-2) and miR-23b cluster (miR-23b~27b~24-2), regulates angiogenesis in vitro. However, the role of the endothelium-specific miR-23 cluster, located within a single transcription unit, in angiogenesis in vivo has not been elucidated...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905053/-effect-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-on-pressure-ulcer-healing-in-mouse
#3
Chengliang Deng, Zhiyuan Liu, Yuanzhen Yao, Ruichi Liu, Zairong Wei, Dali Wang
Objective: To investigate the effect of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) on pressure ulcers in mouse. Methods: The subcutaneous adipose tissue from voluntary donation was harvested. Then the hADSCs were isolated and cultured by mechanical isolation combined with typeⅠcollagenase digestion. The 3rd generation cells were identified by osteogenic, adipogenic, chondrogenic differentiations and flow cytometry. The platelet rich plasma (PRP) from peripheral blood donated by healthy volunteers was prepared by centrifugation...
June 1, 2018: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904782/multidimensional-internal-dynamics-underlying-the-perception-of-motion
#4
Mark Wexler
When ambiguous visual stimuli are presented continuously, they often lead to oscillations between usually two perceptions. Because of these oscillations, it has been thought that the underlying neural dynamics also arises from a binary or two-state system. Contradicting the binary assumption, it has been shown recently that the perception of some ambiguous stimuli is governed by continuously varying internal states, measured as biases that differ considerably from one observer to the next and that can also evolve over time (Wexler, Duyck, & Mamassian, 2015)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904119/wnk1-regulates-skeletal-muscle-cell-hypertrophy-by-modulating-the-nuclear-localization-and-transcriptional-activity-of-foxo4
#5
Shintaro Mandai, Takayasu Mori, Naohiro Nomura, Taisuke Furusho, Yohei Arai, Hiroaki Kikuchi, Emi Sasaki, Eisei Sohara, Tatemitsu Rai, Shinichi Uchida
With-no-lysine (K) (WNK) kinases, which are mutated in the inherited form of hypertension pseudohypoaldosteronism type II, are essential regulators of membrane ion transporters. Here, we report that WNK1 positively regulates skeletal muscle cell hypertrophy via mediating the function of the pro-longevity transcription factor forkhead box protein O4 (FOXO4) independent of the conventional WNK signaling pathway linking SPS/STE20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (SPAK)/oxidative stress response kinase 1 (OSR1) to downstream effector ion transporters...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903840/independent-voluntary-correction-and-savings-in-locomotor-learning
#6
Kristan A Leech, Ryan T Roemmich
People can acquire new walking patterns in many different ways. For example, we can change our gait voluntarily in response to instruction or adapt by sensing our movement errors. Here we investigated how acquisition of a new walking pattern through simultaneous voluntary correction and adaptive learning affected the resulting motor memory of the learned pattern. We studied adaptation to split-belt treadmill walking with and without visual feedback of stepping patterns. As expected, visual feedback enabled faster acquisition of the new walking pattern...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903838/the-slack-test-does-not-assess-maximal-shortening-velocity-of-muscle-fascicle-in-human
#7
Robin Hager, Sylvain Dorel, Antoine Nordez, Giuseppe Rabita, Antoine Couturier, Hugo Hauraix, Jacques Duchateau, Gaël Guilhem
The application of a series of extremely high accelerative motor-driven quick releases while muscles contract isometrically (i.e. slack test) has been proposed to assess unloaded velocity in human muscle. This study aimed to measure gastrocnemius medialis fascicle (VF ) and tendinous tissues shortening velocity during motor-driven quick releases performed at various activation levels to assess the applicability of the slack test method in human. Maximal fascicle shortening velocity and joint velocity recorded during quick releases and during fast contraction without external load (ballistic condition) were compared...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903643/the-use-of-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-nmes-for-managing-the-complications-of-ageing-related-to-reduced-exercise-participation
#8
REVIEW
Dominic O'Connor, Louise Brennan, Brian Caulfield
Exercise participation and activity levels are low in many older adults, and when paired with the multi-systemic effects of ageing, such as sarcopenia and decreased cardiovascular function, can result in a loss of functional independence. Voluntary exercise may not always be feasible for these individuals, highlighting a need for alternative therapies. There is a growing body of literature that recognises the positive effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on muscle strength, muscle mass and cardiorespiratory function in older adults...
