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Chemical pathology

Ya-Xiong Tao, P Michael Conn
After synthesis, proteins are folded into their native conformations aided by molecular chaperones. Dysfunction in folding caused by genetic mutations in numerous genes causes protein conformational diseases. Membrane proteins are more prone to misfolding due to their more intricate folding than soluble proteins. Misfolded proteins are detected by the cellular quality control systems, especially in the endoplasmic reticulum, and proteins may be retained there for eventual degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system or through autophagy...
April 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Corina-Maria Botici, Lăcrimioara Covaci, Claudia Judea-Pusta, Andrei Paşcalău
Objective: The main objective of this paper is to emphasize the importance of the early diagnosis of certainty in the cases of acral-acroma malignant melanoma in order to increase the survival rate. Method: The paper is a review of specialty literature and presents a clinical case of acral-acroma malignant melanoma. Clinical case: acral-acroma malignant melanoma with confirmed lymph node metastases and possibly secondary remote dissemination to the skin in a male patient aged 16 years...
2018: Clujul Medical (1957)
Shao-Feng Yang, Ran Ma, Li-Li Pan, Jing Cao, Nan Sheng
Gastric cancer is associated with a high mortality rate, with the development of gastric cancer stem cells underlying this. Gastric cancer stem cells are responsible for tumor initiation, progression and recurrence. However, the link between gastric cancer and gastric cancer stem cells remains to be fully understood. Murine models mimic a human microenvironment more accurately than in vitro studies and are useful models for understanding the behavior of different markers. The present study compared the expression of cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), a stem cell marker, with the expression of other cancer-associated markers, including Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) and peroxiredoxin 2, in different pathological conditions of gastric cancer development using histological, immunohistological and western blot analyses...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
Xiaoyue Han, Xinyu Song, Bowei Li, Fabiao Yu, Lingxin Chen
Sulfane sulfur refers to ionized sulfur that is reversibly attached to other sulfur atoms in the form of 6-valence electrons (S0). Sulfane sulfur possesses stronger nucleophilicity and reducibility than hydrogen sulfide in a series of physiological reactions, which probably makes sulfane sulfur the actual signal molecule in cells. Herein, we designed and synthesized a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probe BD-diSH for sensitive detection and imaging of sulfane sulfur in living cells and in vivo. The probe BD-diSH is composed of two moieties: the fluorophore azo-BODIPY and the sulfane sulfur recognition unit, viz...
February 12, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Jill-Desiree Brederson, Katharine L Chu, Jun Xu, Arthur L Nikkel, Stella Markosyan, Michael F Jarvis, Rebecca Edelmayer, Robert S Bitner, Steve McGaraughty
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative form of arthritis that can result in loss of joint function and chronic pain. The pathological pain state that develops with OA disease involves plastic changes in the peripheral and central nervous systems, however, the cellular mechanisms underlying OA are not fully understood. We characterized the medial meniscal tear (MMT) surgical model and the intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) chemical model of OA in rats. Both models produced histological changes in the knee joint and associated bones consistent with OA pathology...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Gina L Griffith, Barbara Wirostko, Hee-Kyoung Lee, Lauren E Cornell, Jennifer S McDaniel, David O Zamora, Anthony J Johnson
PURPOSE: The study objective was to test the utilization of a crosslinked, thiolated hyaluronic acid (CMHA-S) film for treating corneal chemical burns. METHODS: Burns 5.5mm in diameter were created on 10 anesthetized, male New Zealand white rabbits by placing a 1N NaOH soaked circular filter paper onto the cornea for 30s. Wounds were immediately rinsed with balanced salt solution (BSS). CMHA-S films were placed in the left inferior fornix of five injured and five uninjured animals...
February 8, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Kashi Raj Bhattarai, Raghupatil Junjappa, Mallikarjun Handigund, Hyung-Ryong Kim, Han-Jung Chae
Xerostomia is a state of oral dryness associated with salivary gland dysfunction and is induced by stress, radiation and chemical therapy, various systemic and autoimmune diseases, and specific medications. Fluid secretion is interrupted by the stimulation of neurotransmitter-induced increase in cytosolic calcium ([Ca 2+ ] i ) in salivary gland acinar cells, prompting the mobilization of ion channels and their transporters. Salivary fluid and protein secretion are principally dependent on parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves...
