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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924598/markerless-genome-editing-in-competent-streptococci
#1
Roger Junges, Rabia Khan, Yanina Tovpeko, Heidi A Åmdal, Fernanda C Petersen, Donald A Morrison
Selective markers employed in classical mutagenesis methods using natural genetic transformation can affect gene expression, risk phenotypic effects, and accumulate as unwanted genes during successive mutagenesis cycles. In this chapter, we present a protocol for markerless genome editing in Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus pneumoniae achieved with an efficient method for natural transformation. High yields of transformants are obtained by combining the unimodal state of competence developed after treatment of S...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924597/natural-transformation-of-oral-streptococci-by-use-of-synthetic-pheromones
#2
Gabriela Salvadori, Roger Junges, Rabia Khan, Heidi A Åmdal, Donald A Morrison, Fernanda C Petersen
The discovery that Streptococcus pneumoniae uses a competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) to induce competence for natural transformation, and that other species of the mitis and the anginosus streptococcal groups use a similar system, has expanded the tools to explore gene function and regulatory pathways in streptococci. Two other classes of pheromones have been discovered since then, comprising the bacteriocin-inducing peptide class found in Streptococcus mutans (also named CSP, although different from the former) and the SigX-inducing peptides (XIP), in the mutans, salivarius, bovis, and pyogenes groups of streptococci...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923877/poison-and-alarm-the-asian-hornet-vespa-velutina-uses-sting-venom-volatiles-as-alarm-pheromone
#3
Ya-Nan Cheng, Ping Wen, Shi-Hao Dong, Ken Tan, James C Nieh
In colonial organisms, alarm pheromones can provide a key fitness advantage by enhancing colony defense and warning of danger. Learning which species use alarm pheromone and the key compounds involved therefore enhances our understanding of how this important signal has evolved. However, our knowledge of alarm pheromones is more limited in the social wasps and hornets as compared to the social bees and ants. Vespa velutina is an economically important and widespread hornet predator that attacks humans and honey bees...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916525/molecular-basis-of-alarm-pheromone-detection-in-aphids
#4
Ruibin Zhang, Bing Wang, Gerarda Grossi, Patrizia Falabella, Yang Liu, Shanchun Yan, Jian Lu, Jinghui Xi, Guirong Wang
The sesquiterpene (E)-β-farnesene (EBF) is the alarm pheromone for many species of aphids [1]. When released from aphids attacked by parasitoids or predators, it alerts nearby conspecifics to escape by walking away and dropping off the host plant [2, 3]. The reception of alarm pheromone in aphids is accomplished through a highly sensitive chemosensory system. Although olfaction-related gene families including odorant receptors (ORs) and odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) have recently been identified from aphid genomes [4-6], the cellular and molecular mechanisms of EBF reception are still largely unknown...
November 26, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913634/comparative-analysis-highlights-variable-genome-content-of-wheat-rusts-and-divergence-of-the-mating-loci
#5
Christina A Cuomo, Guus Bakkeren, Hala Badr Khalil, Vinay Panwar, David Joly, Rob Linning, Sharadha Sakthikumar, Xiao Song, Xian Adiconis, Lin Fan, Jonathan M Goldberg, Joshua Z Levin, Sarah Young, Qiandong Zeng, Yehoshua Anikster, Myron Bruce, Meinan Wang, Chuntao Yin, Brent McCallum, Les J Szabo, Scot Hulbert, Xiaming Chen, John P Fellers
Three members of the Puccinia genus, P. triticina (Pt), P. striiformis f.sp. tritici (Pst), and P. graminis f.sp. tritici (Pgt), cause the most common and often most significant foliar diseases of wheat. While similar in biology and life cycle, each species is uniquely adapted and specialized. The genomes of Pt and Pst were sequenced and compared to that of Pgt to identify common and distinguishing gene content, to determine gene variation among wheat rust pathogens, other rust fungi and basidiomycetes, and to identify genes of significance for infection...
December 2, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912243/vomeronasal-receptors-in-vertebrates-and-the-evolution-of-pheromone-detection
#6
Liliana Silva, Agostinho Antunes
Pheromones were identified as chemical signals used for intraspecific communication in insects (e.g., sexual attraction) in the 1950s. However, only almost 40 years later the vomeronasal receptors type-1 (V1R) and type-2 (V2R) were identified, usually associated with the presence of a vomeronasal organ (VNO). VRs are widespread in amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, but birds lost the VNO. Similarly, fishes lack VRs and a VNO but can still detect pheromones, instead using the olfactory receptors related to class A and class C G protein-coupled receptors...
