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Mario Bonato, Matteo Lisi, Sara Pegoraro, Gilles Pourtois
Voluntary orienting of spatial attention is typically investigated by visually presented directional cues, which are called predictive when they indicate where the target is more likely to appear. In this study, we investigated the nature of the potential link between cue predictivity (the proportion of valid trials) and the strength of the resulting covert orienting of attention. Participants judged the orientation of a unilateral Gabor grating preceded by a centrally presented, non-directional, color cue, arbitrarily prompting a leftwards or rightwards shift of attention...
October 21, 2016: Psychological Research
J-E Bibault, A Pernet, V Mollo, L Gourdon, O Martin, P Giraud
PURPOSE: With the increase of treatment complexity, enhancing safety is a key concern in radiation oncology. Beyond the involvement of the healthcare professional, patient involvement and empowerment could play a major role in that setting. We explored how patients perceived and fulfilled that role during their radiation treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A voluntary and anonymous questionnaire was administered to all patients treated in our department between November 2013 and May 2014...
October 18, 2016: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
Hubertus J A van Hedel, Nadine Häfliger, Corinna N Gerber
BACKGROUND: It is difficult to distinguish between restorative and compensatory mechanisms underlying (pediatric) neurorehabilitation, as objective measures assessing selective voluntary motor control (SVMC) are scarce. METHODS: We aimed to quantify SVMC of elbow movements in children with brain lesions. Children played an airplane game with the glove-based YouGrabber system. Participants were instructed to steer an airplane on a screen through a cloud-free path by correctly applying bilateral elbow flexion and extension movements...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Songyot Pilasant, Wantanee Kulpeng, Pitsaphun Werayingyong, Nattha Tritasavit, Inthira Yamabhai, Yot Teerawattananon, Sangay Wangmo, Sripen Tantivess
BACKGROUND: The Maternal and Child Health Voucher Scheme (MCHVS) was introduced in Myanmar to address the high rate of maternal and infant mortalities. It aimed to increase access to maternal and child health (MCH) services by skilled birth attendants (SBAs) and improve the health of pregnant women and their babies. A study to pilot a voucher scheme was implemented in May 2013 in Yedarshey Township. This paper provides a report on a mid-term review of the programme after 7 months of implementation to determine the outcomes of the programme and its impediments...
October 21, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Matthew S Palmer, George Jf Heigenhauser, MyLinh Duong, Lawrence L Spriet
This study determined whether mild dehydration influenced skeletal muscle glycogen use, core temperature or performance during high-intensity, intermittent cycle-based exercise in ice hockey players vs. staying hydrated with water. Eight males (21.6 ± 0.4 yr, 183.5 ± 1.6 cm, 83.9 ± 3.7 kg, 50.2 ± 1.9 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed two trials separated by 7 days. The protocol consisted of 3 periods (P) containing 10 x 45-second cycling bouts at ~133% VO2max, followed by 135 seconds of passive rest. Subjects drank no fluid and dehydrated during the protocol (NF), or maintained body mass by drinking WATER...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Daniel J Peart, Andy Hensby, Matthew P Shaw
The purpose of this study was to compare markers of hydration during sub-maximal exercise and subsequent time trial performance when consuming water (PW) or coconut water (CW). There was also a secondary aim to assess the palatability of CW during exercise and voluntary intake during intense exercise. 10 males (age 27.9 + 4.9 years, body mass 78.1 + 10.1kg, average max minute power 300.2 + 28.2W) completed 60-min of sub-maximal cycling followed by a 10-km time trial on two occasions. During these trials participants consumed either PW or CW in a randomised manner, drinking a 250 ml of the assigned drink between 10-15 min, 25-30 min and 40-45 min, and then drinking ad libitum from 55-min until the end of the time trial...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Jürgen Keller, Martin Gorges, Helena E A Aho-Özhan, Ingo Uttner, Erich Schneider, Jan Kassubek, Elmar H Pinkhardt, Albert C Ludolph, Dorothée Lulé
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder with pathological involvement of upper and lower motoneurons, subsequently leading to progressive loss of motor and speech abilities. In addition, cognitive functions are impaired in a subset of patients. To evaluate these potential deficits in severely physically impaired ALS patients, eye-tracking is a promising means to conduct cognitive tests. The present article focuses on how eye movements, an indirect means of communication for physically disabled patients, can be utilized to allow for detailed neuropsychological assessment...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Meta N Eek, Kate Himmelmann
Spasticity and muscle weakness is common in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Spasticity can be treated with botulinum neurotoxin-A (BoNT-A), but this drug has also been reported to induce muscle weakness. Our purpose was to describe the effect on muscle strength in the lower extremities after BoNT-A injections in children with CP. A secondary aim was to relate the effect of BoNT-A to gait pattern and range of motion. Twenty children with spastic CP were included in the study, 8 girls and 12 boys (mean age 7...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Marta Gómez-Galán, Teresa Femenía, Elin Åberg, Lisette Graae, Ann Van Eeckhaut, Ilse Smolders, Stefan Brené, Maria Lindskog
Stress, such as social isolation, is a well-known risk factor for depression, most probably in combination with predisposing genetic factors. Physical exercise on the other hand, is depicted as a wonder-treatment that makes you healthier, happier and live longer. However, the published results on the effects of exercise are ambiguous, especially when it comes to neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we combine a paradigm of social isolation with a genetic rat model of depression, the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL), already known to have glutamatergic synaptic alterations...
