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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676588/lysine-acetyltransferase-inhibitors-structure-activity-relationships-and-potential-therapeutic-implications
#1
Francesco Fiorentino, Antonello Mai, Dante Rotili
Lysine acetylation is a post-translational modification of both histone and nonhistone proteins that is catalyzed by lysine acetyltransferases and plays a key role in numerous biological contexts. The dysregulation of this enzyme activity is implicated in many human pathologies such as cancer, neurological and inflammatory disorders. Many lysine acetyltransferase inhibitors (KATi) have been developed so far, but there is still the need for new, more potent, metabolically stable and selective KATi as chemical tools for studying KAT biology and/or as potential therapeutic agents...
April 20, 2018: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674245/effects-of-multiple-life-stage-exposure-to-the-fungicide-prochloraz-in-xenopus-laevis-manifestations-of-antiandrogenic-and-other-modes-of-toxicity
#2
Jonathan T Haselman, Patricia A Kosian, Joseph J Korte, Allen W Olmstead, Sigmund J Degitz
The Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay (LAGDA) is an internationally harmonized testing guideline for evaluating effects of chronic chemical exposure in amphibians. In order to evaluate the effects of chronic exposure to an antiandrogenic chemical in an amphibian model, prochloraz was tested using a variation of the LAGDA design. Exposure was initiated with <1d post-fertilization embryos at nominal concentrations of 0, 6.7, 20, 60 and 180 μg/L (0, 18, 53, 159, 478 nM) and continued in flow-through conditions until two months following the median time that controls completed metamorphosis...
April 3, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672976/dual-frequency-irradiation-cest-mri-of-endogenous-bulk-mobile-proteins
#3
Steffen Goerke, Johannes Breitling, Moritz Zaiss, Johannes Windschuh, Patrick Kunz, Patrick Schuenke, Daniel Paech, Dario L Longo, Karel D Klika, Mark E Ladd, Peter Bachert
A novel MRI contrast is proposed which enables the selective detection of endogenous bulk mobile proteins in vivo. Such a non-invasive imaging technique may be of particular interest for many diseases associated with pathological alterations of protein expression, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Specificity to mobile proteins was achieved by the selective measurement of intramolecular spin diffusion and the removal of semi-solid macromolecular signal components by a correction procedure. For this purpose, the approach of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) was extended to a radiofrequency (RF) irradiation scheme at two different frequency offsets (dualCEST)...
April 19, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668989/nasal-cytology-as-a-screening-tool-in-formaldehyde-exposed-workers
#4
E Bruno, G Somma, C Russo, D Porozaj, A Pietroiusti, M Alessandrini, A Magrini
Background: Workers in pathology and anatomy laboratories may be exposed to formaldehyde. An evaluation of the early effects of this substance is, therefore, paramount. This preliminary study was conducted to evaluate if nasal cytology could be used as a tool to detect changes in nasal mucosa in workers exposed to formaldehyde. Aims: To assess whether nasal cytology was able to reveal any alteration of nasal mucosa in workers exposed to formaldehyde compared to unexposed subjects, and to ascertain whether a specific pattern of alterations correlated with years of exposure in order to evaluate long-term occupational exposure effects...
April 14, 2018: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659572/a-computational-study-of-astrocytic-glutamate-influence-on-post-synaptic-neuronal-excitability
#5
Bronac Flanagan, Liam McDaid, John Wade, KongFatt Wong-Lin, Jim Harkin
The ability of astrocytes to rapidly clear synaptic glutamate and purposefully release the excitatory transmitter is critical in the functioning of synapses and neuronal circuits. Dysfunctions of these homeostatic functions have been implicated in the pathology of brain disorders such as mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. However, the reasons for these dysfunctions are not clear from experimental data and computational models have been developed to provide further understanding of the implications of glutamate clearance from the extracellular space, as a result of EAAT2 downregulation: although they only partially account for the glutamate clearance process...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658497/-addictions-profiles-as-a-tool-for-comparison-of-chemical-and-nonchemical-dependencies
#6
K Yu Zalmunin, V D Mendelevich
AIM: A clinical and phenomenological comparative evaluation of addictions (alcoholism, drug addiction, sexual and tobacco dependence, pathological gambling) to develop integrative methods for the assessment of comparative performance profiles of addictive disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and forty-six patients were examined using clinical, psychometric and statistical methods. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Addiction profiles were described and addictive potentials were compared...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655450/nature-and-action-of-antibodies-in-myasthenia-gravis
#7
REVIEW
Robert L Ruff, Robert P Lisak
This article discusses antibodies associated with immune-mediated myasthenia gravis and the pathologic action of these antibodies at the neuromuscular junctions of skeletal muscle. To explain how these antibodies act, we consider the physiology of neuromuscular transmission with emphasis on 4 features: the structure of the neuromuscular junction; the roles of postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors and voltage-gated Na+ channels and in converting the chemical signal from the nerve terminal into a propagated action potential on the muscle fiber that triggers muscle contraction; the safety factor for neuromuscular transmission; and how the safety factor is reduced in different forms of autoimmune myasthenia gravis...