July 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903631/-evidence-of-sensory-bladder-inhibitor-reflex
#9
F Charoenwong, A Charlanes, C Chesnel, D Menoux, D Motavasseli, E Tan, F Le Breton, G Amarenco
INTRODUCTION: Need to void level depends on two parameters, bladder volume and attentional process. If it is well known that the maximum voluntary contraction of the perineal muscles may transiently inhibit the micturition reflex itself, no work demonstrates the effect of this contraction on the intensity of the need itself. METHODS: An experimental, prospective, open, monocentric study was conducted between March and April 2017. In total, 15 subjects with no neurological history or neuro-perineal disorders consulting for functional constipation were included...
June 11, 2018: Progrès en Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903437/cerebellar-motor-syndrome-from-children-to-the-elderly
#10
Mario Manto
More than a century after the description of its cardinal components, the cerebellar motor syndrome (CMS) remains a cornerstone of daily clinical ataxiology, in both children and adults. Anatomically, motor cerebellum involves lobules I-V, VI, and VIII. CMS is typically associated with errors in the metrics of voluntary movements and a lack of coordination. Symptoms and motor signs consist of speech deficits, impairments of limb movements, and abnormalities of posture/gait. Ataxic dysarthria has a typical scanning (explosive with staccato) feature, voice has a nasal character, and speech is slurred...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902931/feasibility-of-an-internet-based-hiv-testing-service-anonymous-urine-collection-from-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#11
DongYan Xia, Xia Feng, XiaoXia He, GuoWu Liu, Yi Lyu, Huanyi Cheng, Yan Jiang, HongYan Lu
A large proportion of people who are HIV positive do not know their serostatus because facility-based provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling, and voluntary counseling and testing, have not been efficiently implemented in China. Therefore, a new HIV testing strategy must be developed to improve testing services so that more HIV infections can be detected earlier. In this study, we established an anonymous internet-aided urine-based HIV testing service for men who have sex with men (MSM) from 1 April 2016 to 20 January 2017...
June 14, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902784/predictors-of-utilization-of-an-addiction-specific-behavioural-couple-therapy-in-alcohol-dependence
#12
Olivia Schünemann, Johannes Lindenmeyer, Nina Heinrichs
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine predictors that lead to the utilization of Behavioural Couple Therapy (BCT) for patients with alcohol dependence (AD) in a -European health care system and to identify groups that have a low probability of utilizing BCT. METHODS: Using routinely collected data from a German rehabilitation clinic, a sample of 1,843 inpatients with AD living in a couple relationship was examined. Each patient could freely choose to participate in an addiction-specific BCT as a voluntary additional intervention during an inpatient treatment program...
June 14, 2018: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902705/the-effect-of-eccentric-exercise-and-delayed-onset-muscle-soreness-on-the-homologous-muscle-of-the-contralateral-limb
#13
Nosratollah Hedayatpour, Zahra Izanloo, Deborah Falla
High intensity eccentric exercise induces muscle fiber damage and associated delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) resulting in an impaired ability of the muscle to generate voluntary force. This study investigates the extent to which DOMS, induced by high intensity eccentric exercise, can affect the activation and performance of the non-exercised homologous muscle of the contralateral limb. Healthy volunteers performed maximal voluntary contractions of knee extension and sustained isometric knee extension at 50% of maximal force until task failure on both the ipsilateral exercised limb and the contralateral limb...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902445/longitudinal-changes-in-pelvic-floor-muscle-strength-among-parous-women
#14
Emily N B Myer, Jennifer L Roem, David A Lovejoy, Melinda G Abernethy, Joan L Blomquist, Victoria L Handa
BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge of the effects of time on change in pelvic floor muscle strength after childbirth. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to estimate the change in pelvic floor muscle strength in parous women over time and to identify maternal and obstetric characteristics associated with the rate of change. STUDY DESIGN: This is an IRB approved prospective cohort study of parous women. Participants were recruited 5-10 years after first delivery and followed annually...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902124/muscle-activation-in-suspension-training-a-systematic-review
#15
Joan Aguilera-Castells, Bernat Buscà, Azahara Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, Alicia M Montalvo, Javier Peña
Suspension training is an adjunct to traditional strength and conditioning. The effect of added instability on muscle activation during traditional exercises is unclear and depends on the exercise and type of instability. The purpose of this review was to compare the activations of different muscles in suspension training exercises and their traditional counterparts. A search of the current literature was performed without language restrictions using the electronic databases PubMed (1969-12 January 2017), SPORTDiscus (1969-12 January 2017) and Scopus (1969-12 January 2017)...
