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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913190/synthesis-and-label-free-characterization-of-a-bimolecular-pna-homo-quadruplex
#1
Brunella Pinto, Giulia Rusciano, Stefano D'Errico, Nicola Borbone, Antonio Sasso, Vincenzo Piccialli, Luciano Mayol, Giorgia Oliviero, Gennaro Piccialli
BACKGROUND: G-quadruplex DNA is involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Both clinical and experimental studies on DNA G-quadruplexes are slowed down by their enzymatic instability. In this frame, more stable chemically modified analogs are needed. METHODS: The bis-end-linked-(gggt)2 PNA molecule (BEL-PNA) was synthesized using in solution and solid phase synthetic approaches. Quadruplex formation was assessed by circular dichroism (CD) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)...
November 29, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911416/the-indirect-neuron-astrocyte-coculture-assay-an-in-vitro-set-up-for-the-detailed-investigation-of-neuron-glia-interactions
#2
Christine Gottschling, Egor Dzyubenko, Maren Geissler, Andreas Faissner
Proper neuronal development and function is the prerequisite of the developing and the adult brain. However, the mechanisms underlying the highly controlled formation and maintenance of complex neuronal networks are not completely understood thus far. The open questions concerning neurons in health and disease are diverse and reaching from understanding the basic development to investigating human related pathologies, e.g., Alzheimer's disease and Schizophrenia. The most detailed analysis of neurons can be performed in vitro...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908759/cathepsin-nanofiber-substrates-as-potential-agent-for-targeted-drug-delivery
#3
Yael Ben-Nun, Galit Fichman, Lihi Adler-Abramovich, Boris Turk, Ehud Gazit, Galia Blum
The development of reactive drug carriers that could actively respond to biological signals is a challenging task. Different peptides can self-assemble into biocompatible nanostructures of various functionalities, including drugs carriers. Minimal building blocks, such as diphenylalanine, readily form ordered nanostructures. Here we present development of self-assembled tetra-peptides that include the diphenylalanine motif, serving as substrates of the cathepsin proteases. This is of great clinical importance as cathepsins, whose activity and expression are highly elevated in cancer and other pathologies, have been shown to serve as efficient enzymes for therapeutic release...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907087/prenylated-polyphenols-from-clusiaceae-and-calophyllaceae-with-immunomodulatory-activity-on-endothelial-cells
#4
Caroline Rouger, Sylvain Pagie, Séverine Derbré, Anne-Marie Le Ray, Pascal Richomme, Béatrice Charreau
Endothelial cells (ECs) are key players in inflammation and immune responses involved in numerous pathologies. Although attempts were experimentally undertaken to prevent and control EC activation, drug leads and probes still remain necessary. Natural products (NPs) from Clusiaceous and Calophyllaceous plants were previously reported as potential candidates to prevent endothelial dysfunction. The present study aimed to identify more precisely the molecular scaffolds that could limit EC activation. Here, 13 polyphenols belonging to 5 different chemical types of secondary metabolites (i...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899901/association-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-related-gene-variants-with-the-severity-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#5
Takashi X Fujisawa, Shota Nishitani, Ryoichiro Iwanaga, Junko Matsuzaki, Chisato Kawasaki, Mamoru Tochigi, Tsukasa Sasaki, Nobumasa Kato, Kazuyuki Shinohara
Exposure to environmental chemicals, such as dioxin, is known to have adverse effects on the homeostasis of gonadal steroids, thereby potentially altering the sexual differentiation of the brain to express autistic traits. Dioxin-like chemicals act on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), polymorphisms, and mutations of AhR-related gene may exert pathological influences on sexual differentiation of the brain, causing autistic traits. To ascertain the relationship between AhR-related gene polymorphisms and autism susceptibility, we identified genotypes of them in patients and controls and determined whether there are different gene and genotype distributions between both groups...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896883/curcumin-as-a-multifaceted-compound-against-human-papilloma-virus-infection-and-cervical-cancers-a-review-of-chemistry-cellular-molecular-and-preclinical-features
#6
REVIEW
Manouchehr Teymouri, Matteo Pirro, Thomas P Johnston, Amirhosein Sahebkar
Curcumin, the bioactive polyphenolic ingredient of turmeric, has been extensively studied for its effects on human papilloma virus (HPV) infection as well as primary and malignant squamous cervical cancers. HPV infections, especially those related to HPV 16 and 18 types, have been established as the leading cause of cervical cancer; however, there are also additional contributory factors involved in the etiopathogenesis of cervical cancers. Curcumin has emerged as having promising chemopreventive and anticancer effects against both HPV-related and nonrelated cervical cancers...