May 2018: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649636/a-microfluidic-oxygen-sink-to-create-a-targeted-cellular-hypoxic-microenvironment-under-ambient-atmospheric-conditions
#8
Samineh Barmaki, Ville Jokinen, Daniela Obermaier, Daria Blokhina, Matti Korhonen, Robin H A Ras, Jyrki Vuola, Sami Franssila, Esko Kankuri
Physiological oxygen levels within the tissue microenvironment are usually lower than 14 %, in stem cell niches these levels can be as low as 0-1 %. In cell cultures, such low oxygen levels are usually mimicked by altering the global culture environment either by O2 removal (vacuum or oxygen absorption) or by N2 supplementation for O2 replacement. To generate a targeted cellular hypoxic microenvironment under ambient atmospheric conditions, we characterized the ability of the dissolved oxygen-depleting sodium sulfite to generate an in-liquid oxygen sink...
April 9, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649566/spatio-temporal-monitoring-of-lipid-peroxyl-radicals-in-live-cell-studies-combining-fluorogenic-antioxidants-and-fluorescence-microscopy-methods
#9
REVIEW
Lana E Greene, Richard Lincoln, Gonzalo Cosa
Lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in cells may occur via their catalytic autoxidation through peroxyl radicals under oxidative stress conditions. Lipid peroxidation is related to a number of pathologies, and may be invoked in new forms of regulated cell death, yet it may also have beneficial roles in cell signaling cascades. Antioxidants are a natural line of defense against lipid peroxidation, and may accordingly impact the biological outcome associated with the redox chemistry of lipid peroxidation...
April 9, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629087/3d-chemical-imaging-of-the-brain-using-quantitative-ir-spectro-microscopy
#10
Abiodun Ogunleke, Benoit Recur, Hugo Balacey, Hsiang-Hsin Chen, Maylis Delugin, Yeukuang Hwu, Sophie Javerzat, Cyril Petibois
Three-dimensional (3D) histology is the next frontier for modern anatomo-pathology. Characterizing abnormal parameters in a tissue is essential to understand the rationale of pathology development. However, there is no analytical technique, in vivo or histological, that is able to discover such abnormal features and provide a 3D distribution at microscopic resolution. Here, we introduce a unique high-throughput infrared (IR) microscopy method that combines automated image correction and subsequent spectral data analysis for 3D-IR image reconstruction...
January 7, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628809/cytokine-involvement-in-biological-inflammation-related-to-degenerative-disorders-of-the-intervertebral-disk-a-narrative-review
#11
REVIEW
Christopher M De Geer
Objective: The purpose of this narrative literature review is to discuss the literature regarding the potential role that cytokines play in degenerative disk disease. Methods: The inclusion criteria were studies that used inflammatory mediators in advancing disk disease processes. Research studies were limited to the last 3 decades that had free full-text available online in English. Exclusion criteria were review articles and articles pertaining to temporomandibular joints and other joints of the body other than the intervertebral disk...
March 2018: Journal of Chiropractic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626541/use-the-protonmotive-force-mitochondrial-uncoupling-and-reactive-oxygen-species
#12
REVIEW
Brandon J Berry, Adam J Trewin, Andrea M Amitrano, Minsoo Kim, Andrew P Wojtovich
Mitochondrial respiration results in an electrochemical proton gradient, or protonmotive force (pmf), across the mitochondrial inner membrane (IM). The pmf is a form of potential energy consisting of charge (∆ψm ) and chemical (∆pH) components, that together drive ATP production. In a process called uncoupling, proton leak into the mitochondrial matrix independent of ATP production dissipates the pmf and energy is lost as heat. Other events can directly dissipate the pmf independent of ATP production as well, such as chemical exposure or mechanisms involving regulated mitochondrial membrane electrolyte transport...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622093/glycoconjugates-pattern-and-chemosensory-cells-in-the-camel-respiratory-mucosa-lectin-and-immunohistochemical-studies
#13
Dalia Ibrahim
The glycoconjugates pattern of acidic secretions and distribution of chemosensory cells (SCCs) in the respiratory mucosa of dromedary camels were analyzed so as to identify their functional role. Secretions of the goblet cells and mucous glandular cells were analyzed to evaluate the variety of sugar chains, focusing on the acidic glycoconjugates. Using lectin histochemistry, WGA, STL, DBA, SBA, VVA and RCA-120 intensely bound to the goblet cells. PNA and ECL labeled the goblet cells with moderate intensity...
April 2018: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621478/hyperglycemia-induced-bcl-2-bax-mediated-apoptosis-of-schwann-cells-via-mtorc1-s6k1-inhibition-in-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy
#14
Lin Zhu, Jun Hao, Meijuan Cheng, Cuihong Zhang, Chunxiu Huo, Yaping Liu, Wei Du, Xianghong Zhang
Schwann cell apoptosis is one of the characteristics of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a multifunctional signaling pathway that regulates cell apoptosis in various types of tissues and cells. To investigate whether the mTOR pathway is involved in cell apoptosis in the Schwann cells of DPN, diabetic mice and rat Schwann cells (RSC96) were chosen to detect phospho-mTOR (Ser 2448), phospho-S6K1 (Thr 389), phospho-4EBP1 (Thr 37/46), Bcl-2, Bax and cleaved caspase-3 by diverse pathological and biological techniques...