June 14, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901814/physical-fitness-and-body-anthropometrics-profiles-of-the-female-recruits-entering-to-voluntary-military-service
#16
Matti Santtila, Kai Pihlainen, Harri Koski, Tommi Ojanen, Heikki Kyröläinen
Introduction: The physical fitness of male conscripts has decreased, and body mass increased during the last few decades, especially in Nordic countries. However, limited research-based reports are available concerning the physical fitness profiles of female recruits. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate changes in physical fitness and body composition of female recruits entering voluntary Finnish military service between the years 2005 and 2015. Materials and methods: Data were collected from the initial fitness tests performed in military units during the first 2 weeks of military service...
June 13, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900357/indicators-to-compare-and-assess-the-institutional-strength-of-voluntary-sustainability-standards-in-the-global-coffee-industry
#17
Thomas Dietz, Jennie Auffenberg, Andrea Estrella Chong, Janina Grabs, Bernard Kilian
The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "The Voluntary Coffee Standard Index (VOCSI). Developing a composite Index to Assess and Compare the Institutional Strength of Mainstream Voluntary Sustainability Standards in the Global Coffee Industry" (Dietz et al., 2018) in press) [1]. The VOCSI presents the most detailed comparison all major voluntary sustainability standards (VSS) that currently exist in global coffee production. This Data in Brief contains the database that we have generated to set up the VOCSI...
August 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900138/physician-assisted-suicide-in-serbia
#18
Božidar Banović, Veljko Turanjanin, Emir Ćorović
Background: Physician-assisted suicide is one of the features with very different legal solutions in the world. In Serbia, physician-assisted suicide is a crime, within a crime of the assisted suicide. The possibility of the legislation of the voluntary active euthanasia may open the door to the decriminalization of the physician-assisted suicide. Methods: Data were obtained from the Clinical Hospital Center in Kragujevac, Republic of Serbia collected during 2015...
April 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899818/supporting-the-accommodation-of-voluntary-and-involuntary-migrants-humanitarian-and-host-society-considerations
#19
Maykel Verkuyten, Hadi Ghazi Altabatabaei, Wybren Nooitgedagt
Immigration leads to strong public and political debates in Europe and the Western world more generally. In some of these debates, migrants are described as either having little choice but to migrate (involuntary migrants) or migrating out of their own free choice (voluntary migrants). In two experimental studies among national samples of native Dutch respondents, we examined whether support for the accommodation of newcomers differs for voluntary and involuntary migrants and whether this depends on the relative importance of humanitarian considerations and host society considerations...
April 2018: Social Psychological and Personality Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899712/impaired-voluntary-control-in-ptsd-probing-self-regulation-of-the-acc-with-real-time-fmri
#20
Jana Zweerings, Eliza M Pflieger, Krystyna A Mathiak, Mikhail Zvyagintsev, Anastasia Kacela, Guido Flatten, Klaus Mathiak
Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by deficits in the self-regulation of cognitions and emotions. Neural networks of emotion regulation may exhibit reduced control mediated by the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), contributing to aberrant limbic responses in PTSD. Methods: Real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rt-fMRI NF) assessed self-regulation of the ACC in nine patients with PTSD after single trauma exposure and nine matched healthy controls. All participants were instructed to train ACC upregulation on three training days...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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