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Xing Ge, Tofael Ahmed, Tiantao Zhang, Zhenying Wang, Kanglai He, Shuxiong Bai
Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) play an important role in olfaction of insects by transporting sex pheromones across the sensillum lymph to odorant receptors. To obtain a better understanding of the molecular basis between PBPs and semiochemicals, we have cloned, expressed, and purified two PBPs (CpunPBP2 and CpunPBP5) from the antennae of Conogethes punctiferalis . Fluorescence competitive binding assays were used to investigate binding affinities of CpunPBP2 and CpunPBP5 to sex pheromone and volatiles. Results indicate both CpunPBP2 and CpunPBP5 bind sex pheromones E 10-16:Ald, Z 10-16:Ald and hexadecanal with higher affinities...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Yunhe Zhao, Jinfeng Ding, Zhengqun Zhang, Feng Liu, Chenggang Zhou, Wei Mu
Bradysia odoriphaga is an agricultural pest insect affecting the production of Chinese chive and other liliaceous vegetables in China, and it is significantly attracted by sex pheromones and the volatiles derived from host plants. Despite verification of this chemosensory behavior, however, it is still unknown how B. odoriphaga recognizes these volatile compounds on the molecular level. Many of odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) play crucial roles in olfactory perception. Here, we identified 49 OBP and 5 CSP genes from the antennae and body transcriptomes of female and male adults of B...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ikuro Abe, Tomotoshi Sugita, Masahiro Okada, Yu Nakashima, Tian Tian
Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto secrets the ComXnatto pheromone as a quorum sensing pheromone to produce poly-γ-glutamate for biofilm formation. The amino acid sequence of the pheromone is Lys-Trp-Pro-Pro-Ile-Glu, and the tryptophan residue is post-translationally modified with a farnesyl group to form a tricyclic scaffold. Unlike other Bacillus ComX pheromones, the tryptophan residue is distant from the C-terminal end of the precursor peptide ComXnatto. Here we report the functional analysis of ComQnatto, which catalyzes a unique farnesyl-transfer reaction...
April 17, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Ke Li, Tyler J Buchinger, Weiming Li
Covering: up to 2018Fish use a diverse collection of molecules to communicate with conspecifics. Since Karlson and Lüscher termed these molecules 'pheromones', chemists and biologists have joined efforts to characterize their structures and functions. In particular, the understanding of insect pheromones developed at a rapid pace, set, in part, by the use of bioassay-guided fractionation and natural product chemistry. Research on vertebrate pheromones, however, has progressed more slowly. Initially, biologists characterized fish pheromones by screening commercially available compounds suspected to act as pheromones based upon their physiological function...
April 17, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Débora Pires Paula, Roberto Coiti Togawa, Marcos Mota do Carmo Costa, Priscila Grynberg, Natália Florêncio Martins, David Alan Andow
Constitutive expression of Odorant-Binding Proteins (OBPs) in antennae and other body parts has been examined mainly to infer their involvement in insect olfaction, while their regulation in response to semiochemical stimuli has remained poorly known. Previous studies of semiochemical response were basically done using electrophysiology, which integrates the response of the set of OBPs present in an antenna or sensillum, without revealing the regulation of OBPs or which ones might be involved. In this study we used boll weevil as a model and mined its OBPs by RNA-Seq to study their simultaneous antennal expression by qPCR under controlled semiochemical stimuli with aggregation pheromone and plant volatiles...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Analú C Reis, Palmira L S Neta, Jéssica P Jordão, José Inácio L Moura, Diogo M Vidal, Paulo H G Zarbin, Carla F Fávaro
The bearded weevil, Rhinostomus barbirostris (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Dryophthorinae), attacks coconut trees, oil palms and other species of Arecaceae. Besides direct damage, R. barbirostris may be a vector of diseases in coconut and oil palms, such as stem bleeding (resinosis) and red ring disease. Currently, the only method to control this weevil is by visual observation of damage and removal of infected plants. Semiochemical-based trapping could improve the effectiveness of monitoring and management of R...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
T Das, I Alabi, M Colley, F Yan, W Griffith, S Bach, S T Weintraub, R Renthal
Proteins in the venom of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta have been suggested to function in pheromone binding. Venom from queens and workers contains different isoforms of these proteins, consistent with the differing pheromones they secrete, but questions remain about the venom protein composition and glandular source. We found that the queen venom contains a previously uncharacterized pheromone-binding protein paralogue known as Sol i 2X1. Using imaging mass spectrometry, we located the main venom proteins in the poison sac, implying that pheromones might have to compete with venom alkaloids for binding...