2016: PloS One
Benjamin B Massenburg, Hillary E Jenny, Saurabh Saluja, John G Meara, Mark G Shrime, Nivaldo Alonso
BACKGROUND: Cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) is estimated to occur in 1 out of every 700 births, but for many people residing in low- and middle-income countries this deformity may be repaired late in life or not at all. This study aims to analyze worldwide provider-perceived barriers to the surgical repair of CLP in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: From 2011 to 2014, Smile Train distributed a multiple-choice, voluntary survey to healthcare providers to identify areas of need in CLP care worldwide...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Seung-Hyun Yoon, Doo-Hyung Lee, Myung-Chul Jung, Young Uk Park, Seong-Yeon Lim
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of rotator cuff (RC) muscles during activities of daily living. DESIGN: Motion analysis was conducted with 14 volunteers. Activation of RC (subscapularis, supraspinatus, and infraspinatus) was assessed using electromyography (EMG). Walking was performed with or without a shoulder immobilizer. Eating was conducted with or without the support of the elbow with the contralateral hand. Washing the hair was simulated while standing or leaning forward; washing the body was simulated while standing or holding the elbow; and washing the face was simulated using both hands while leaning forward...
November 2016: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Joanne Avraam, Rosie Bourke, John A Trinder, Christian L Nicholas, Danny Brazzale, Fergal J O'Donoghue, Peter D Rochford, Amy S Jordan
Respiratory magnetometers are increasingly being used in sleep studies to measure changes in end expiratory lung volume (EELV), including in obese obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. Despite this, the accuracy of magnetometers has not been confirmed in obese patients, nor compared between genders. Thus, we compared spirometer-measured and magnetometer-estimated lung volume and tidal volume changes during voluntary end-expiratory lung volume changes of 1.5L, 1L, and 0.5L above, and 0.5L below, functional respiratory capacity (FRC) in supine normal weight (BMI<25kg/m(2)) and healthy obese (BMI>30kg/m(2)) men and women...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Daniel D Rhoads, Jonathan R Genzen, Christine P Bashleben, James D Faix, M Qasim Ansari
CONTEXT: -Syphilis serology screening in laboratory practice is evolving. Traditionally, the syphilis screening algorithm begins with a nontreponemal immunoassay, which is manually performed by a laboratory technologist. In contrast, the reverse algorithm begins with a treponemal immunoassay, which can be automated. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recognized both approaches, but little is known about the current state of laboratory practice, which could impact test utilization and interpretation...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Elizabeth A Goodwin, Linda Burhansstipanov, Mark Dignan, Katherine L Jones, Judith Salmon Kaur
BACKGROUND: American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) breast cancer survivors experience disparities in breast cancer incidence and age-adjusted mortality compared with non-Hispanic white (NHW) breast cancer survivors. In addition, mortality-to-incidence rates indicate that AI/ANs continue to have the poorest survival from breast cancer compared with other racial groups. "Native American Cancer Education for Survivors" (NACES) is a cultural education and support intervention for AI/AN patients with cancer that collects data from voluntary participants through the NACES quality-of-life (QOL) survey regarding their cancer experience and survivor journey...
October 20, 2016: Cancer
Paul T Menzel
VSED demands willful determination from those who do it. The requisite willfulness is an ethical strength, providing greater assurance of voluntariness. Dying by VSED has another major merit: its pace provides time for the person and loved ones to embrace death in a shared appreciation of life. Support from professional caregivers is important in making dying by VSED comfortable. If acknowledged by its providers, this need for professional support has ancillary benefits: accurate information is more likely to be communicated to patients, and professional caregivers help normalize VSED and minimize abuses...
2016: Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics
Mark Corbett
Conceivably, in an ideal world, all patients with a life-limiting illness would receive optimal hospice and palliative care so that no one would ever wish to hasten their own death. The reality, however, is that despite provision of optimal hospice and palliative care, individuals with terminal illness experience suffering, loss of meaning, or deterioration in quality of life to the extent where they express the desire to expedite the dying process. While there has been extensive discussion surrounding physician-assisted death (PAD), there has been less attention paid to the practice of voluntary stopping eating and drinking (VSED) near the end of life...
2016: Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics
Wendy Kohlhase
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics
Paul E George, Julio Vidal, Patricia J Garcia
BACKGROUND: Peru experienced a crisis in its blood collection and supply system in the mid-2000s, as contaminated blood led to several transfusion-transmitted infections (TTI), occurring in the backdrop of extremely low voluntary donation rates and a national blood supply shortage. Thus, the Peruvian Ministry of Health (MINSA) implemented a national investigation on the safety and quality of the Peruvian blood collection/transfusion network. METHODS: Every Peruvian blood bank was evaluated by MINSA from 2007-2008...
May 2016: J Epidemiol Public Health Rev
Outi Laatikainen, Sami Sneck, Risto Bloigu, Minna Lahtinen, Timo Lauri, Miia Turpeinen
Adverse drug events (ADEs) are more likely to affect geriatric patients due to physiological changes occurring with aging. Even though this is an internationally recognized problem, similar research data in Finland is still lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the number of geriatric medication-related hospitalizations in the Finnish patient population and to discover the potential means of recognizing patients particularly at risk of ADEs. The study was conducted retrospectively from the 2014 emergency department patient records in Oulu University Hospital...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Carey D Balaban, Joseph M Furman
This study provides the first clear evidence that the generation of optokinetic nystagmus fast phases is a decision process that is influenced by performance of a concurrent disjunctive reaction time task (DRT). Ten subjects performed an auditory DRT during constant velocity optokinetic stimulation. Eye movements were measured in three dimensions with a magnetic search coil. Slow phase (SP) durations were defined as the interval between fast phases (FPs). There were three main findings. Firstly, human optokinetic nystagmus SP durations are consistent with a model of a Gaussian basic interval generator (a type of biological clock), such that FPs can be triggered randomly at the end of a clock cycle (mean duration: 200-250 ms); Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests could not reject the modeled cumulative distribution for any data trials...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
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