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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642475/a-novel-bzip-protein-gsb1-is-required-for-oxidative-stress-response-mating-and-virulence-in-the-human-pathogen-cryptococcus-neoformans
#1
Seon Ah Cheon, Eun Jung Thak, Yong-Sun Bahn, Hyun Ah Kang
The human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, which causes life-threatening meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised individuals, normally faces diverse stresses in the human host. Here, we report that a novel, basic, leucine-zipper (bZIP) protein, designated Gsb1 (general stress-related bZIP protein 1), is required for its normal growth and diverse stress responses. C. neoformans gsb1Δ mutants grew slowly even under non-stressed conditions and showed increased sensitivity to high or low temperatures. The hypersensitivity of gsb1Δ to oxidative and nitrosative stresses was reversed by addition of a ROS scavenger...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637694/dendritic-eph-organizes-dendrodendritic-segregation-in-discrete-olfactory-map-formation-in-drosophila
#2
Marie Anzo, Sayaka Sekine, Shirin Makihara, Kinhong Chao, Masayuki Miura, Takahiro Chihara
Proper function of the neural network results from the precise connections between axons and dendrites of presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons, respectively. In the Drosophila olfactory system, the dendrites of projection neurons (PNs) stereotypically target one of ∼50 glomeruli in the antennal lobe (AL), the primary olfactory center in the brain, and form synapses with the axons of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). Here, we show that Eph and Ephrin, the well-known axon guidance molecules, instruct the dendrodendritic segregation during the discrete olfactory map formation...
May 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637211/optimization-of-pheromone-traps-for-coryphodema-tristis-lepidoptera-cossidae
#3
Marc Clement Bouwer, Bernard Slippers, Michael John Wingfield, Jeremy Dean Allison, Egmont Richard Rohwer
The Coryphodema tristis (Drury) is an important pest of Eucalyptus nitens (Deane and Maiden) plantations in South Africa. The gregarious larvae of this pest cause damage by feeding on the tree sapwood, and adults emerge in spring each year. The aim of this study was to optimize pheromone traps for operational use in management programs. This was achieved by investigating different pheromone blend combinations and trap types for efficacy under field conditions. Our results confirm that the cross vane bucket funnel trap baited with a 95:2...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636075/molecular-cloning-mrna-expression-and-biological-activity-of-the-pheromone-biosynthesis-activating-neuropeptide-pban-from-the-european-corn-borer-ostrinia-nubilalis
#4
J Fodor, G Köblös, Á Kákai, Z Kárpáti, B P Molnár, T Dankó, G Bozsik, C Bognár, G Szőcs, A Fónagy
Pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) is a member of the pyrokinin (FXPRLamide) insect neuropeptides. Here, we report the cloning of the gene Ostnu-PBAN from the E and Z pheromone strains of the European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a major pest of maize. The Ostnu-PBAN genomic sequence is > 5 kb in length and consists of six exons. The deduced amino acid sequence revealed a 200-residue precursor protein including a signal peptide, a 24-amino acid (aa) diapause hormone, a 37-aa PBAN and three other FXPRLamide neuropeptides...
June 21, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634722/three-novel-bile-alcohols-of-mature-male-sea-lamprey-petromyzon-marinus-act-as-chemical-cues-for-conspecifics
#5
Ke Li, Anne M Scott, Joseph J Riedy, Skye Fissette, Zoe E Middleton, Weiming Li
Sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, rely heavily on chemical cues that mediate their life history events, such as migration and reproduction. Here, we describe petromyzone A-C (1-3), three novel bile alcohols that are highly oxidized and sulfated, isolated from water conditioned with spermiated male sea lamprey. Structures of these compounds were unequivocally established by spectroscopic analyses and by comparison with spectra of known compounds. Electro-olfactogram recordings showed that 1 at 10(-11) M was stimulatory to the adult sea lamprey olfactory epithelium, while 2 and 3 were stimulatory at 10(-13) M...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626946/do-changes-in-gene-expression-contribute-to-sexual-isolation-and-reinforcement-in-the-house-mouse
#6
Etienne Loire, Sergio Tusso, Pierre Caminade, Dany Severac, Pierre Boursot, Guila Ganem, Carole M Smadja
Expression divergence, rather than sequence divergence, has been shown to be important in speciation, particularly in the early stages of divergence of traits involved in reproductive isolation. In the two European subspecies of house mice, Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus, earlier studies have demonstrated olfactory-based assortative mate preference in populations close to their hybrid zone. It has been suggested that this behaviour evolved following the recent secondary contact between the two taxa (~3,000 years ago) in response to selection against hybridisation...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626945/european-corn-borer-ostrinia-nubilalis-hbn-lepidoptera-crambidae-comparing-the-performance-of-a-new-bisexual-lure-with-that-of-synthetic-sex-pheromone-in-five-countries
#7
Miklós Tóth, István Szarukán, Antal Nagy, Lorenzo Furlan, Isadora Benvegnu, Magda Rak Cizej, Tamás Ábri, Tamás Kéki, Szilvia Körösi, Attila Pogonyi, Teodora Toshova, Dimitar Velchev, Daniela Atanasova, Alican Kurtulus, Bora Kaydan
BACKGROUND: Phenylacetaldehyde is a flower volatile and attractant among others also for the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis. The addition of 4-methoxyphenethyl alcohol has recently been reported to increase O. nubilalis catches 4 to 5 times, yielding a bisexual lure for the species. RESULTS: The bisexual lure significantly outperformed synthetic pheromone lures of O. nubilalis at 11 out of 13 experiments conducted in Bulgaria, Hungary, Italy, Slovenia and Turkey...