November 28, 2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912015/invasion-in-patchy-landscapes-is-affected-by-dispersal-mortality-and-mate-finding-failure
#7
Jonathan A Walter, Ariel L Firebaugh, Patrick C Tobin, Kyle J Haynes
Range expansions are a function of population growth and dispersal, and nascent populations often must overcome demographic Allee effects (positive density dependence at low population densities) driven by factors such as mate-finding failure. Given the importance of individual movement to mate finding, links between landscape structure and movement may be critical to range expansion; however, landscape effects on other factors including mortality may be equally or more important. In one of the most comprehensive investigations of the interactions of these processes to date, we combined field experiments, simulation modeling, and analysis of empirical spread patterns to investigate how landscape structure affected the spread of the gypsy moth in Virginia and West Virginia...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911792/transcriptomics-and-neuroanatomy-of-the-clonal-raider-ant-implicate-an-expanded-clade-of-odorant-receptors-in-chemical-communication
#8
Sean K McKenzie, Ingrid Fetter-Pruneda, Vanessa Ruta, Daniel J C Kronauer
A major aim of sociogenomic research is to uncover common principles in the molecular evolution of sociality. This endeavor has been hampered by the small number of specific genes currently known to function in social behavior. Here we provide several lines of evidence suggesting that ants have evolved a large and novel clade of odorant receptor (OR) genes to perceive hydrocarbon-based pheromones, arguably the most important signals in ant communication. This genomic expansion is also mirrored in the ant brain via a corresponding expansion of a specific cluster of glomeruli in the antennal lobe...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907189/structural-insights-into-streptococcal-competence-regulation-by-the-cell-to-cell-communication-system-comrs
#9
Antoine Talagas, Laetitia Fontaine, Laura Ledesma-Garca, Johann Mignolet, Inès Li de la Sierra-Gallay, Noureddine Lazar, Magali Aumont-Nicaise, Michael J Federle, Gerd Prehna, Pascal Hols, Sylvie Nessler
In Gram-positive bacteria, cell-to-cell communication mainly relies on extracellular signaling peptides, which elicit a response either indirectly, by triggering a two-component phosphorelay, or directly, by binding to cytoplasmic effectors. The latter comprise the RNPP family (Rgg and original regulators Rap, NprR, PrgX and PlcR), whose members regulate important bacterial processes such as sporulation, conjugation, and virulence. RNPP proteins are increasingly considered as interesting targets for the development of new antibacterial agents...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907154/pheromone-recognition-and-selectivity-by-comr-proteins-among-streptococcus-species
#10
Erin Shanker, Donald A Morrison, Antoine Talagas, Sylvie Nessler, Michael J Federle, Gerd Prehna
Natural transformation, or competence, is an ability inherent to bacteria for the uptake of extracellular DNA. This process is central to bacterial evolution and allows for the rapid acquirement of new traits, such as antibiotic resistance in pathogenic microorganisms. For the Gram-positive bacteria genus Streptococcus, genes required for competence are under the regulation of quorum sensing (QS) mediated by peptide pheromones. One such system, ComRS, consists of a peptide (ComS) that is processed (XIP), secreted, and later imported into the cytoplasm, where it binds and activates the transcription factor ComR...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905879/transcriptome-profiling-in-the-damselfly-ischnura-elegans-identifies-genes-with-sex-biased-expression
#11
Pallavi Chauhan, Maren Wellenreuther, Bengt Hansson
BACKGROUND: Sexual dimorphism occurs widely across the animal kingdom and has profound effects on evolutionary trajectories. Here, we investigate sex-specific gene expression in Ischnura elegans (Odonata: dragonflies and damselflies), a species with pronounced sexual differences including a female-limited colour polymorphism with two female-like gynochrome morphs and one male-mimicking, androchrome morph. Whole-organism transcriptome profiling and sex-biased gene expression analysis was conducted on adults of both sexes (pooling all females as well as separating the three morphs) to gain insights into genes and pathways potentially associated with sexual development and sexual conflict...
December 1, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902778/an-insecticide-further-enhances-experience-dependent-increased-behavioural-responses-to-sex-pheromone-in-a-pest-insect
#12
Antoine Abrieux, Amel Mhamdi, Kaouther K Rabhi, Julie Egon, Stéphane Debernard, Line Duportets, Hélène Tricoire-Leignel, Sylvia Anton, Christophe Gadenne
Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used to protect plants against pest insects, and insecticide residues remaining in the environment affect both target and non-target organisms. Whereas low doses of neonicotinoids have been shown to disturb the behaviour of pollinating insects, recent studies have revealed that a low dose of the neonicotinoid clothianidin can improve behavioural and neuronal sex pheromone responses in a pest insect, the male moth Agrotis ipsilon, and thus potentially improve reproduction...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898001/potential-for-using-acetic-acid-plus-pear-ester-combination-lures-to-monitor-codling-moth-in-an-sit-program
#13
Gary J R Judd
Studies were conducted in commercial apple orchards in British Columbia, Canada, to determine whether lures combining ethyl-(E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, pear ester (PE), with either acetic acid (AA) or sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone), might improve monitoring of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in an area-wide programme integrating sterile insect technology (SIT) and mating disruption (MD). Catches of sterile and wild codling moths were compared in apple orchards receiving weekly delivery of sterile moths (1:1 sex ratio) using white delta traps baited with either AA or PE alone, and in combination...