April 15, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
Immacolata Iovinella, Alison McAfee, Guido Mastrobuoni, Stefan Kempa, Leonard J Foster, Paolo Pelosi, Francesca Romana Dani
We have performed a proteomic analysis on chemosensory organs of Varroa destructor, the honey bee mite, in order to identify putative soluble carriers for pheromones and other olfactory cues emitted by the host. In particular, we have analysed forelegs, mouthparts (palps, chelicera and hypostome) and the second pair of legs (as control tissue) in reproductive and phoretic stages of the Varroa life cycle. We identified 958 Varroa proteins, most of them common to the different organs and stages. Sequence analysis shows that four proteins can be assigned to the odorant-binding protein (OBP)-like class, which bear some similarity to insect OBPs, but so far have only been reported in some Chelicerata...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Dong Kyung Lee, Tom Hsiang, Marc-André Lachance
Genes involved in mating type determination and recognition were examined in Metschnikowia and related species, to gather insights on factors affecting mating compatibility patterns among haplontic, heterothallic yeast species of the genus. We confirmed the universality of the special mating locus organisation found in Clavispora lusitaniae across and exclusive to the family Metschnikowiaceae (i.e., Metschnikowia and Clavispora). Timing of the divergence between idiomorphs was confirmed to coincide with the origin of the larger (CUG-ser) clade comprising the Debaryomycetaceae and the Metschnikowiaceae, exclusive of Cephaloascus fragrans...
April 12, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
R M Wallen, Michael H Perlin
Sexual reproduction likely evolved as protection from environmental stresses, specifically, to repair DNA damage, often via homologous recombination. In higher eukaryotes, meiosis and the production of gametes with allelic combinations different from parental type provides the side effect of increased genetic variation. In fungi it appears that while the maintenance of meiosis is paramount for success, outcrossing is not a driving force. In the subkingdom Dikarya , fungal members are characterized by existence of a dikaryon for extended stages within the life cycle...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Binu Antony, Jibin Johny, Saleh A Aldosari
In insects, perception of the environment-food, mates, and prey-is mainly guided by chemical signals. The dynamic process of signal perception involves transport to odorant receptors (ORs) by soluble secretory proteins, odorant binding proteins (OBPs), which form the first stage in the process of olfactory recognition and are analogous to lipocalin family proteins in vertebrates. Although OBPs involved in the transport of pheromones to ORs have been functionally identified in insects, there is to date no report for Coleoptera...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
C Gustavo Pesce, Stefan Zdraljevic, William J Peria, Alan Bush, María Victoria Repetto, Daniel Rockwell, Richard C Yu, Alejandro Colman-Lerner, Roger Brent
Populations of isogenic cells often respond coherently to signals, despite differences in protein abundance and cell state. Previously, we uncovered processes in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae pheromone response system (PRS) that reduced cell-to-cell variability in signal strength and cellular response. Here, we screened 1,141 non-essential genes to identify 50 "variability genes". Most had distinct, separable effects on strength and variability of the PRS, defining these quantities as genetically distinct "axes" of system behavior...