February 8, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
(no author information available yet)
The extensive database on BPA provides strong evidence of its adverse effects on reproductive, neurobehavioral, metabolic functions and mammary gland. Disruption of estrogenic pathway is central in the mediation of these effects although other modes of action may be involved. BPA has a weak affinity for ERα/β but interaction with extranuclearly located pathways activated by estrogens such as ERRγ and GPER reveals how BPA can act at low doses. The effects are observed later in life after developmental exposure and are associated with pathologies of major societal concern in terms of severity, incidence, impact on quality of life, burden on public health system...
February 8, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Hui-Ying Tung, Evan Li, Cameron Landers, An Nguyen, Farrah Kheradmand, J Morgan Knight, David B Corry
Allergic asthma is a heterogeneous disorder that defies a unanimously acceptable definition, but is generally recognized through its highly characteristic clinical expression of dyspnea and cough accompanied by clinical data that document reversible or exaggerated airway constriction and obstruction. The generally rising prevalence of asthma in highly industrialized societies despite significant therapeutic advances suggests that the fundamental cause(s) of asthma remain poorly understood. Detailed analyses of both the indoor (built) and outdoor environments continue to support the concept that not only inhaled particulates, especially carbon-based particulate pollution, pollens, and fungal elements, but also many noxious gases and chemicals, especially biologically derived byproducts such as proteinases, are essential to asthma pathogenesis...
February 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Christopher T Lam, Jenna Mueller, Betsy Asma, Mercy Asiedu, Marlee S Krieger, Rhea Chitalia, Denali Dahl, Peyton Taylor, John W Schmitt, Nimmi Ramanujam
INTRODUCTION: We have previously developed a portable Pocket Colposcope for cervical cancer screening in resource-limited settings. In this manuscript we report two different strategies (cross-polarization and an integrated reflector) to improve image contrast levels achieved with the Pocket Colposcope and evaluate the merits of each strategy compared to a standard-of-care digital colposcope. The desired outcomes included reduced specular reflection (glare), increased illumination beam pattern uniformity, and reduced electrical power budget...
2018: PloS One
Angela Corvino, Ferdinando Fiorino, Beatrice Severino, Irene Saccone, Francesco Frecentese, Elisa Perissutti, Paola Di Vaio, Vincenzo Santagada, Giuseppe Caliendo, Elisa Magli
The 5-HT1A receptor is a pharmacologically well characterized serotonin receptor subtype and it has long been investigated because of its involvement in several physio-pathological mechanisms and treatment of neurological diseases like ansia and depression. Serotonin (5-HT) also shows many non-neural functions such as essential hypertension, embryogenesis, follicle maturation and behavior. Moreover it exerts a growth factor function on different types of non-tumoral cells, and it was also found to be related to oncogenes...
February 9, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Hong-Tao Li, Yong-Zhi Yang, De-Bao Zhang, Gui-Shan Gu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical feasibility of particle impaction bone graft and plate internal fixation for the treatment of proximal femoral bone tumors or tumor disease. METHODS: From January 2013 to January 2016 a total of 26 cases of the proximal femur bone tumors or tumor lesions, neither pathological fracture, were retrospectively analyzed, including 12 males and 14 females with an average age of 34.2 years old ranging from 8 to 62 years old. The pathologic result involved fibrous dysplasia in 11 cases, bone isolation bone cyst in 7 cases, giant cell tumors of bone in 3 cases, aneurysm sample bone cyst in 3 cases, non ossifying fibroma in 1 case, benign fibrous histiocytoma in 1 case...
July 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Adriano Mollica, Gokhan Zengin, Serdar Durdagi, Ramin Ekhteiari Salmas, Giorgia Macedonio, Azzurra Stefanucci, Marilisa Pia Dimmito, Ettore Novellino
Human α-glucosidase is an enzyme involved in the catalytic cleavage of the glucoside bond and involved in numerous functionalities of the organism, as well as in the insurgence of diabetes mellitus 2 and obesity. Thus, developing chemicals that inhibit this enzyme is a promising approach for the treatment of several pathologies. Small peptides such as di- and tri-peptides may be in natural organism as well as in the GI tract in high concentration, coming from the digestive process of meat, wheat and milk proteins...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Han Lin, Yu Chen, Jianlin Shi
Tumour chemotherapy employs highly cytotoxic chemodrugs, which kill both cancer and normal cells by cellular apoptosis or necrosis non-selectively. Catalysing/triggering the specific chemical reactions only inside tumour tissues can generate abundant and special chemicals and products locally to initiate a series of unique biological and pathologic effects, which may enable tumour-specific theranostic effects to combat cancer without bringing about significant side effects on normal tissues. Nevertheless, chemical reaction-initiated selective tumour therapy strongly depends on the advances in chemistry, materials science, nanotechnology and biomedicine...