November 25, 2016: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895651/invertebrate-biosecurity-challenges-in-high-productivity-grassland-the-new-zealand-example
#14
REVIEW
Stephen L Goldson, Barbara I P Barratt, Karen F Armstrong
To protect productive grasslands from pests and diseases, effective pre- and at-border planning and interventions are necessary. Biosecurity failure inevitably requires expensive and difficult eradication, or long-term and often quite ineffective management strategies. This is compared to the early intervention more likely for sectors where there is public and political interest in plants of immediate economic and/or social value, and where associated pests are typically located above-ground on host plantings of relatively limited distribution...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895050/social-signals-and-aversive-learning-in-honey-bee-drones-and-workers
#15
Arian Avalos, Eddie Pérez, Lianna Vallejo, María E Pérez, Charles I Abramson, Tugrul Giray
The dissemination of information is a basic element of group cohesion. In honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus 1758), like in other social insects, the principal method for colony-wide information exchange is communication via pheromones. This medium of communication allows multiple individuals to conduct tasks critical to colony survival. Social signaling also establishes conflict at the level of the individual who must tradeoff between attending to the immediate environment or the social demand. In this study we examined this conflict by challenging highly social worker honey bees, and less social male drone honey bees undergoing aversive training by presenting them with a social stress signal (isopentyl acetate, IPA)...
November 28, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894998/push-pull-and-feedback-mechanisms-can-align-signaling-system-outputs-with-inputs
#16
Steven S Andrews, William J Peria, Richard C Yu, Alejandro Colman-Lerner, Roger Brent
Many cell signaling systems, including the yeast pheromone response system, exhibit "dose-response alignment" (DoRA), in which output of one or more downstream steps closely matches the fraction of occupied receptors. DoRA can improve the fidelity of transmitted dose information. Here, we searched systematically for biochemical network topologies that produced DoRA. Most networks, including many containing feedback and feedforward loops, could not produce DoRA. However, networks including "push-pull" mechanisms, in which the active form of a signaling species stimulates downstream activity and the nominally inactive form reduces downstream activity, enabled perfect DoRA...
November 23, 2016: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893361/regulatory-changes-in-two-chemoreceptor-genes-contribute-to-a-caenorhabditis-elegans-qtl-for-foraging-behavior
#17
Joshua S Greene, May Dobosiewicz, Rebecca A Butcher, Patrick T McGrath, Cornelia I Bargmann
Natural isolates of C. elegans differ in their sensitivity to pheromones that inhibit exploratory behavior. Previous studies identified a QTL for pheromone sensitivity that includes alternative alleles of srx-43, a chemoreceptor that inhibits exploration through its activity in ASI sensory neurons. Here we show that the QTL is multigenic and includes alternative alleles of srx-44, a second chemoreceptor gene that modifies pheromone sensitivity. srx-44 either promotes or inhibits exploration depending on its expression in the ASJ or ADL sensory neurons, respectively...
November 28, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892855/application-of-ethnobotanical-repellents-and-acaricides-in-prevention-control-and-management-of-livestock-ticks-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Roman Pavela, Angelo Canale, Heinz Mehlhorn, Giovanni Benelli
Ticks transmit at least the same number or even more pathogens than any other group of blood-feeding arthropods worldwide affecting humans and animals. The eco-friendly control and management of tick vectors in a constantly changing environment is a crucial challenge. Besides the development of vaccines against ticks, IPM practices aimed at reducing tick interactions with livestock, emerging pheromone-based control tools, and few biological control agents, the extensive employment of acaricides and tick repellents still remain the most effective and ready-to-use strategies...
September 9, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892521/a-novel-bio-engineering-approach-to-generate-an-eminent-surface-functionalized-template-for-selective-detection-of-female-sex-pheromone-of-helicoverpa-armigera
#19
Parikshit Moitra, Deepa Bhagat, Rudra Pratap, Santanu Bhattacharya
Plant pests exert serious effects on food production due to which the global crop yields are reduced by ~20-40 percent per year. Hence to meet the world's food needs, loses of food due to crop pests must be reduced. Herein the silicon dioxide based MEMS devices are covalently functionalized for robust and efficient optical sensing of the female sex pheromones of the pests like Helicoverpa armigera for the first time in literature. The functionalized devices are also capable of selectively measuring the concentration of this pheromone at femtogram level which is much below the concentration of pheromone at the time of pest infestation in an agricultural field...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892490/identification-and-expression-analysis-of-an-olfactory-receptor-gene-family-in-green-plant-bug-apolygus-lucorum-meyer-d%C3%A3-r
#20
Xing-Kui An, Liang Sun, Hang-Wei Liu, Dan-Feng Liu, Yu-Xiao Ding, Le-Mei Li, Yong-Jun Zhang, Yu-Yuan Guo
Olfactory receptors are believed to play a central role in insects host-seeking, mating, and ovipositing. On the basis of male and female antennal transcriptome of adult Apolygus lucorum, a total of 110 candidate A. lucorum odorant receptors (AlucOR) were identified in this study including five previously annotated AlucORs. All the sequences were validated by cloning and sequencing. Tissue expression profiles analysis by RT-PCR indicated most AlucORs were antennal highly expressed genes. The qPCR measurements further revealed 40 AlucORs were significantly higher in the antennae...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
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