April 4, 2018: Molecular Systems Biology
Judith Korb
Termites evolved eusociality independently from social Hymenoptera. As a common trait, reproductive monopoly is maintained through chemical communication. The queen (and in termites also a king) prevents workers from reproduction by conveying their reproductive status. In termites all soldiers are sterile, but workers' potential to reproduce differs between species. It ranges from totipotency in wood-dwelling lower termites where workers are a transient stage from which all other castes develop, to sterile workers in some higher termites...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Qingjie Cao, Jacob D Wickham, Li Chen, Faheem Ahmad, Min Lu, Jianghua Sun
Since its introduction from North America, Dendroctonus valens LeConte has become a destructive forest pest in China. Although gut aerobic bacteria have been investigated and some are implicated in beetle pheromone production, little is known about the abundance and significance of facultative anaerobic bacteria in beetle gut, especially with regards to effects of oxygen on their role in pheromone production. In this study, we isolated and identified gut bacteria of D. valens adults in an anaerobic environment, and further compared their ability to convert cis -verbenol into verbenone (a multi-functional pheromone of D...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Keiichi Honda, Junya Matsumoto, Ken Sasaki, Yoshiaki Tsuruta, Yasuyuki Honda
Certain butterflies utilize plant-acquired alkaloids for their own chemical defense and/or for producing male sex pheromone; a trait known as pharmacophagy. Males of the danaine butterfly, Parantica sita, have been reported to ingest pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) as adults to produce two PA-derived sex pheromone components, viz. danaidone (major) and 7R-hydroxydanaidal. We found, however, that not all PAs that can be precursors for the pheromone serve for mating success of males. Here we show that although the sex pheromone is regarded as a requisite for successful mating, uptake of specific PA(s) (lycopsamine-type PAs) is also imperative for the males to achieve copulation...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Paul G Becher, Sebastien Lebreton, Erika A Wallin, Erik Hedenström, Felipe Borrero, Marie Bengtsson, Volker Joerger, Peter Witzgall
(Z)-4-undecenal (Z4-11Al) is the volatile pheromone produced by females of the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster. Female flies emit Z4-11Al for species-specific communication and mate-finding. A sensory panel finds that synthetic Z4-11Al has a characteristic flavour, which can be perceived even at the small amounts produced by a single female fly. Since only females produce Z4-11Al, and not males, we can reliably distinguish between single D. melanogaster males and females, according to their scent. Females release Z4-11Al at 2...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Stephen P Foster, Karin G Anderson
By differentially sampling the pheromone gland of females of the moth Heliothis virescens, we explored differences in pheromone on the surface, or outer distal layer(s) of the gland, and that located more proximally. For this, we used two sampling approaches, (i) a solid phase microextraction fiber rub followed by solvent extraction of residual pheromone (SPME rub/extract), and (ii) rapid solvent rinsing followed by solvent extraction of residual pheromone (rinse/extract). The SPME rub showed differences in component ratio between the dorsal and ventral gland surfaces...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Xiaoxiao Gao, Jing Ye, Chen Yang, Lei Luo, Ya Liu, Jianping Ding, Yunhai Zhang, Yinghui Ling, Weiping Huang, Xiaorong Zhang, Kaifa Zhang, Xiumei Li, Jie Zhou, Fugui Fang, Zubing Cao
BACKGROUND: Puberty is a pivotal stage in female animal development, and marks the onset of reproductive capability. However, little is known about the function of lncRNAs (long noncoding RNAs) in puberty. Therefore, RNA-seq analysis were performed between goats and rats to clarify the roles of lncRNAs and mRNAs in the onset of puberty. RESULTS: In the present study, the length of lncRNAs, the length of the open reading frame and the exon count were compared between the two species...
April 2, 2018: BMC Genetics
Tatsuhiro Sakamoto, Takuya Mochizuki, Yuta Goto, Manabu Hatano, Kazuaki Ishihara
BBr3-assisted chiral phosphoric acid catalysts for enantioselective [2+2] cycloaddition were developed. The reactions of phenyl vinyl sulfide with α-substituted acroleins proceeded, and the corresponding [2+2] cycloadducts were obtained with high enantioselectivity. In particular, the [2+2] cycloadduct obtained from methacrolein was a synthetically useful optically active cyclobutane, which could be transformed to a key intermediate for (+)-frontalin, a pheromone of Asian elephants.
March 30, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Io Long Chan, Oliver J Rando, Colin C Conine
Bleaching gravid C. elegans followed by a short period of starvation of the L1 larvae is a routine method performed by worm researchers for generating synchronous populations for experiments. During the process of investigating dietary effects on gene regulation in L1 stage worms by single-worm RNA-Seq, we found that the density of resuspended L1 larvae affects expression of many mRNAs. Specifically, a number of genes related to metabolism and signalling are highly expressed in worms arrested at low density, but are repressed at higher arrest densities...
March 30, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
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