February 8, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Rosilene Cristina Rossetto Burgos, Rawi Ramautar, Eduard P A Van Wijk, Thomas Hankemeier, Jan Van Der Greef, Alireza Mashaghi
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a blood cancer that is caused by a disorder of the process that normally generates neutrophils. Function and dysfunction of neutrophils are key to physiologic defense against pathogens as well as pathologies including autoimmunity and cancer. A major mechanism through which neutrophils contribute to health and disease is oxidative burst, which involves rapid release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by a chemical reaction network catalyzed by enzymes including NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase (MPO)...
January 5, 2018: Oncotarget
Bo Ma, Chuncai Kong, Xuanxuan Hu, Ke Liu, Qiang Huang, Jian Lv, Wenjing Lu, Xiaojing Zhang, Zhimao Yang, Sen Yang
Facile synthesis of ultrathin two-dimensional metallic nanosheets with special physical and chemical properties is still challenging. In this work, ultrathin silver nanosheets were synthesized through the galvanic replacement reaction between silver nitrate and Cu microcages without using any surfactant at room temperature. The as-prepared Ag nanosheets (NSs) were concave and had a thickness of sub-10 nm. And the nanosheets exhibited excellent H2O2 detection property with a high sensitivity of about 320.3 uA mM-1 cm-2 and a low detection limit of 0...
January 30, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Changping Zheng, Huanhuan Qu, Wenfeng Liao, Teodora Bavaro, Marco Terreni, Matthieu Sollogoub, Kan Ding, Yongmin Zhang
Ganglioside GM3 is implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. Due to GM3 exposes on the outer surface of cell membranes, it is strongly associated with cell adhesion, motility and differentiation. Neurite outgrowth is a key process in the development of functional neuronal circuits and regeneration of the nervous system after injury. In the present study, we used enzymatic hydrolysis and chemical synthesis to obtain novel galactose containing GM3 analogues. By enzymatic hydrolysis to prepare GM3 building block, we can avoid multiple chemical procedures...
January 31, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Sara Guariento, Michele Tonelli, Stefano Espinoza, Andrey S Gerasimov, Raul R Gainetdinov, Elena Cichero
The design of novel chemical classes acting towards several G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represents a leading strategy in drug discovery, aimed at deriving effective and safe candidates for further assessment. During the last years, TAAR1 arose as a promising druggable target in medicinal chemistry, being of interest in the treatment of several pathologies, such as neuropsychiatric disorders, type 2 diabetes and obesity. Nevertheless, the limited number of known potent and selective ligands and the species-specificity responsiveness exhibited by those derivatives nowadays available make the discovery of novel compounds a challenging task...
February 1, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Bi-Feng Yuan, Quan-Fei Zhu, Ning Guo, Shu-Jian Zheng, Ya-Lan Wang, Jie Wang, Jing Xu, Shi-Jie Liu, Ke He, Ting Hu, Ying-Wei Zheng, Fuqiang Xu, Yu-Qi Feng
Gut microbiota plays important roles in the host health. The host and symbiotic gut microbiota coproduce a large numbers of metabolites during the metabolism of food and xenobiotics. Analysis of fecal metabolites can provide a non-invasive manner to study the outcome of the host-gut microbiota interaction. Herein we reported the comprehensive profiling of fecal metabolome of mice by an integrated chemical isotope labeling combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (CIL-LC-MS) analysis. The metabolites are categorized into several submetabolomes based on the functional moieties (i...
February 6, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Youngsam Kim, Minsuk Choi, Sandip V Mulay, Minkyung Jang, Jin Yong Kim, Woo-Hyun Lee, Sangyong Jon, David G Churchill
Cysteine plays a crucial role in cellular functions and in human pathologies. However, the development of cysteine probes with extremely accurate detection is still a key challenge for the field. Herein, we have fully characterized and developed a novel selective fluorescent probe: 'red emission, aqueous detection and large Stokes' shift for cysteine' (Reals-C). Key in the probe synthesis is a Michael addition onto an acroylate group and subsequent intramolecular cyclization. The probe exhibits analyte detection via an intricate role set up by the leaving groups so to discriminate and form the red-emissive analyte sensing platform (λex= 471 nm, λem= 637 nm) through a chemical cascade pathway...
February 5, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
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