November 29, 2016: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891582/versatile-roles-of-intracellularly-located-trpv1-channel
#7
REVIEW
Rui Zhao, Suk Ying Tsang
The ubiquitous expression in many organs throughout the body and the ability to respond to a wide variety of physical and chemical stimuli have brought transient receptor potential (TRP) channels to the vanguards of our sensory systems. TRP vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) is the founding member of the TRPV subfamily. TRPV1 can be activated by noxious heat, protons and vanilloids. Previous studies have shown that TRPV1 is located on the plasma membrane, serving to non-selectively permeate calcium ion from the extracellular region to the cytoplasm...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890722/diabetes-induced-hepatic-oxidative-stress-a-new-pathogenic-role-for-glycated-albumin
#8
Jessica Patche, Dorothée Girard, Aurélie Catan, Florence Boyer, Anthony Dobi, Cynthia Planesse, Nicolas Diotel, Alexis Guerin-Dubourg, Pascal Baret, Susana B Bravo, Beatriz Paradela-Dobarro, Ezequiel Álvarez, M Faadiel Essop, Olivier Meilhac, Emmanuel Bourdon, Philippe Rondeau
Increased oxidative stress and advanced glycation end-product (AGE) formation are major contributors to the development of type 2 diabetes. Here plasma proteins e.g. albumin can undergo glycoxidation and play a key role in diabetes onset and related pathologies. However, despite recent progress linking albumin-AGE to increased oxidative stress and downstream effects, its action in metabolic organs such as the liver remains to be elucidated. The current study therefore investigated links between oxidative perturbations and biochemical/structural modifications of plasma albumin, and subsequent downstream effects in transgenic db/db mouse livers and HepG2 cells, respectively...
November 24, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889838/changes-of-brain-metabolite-concentrations-during-maturation-in-different-brain-regions-measured-by-chemical-shift-imaging
#9
Eva Bültmann, Thomas Nägele, Heinrich Lanfermann, Uwe Klose
INTRODUCTION: We examined the effect of maturation on the regional distribution of brain metabolite concentrations using multivoxel chemical shift imaging. METHODS: From our pool of pediatric MRI examinations, we retrospectively selected patients showing a normal cerebral MRI scan or no pathologic signal abnormalities at the level of the two-dimensional 1H MRS-CSI sequence and an age-appropriate global neurological development, except for focal neurological deficits...
November 26, 2016: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885153/karl-otto-landsteiner-1868-1943-physician-biochemist-immunologist
#10
Armond S Goldman, Frank C Schmalsteig
Karl Landsteiner applied the sciences of biochemistry, pathology, microbiology, and immunology in medical research to great success during the first half of the 20th century. Although he is principally known for elucidating the major blood group antigens A and B and their isoantibodies for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Landsteiner made many other important medical discoveries. In that respect, he ascertained that paralytic poliomyelitis was due to a virus, the pancreas was damaged in cystic fibrosis, simple chemicals called haptens were able to combine with antibodies, and the Rh antigen that was later found to be the principal cause of hemolytic anemia of the newborn was found in most humans...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879315/monoubiquitination-inhibits-the-actin-bundling-activity-of-fascin
#11
Shengchen Lin, Shuang Lu, Mentor Mulaj, Bin Fang, Tyler Keeley, Lixin Wan, Jihui Hao, Martin Muschol, Jianwei Sun, Shengyu Yang
Fascin is an actin bundling protein that crosslinks individual actin filaments into straight, compact and stiff bundles, which are crucial for the formation of filopodia, stereocillia and other finger-like membrane protrusions. The dysregulation of fascin has been implicated in cancer metastasis, hearing loss and blindness. Here we identified monoubiquitination as a novel mechanism that regulates fascin bundling activity and dynamics. The monoubiquitination sites were identified to be K247 and K250, two residues located in a positive charge patch at the actin binding site 2 (ABS2) of fascin...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865101/diagnostic-guide-enabling-distinction-between-taphonomic-stains-and-enamel-hypomineralisation-in-an-archaeological-context
#12
Elsa Garot, Christine Couture-Veschambre, David Manton, Vincent Rodriguez, Yannick Lefrais, Patrick Rouas
OBJECTIVE: Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) is a structural anomaly that affects the quality of tooth enamel and has important consequences for oral health. The developmentally hypomineralised enamel has normal thickness and can range in colour from white to yellow or brown with or without surface breakdown. The possibility of finding MIH in 'ancient populations' could downplay several current aetiological hypotheses (e.g., dioxin derivatives, bisphenols, antibiotics) without excluding the possible multifactorial aspect of the anomaly...
November 10, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859838/aggregation-induced-changes-in-the-chemical-exchange-saturation-transfer-cest-signals-of-proteins
#13
Steffen Goerke, Katharina S Milde, Raul Bukowiecki, Patrick Kunz, Karel D Klika, Thomas Wiglenda, Axel Mogk, Erich E Wanker, Bernd Bukau, Mark E Ladd, Peter Bachert, Moritz Zaiss
Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is an MRI technique that allows mapping of biomolecules (small metabolites, proteins) with nearly the sensitivity of conventional water proton MRI. In living organisms, several tissue-specific CEST effects have been observed and successfully applied to diagnostic imaging. In these studies, particularly the signals of proteins showed a distinct correlation with pathological changes. However, as CEST effects depend on various properties that determine and affect the chemical exchange processes, the origins of the observed signal changes remain to be understood...