April 2, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618086/inflammatory-phenotypes-in-the-intestine-of-poultry-not-all-inflammation-is-created-equal
#15
Michael H Kogut, Kenneth J Genovese, Christina L Swaggerty, Haiqi He, Leon Broom
The intestinal tract harbors a diverse community of microbes that have co-evolved with the host immune system. Although many of these microbes execute functions that are critical for host physiology, the host immune system must control the microbial community so that the dynamics of this interdependent relationship is maintained. To facilitate host homeostasis, the immune system ensures that the microbial load is tolerated, but anatomically contained, while remaining reactive to microbial invasion. Inflammation is the most prevalent manifestation of host defense in reaction to alterations in tissue homeostasis and is elicited by innate immune receptors that recognize and detect infection, host damage, and danger signaling molecules that activate a highly regulated network of immunological and physiological events for the purpose of maintaining homeostasis and restoring functionality...
March 30, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615539/induction-regulation-and-roles-of-neural-adhesion-molecule-l1cam-in-cellular-senescence
#16
Blanka Mrazkova, Rastislav Dzijak, Terezie Imrichova, Lenka Kyjacova, Peter Barath, Petr Dzubak, Dusan Holub, Marian Hajduch, Zuzana Nahacka, Ladislav Andera, Petr Holicek, Pavla Vasicova, Olena Sapega, Jiri Bartek, Zdenek Hodny
Aging involves tissue accumulation of senescent cells (SC) whose elimination through senolytic approaches may evoke organismal rejuvenation. SC also contribute to aging-associated pathologies including cancer, hence it is imperative to better identify and target SC. Here, we aimed to identify new cell-surface proteins differentially expressed on human SC. Besides previously reported proteins enriched on SC, we identified 78 proteins enriched and 73 proteins underrepresented in replicatively senescent BJ fibroblasts, including L1CAM, whose expression is normally restricted to the neural system and kidneys...
March 28, 2018: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614353/necrosulfonamide-attenuates-the-spinal-cord-injury-via-necroptosis-inhibition
#17
Yongxiang Wang, Jingcheng Wang, Hua Wang, Xinmin Feng, Yuping Tao, Jiandong Yang, Jun Cai
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious trauma without efficient treatment currently. Necroptosis can be blocked post injury by special inhibitors. To investigate the effects of Necrosulfonamide (NSA) in the treatment of SCI, pathological condition, necroptosis related factors, mitochondrial function and ethological performance were detected. Pathological detection using HE staining was performed first. Reduced lesions and protected neurons were found in the injured spinal cord after treatment with NSA. No obvious toxicity on rat liver, kidney, heart and spleen was detected using HE staining...
March 31, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611614/occupational-lung-cancer-among-fisherman-a-triple-case-report
#18
Tarik Ghailan, Mustapha El Ftouh
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organisation places lung cancer as the leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. The fishermen are one of the most important consumers of tobacco, which remains the main risk factor for lung cancer. However, there are no epidemiological data on the role of other causes, particularly occupational ones, in genesis of this disease. The objective of our work is to expose medical and occupational data of 3 fishermen with lung cancer and discuss a possible occupational origin of their pathology...
2018: International Maritime Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604052/chemical-carcinogenesis-and-the-hallmarks-of-cancer-a-temporal-perspective
#19
REVIEW
Christiana Demetriou, Davide Degli Esposti, Kristi Pullen Fedinick, Federica Russo, Oliver Robinson, Paolo Vineis
Cancer is believed to arise through the perturbation of pathways and the order of pathway perturbation events can enhance understanding and evaluation of carcinogenicity. This order has not been examined so far and this paper aims to fill this gap by attempting to gather evidence on the potential temporal sequence of events in carcinogenesis. The methodology followed was to discuss first the temporal sequence of hallmarks of cancer from the point of view of pathological specimens of cancer (essentially branched mutations), and then to consider the hallmarks of cancer that one well-known carcinogen, benzo(a)pyrene, can modify...
March 31, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602940/morphological-and-crystal-chemical-characteristic-of-pan%C3%B1-reatic-lithiasis
#20
Oleksandr V Kravets, Ihor A Danilenko, Olga M Smorodska, Artem M Piddubnyi, Inna-Margaryta S Zakorko, Sergei N Danilchenko, Roman A Moskalenko, Mykola G Kononenko, Anatolii M Romaniuk
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Information on chemical and phase composition of pancreoliths is limited and discrepant. There are reports, that pancreoliths are composed by calcium, phosphate, calcium carbonate or combination of calcium with fatty acids The aim of the work is studying of structural characteristics of pancreatoliths in 5 clinical cases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Morphological and crystal-chemical study of five cases of pathological biomineralization in the pancreas were conducted in the work...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
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