November 11, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858174/wall-shear-stress-exposure-time-a-lagrangian-measure-of-near-wall-stagnation-and-concentration-in-cardiovascular-flows
#14
Amirhossein Arzani, Alberto M Gambaruto, Guoning Chen, Shawn C Shadden
Near-wall transport is of utmost importance in connecting blood flow mechanics with cardiovascular disease progression. The near-wall region is the interface for biologic and pathophysiologic processes such as thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Most computational and experimental investigations of blood flow implicitly or explicitly seek to quantify hemodynamics at the vessel wall (or lumen surface), with wall shear stress (WSS) quantities being the most common descriptors. Most WSS measures are meant to quantify the frictional force of blood flow on the vessel lumen...
November 17, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854251/nociceptive-trp-channels-sensory-detectors-and-transducers-in-multiple-pain-pathologies
#15
REVIEW
Aaron D Mickle, Andrew J Shepherd, Durga P Mohapatra
Specialized receptors belonging to the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of ligand-gated ion channels constitute the critical detectors and transducers of pain-causing stimuli. Nociceptive TRP channels are predominantly expressed by distinct subsets of sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system. Several of these TRP channels are also expressed in neurons of the central nervous system, and in non-neuronal cells that communicate with sensory nerves. Nociceptive TRPs are activated by specific physico-chemical stimuli to provide the excitatory trigger in neurons...
November 14, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852009/treatment-of-cardiovascular-pathology-with-epigenetically-active-agents-focus-on-natural-and-synthetic-inhibitors-of-dna-methylation-and-histone-deacetylation
#16
REVIEW
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Alexander N Orekhov, Yuri V Bobryshev
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) retains a leadership as a major cause of human death worldwide. Although a substantial progress was attained in the development of cardioprotective and vasculoprotective drugs, a search for new efficient therapeutic strategies and promising targets is under way. Modulation of epigenetic CVD mechanisms through administration epigenetically active agents is one of such new approaches. Epigenetic mechanisms involve heritable changes in gene expression that are not linked to the alteration of DNA sequence...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846236/disruption-of-higher-order-dna-structures-in-friedreich-s-ataxia-gaa-n-repeats-by-pna-or-lna-targeting
#17
Helen Bergquist, Cristina S J Rocha, Rubén Álvarez-Asencio, Chi-Hung Nguyen, Mark W Rutland, C I Edvard Smith, Liam Good, Peter E Nielsen, Rula Zain
Expansion of (GAA)n repeats in the first intron of the Frataxin gene is associated with reduced mRNA and protein levels and the development of Friedreich's ataxia. (GAA)n expansions form non-canonical structures, including intramolecular triplex (H-DNA), and R-loops and are associated with epigenetic modifications. With the aim of interfering with higher order H-DNA (like) DNA structures within pathological (GAA)n expansions, we examined sequence-specific interaction of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) with (GAA)n repeats of different lengths (short: n=9, medium: n=75 or long: n=115) by chemical probing of triple helical and single stranded regions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845862/bamboo-salt-suppresses-colon-carcinogenesis-in-c57bl-6-mice-with-chemically-induced-colitis
#18
Jaehyun Ju, Ga-Young Lee, Yoon-Se Kim, Hee Kyung Chang, Myoung-Sool Do, Kun-Young Park
The aim of our experiment was to evaluate the anticancer effect of bamboo salt (BS) on C57BL/6 mice in an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colon cancer model. BS, solar salt, and purified salt were evaluated for their protective effects during AOM/DSS-induced colon carcinogenesis in C57BL/6 mice. BS, especially after baking for nine separate intervals (BS9x), suppressed colon carcinogenesis in the mice. BS9x decreased colon length shortening, weight-to-length ratios, and tumor counts...
November 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845729/anti-inflammatory-chemical-profiling-of-the-australian-rainforest-tree-alphitonia-petriei-rhamnaceae
#19
Ritesh Raju, Dhanushka Gunawardena, Most Afia Ahktar, Mitchell Low, Paul Reddell, Gerald Münch
Chronic inflammation is an important pathological condition in many human diseases, and due to the side effects of the currently used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, discovery of novel anti-inflammatory drugs is of general interest. Anti-inflammatory activity guided compound isolation from the plant Alphitonia petriei led to the isolation of the known plant sterols emmolic acid (1), alphitolic acid (2), trans- and cis-coumaroyl esters of alphitolic acid (3 and 4) and betulinic acid (5). A detailed spectroscopic analysis led to the structure elucidation of the alphitolic acid derivatives (1-5), and the semi-synthetic emmolic acid acetate (6)...
November 11, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845488/contact-dermatitis-and-interferon-%C3%AE-dependent-chemokines
#20
P Fallahi, I Ruffilli
Inflammation of the skin is the pathological base of contact dermatitis (CD), and cytokines are very important in its pathogenesis. Recently it has been shown that interferon (IFN)-γ, and the IFN-γ dependent chemokines, monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG), IFN-γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10), and IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC), play an important role in CD. Allergic CD (ACD) is a T-cell-mediated disease in which expression of a distinct repertoire of chemokines results in the recruitment of effector T cells into the skin...
September 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
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