June 19, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625782/complex-sexual-deception-in-an-orchid-is-achieved-by-co-opting-two-independent-biosynthetic-pathways-for-pollinator-attraction
#8
Haiyang Xu, Björn Bohman, Darren C J Wong, Claudia Rodriguez-Delgado, Adrian Scaffidi, Gavin R Flematti, Ryan D Phillips, Eran Pichersky, Rod Peakall
Sexually deceptive orchids lure their specific male pollinators using volatile semiochemicals that mimic female sex pheromones. To date, the semiochemicals known to be involved consist of blends of chemically and biosynthetically related compounds. In contrast, we report that (S)-β-citronellol and 2-hydroxy-6-methylacetophenone, two biosynthetically distinct compounds, are the active semiochemicals in Caladenia plicata, which is pollinated by male Zeleboria sp. thynnine wasps. They are also sex pheromone components of the female Zeleboria...
June 12, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623371/chemosensory-sensitivity-reflects-reproductive-status-in-the-ant-harpegnathos-saltator
#9
Majid Ghaninia, Kevin Haight, Shelley L Berger, Danny Reinberg, Laurence J Zwiebel, Anandasankar Ray, Jürgen Liebig
Insects communicate with pheromones using sensitive antennal sensilla. Although trace amounts of pheromones can be detected by many insects, context-dependent increased costs of high sensitivity might lead to plasticity in sensillum responsiveness. We have functionally characterized basiconic sensilla of the ant Harpegnathos saltator for responses to general odors in comparison to cuticular hydrocarbons which can act as fertility signals emitted by the principal reproductive(s) of a colony to inhibit reproduction by worker colony members...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623148/male-sexual-enhancement-after-methoprene-treatment-in-anastrepha-fraterculus-diptera-tephritidae-a-sustained-response-that-does-not-fade-away-after-sexual-maturation
#10
G E Bachmann, F Devescovi, A L Nussenbaum, J L Cladera, P C Fernández, M T Vera, P E A Teal, D F Segura
The juvenile hormone (JH) of insects triggers physiological changes related to reproduction in adults of both sexes. Methoprene is a sesquiterpene with some effects that are analogous to those of JH. Treatments with methoprene accelerate sexual maturation in males of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus, giving young males a mating advantage over non-treated males of the same age. Here, we evaluated the effects of methoprene treatment on A. fraterculus males after the sexual maturation phase and tested whether this compound provides a long-term mating advantage...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621665/neural-mechanisms-of-social-learning-in-the-female-mouse
#11
Yuan Gao, Carl Budlong, Emily Durlacher, Ian G Davison
Social interactions are often powerful drivers of learning. In female mice, mating creates a long-lasting sensory memory for the pheromones of the stud male that alters neuroendocrine responses to his chemosignals for many weeks. The cellular and synaptic correlates of pheromonal learning, however, remain unclear. We examined local circuit changes in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) using targeted ex vivo recordings of mating-activated neurons tagged with a fluorescent reporter. Imprinting led to striking plasticity in the intrinsic membrane excitability of projection neurons (mitral cells, MCs) that dramatically curtailed their responsiveness, suggesting a novel cellular substrate for pheromonal learning...
June 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621451/knockdown-of-a-metathoracic-scent-gland-desaturase-enhances-the-production-of-e-4-oxo-2-hexenal-and-suppresses-female-sexual-attractiveness-in-the-plant-bug-adelphocoris-suturalis
#12
J Luo, Z Li, C Ma, Z Zhang, J J Hull, C Lei, S Jin, L Chen
Insect sex pheromones (SPs) are central to mate-finding behaviour, and play an essential role in the survival and reproduction of organisms. Understanding the roles, biosynthetic pathways and evolution of insect chemical communication systems has been an exciting challenge for biologists. Compared with Lepidoptera, little is known about the mechanisms underlying pheromone biosynthesis in Hemiptera. In this study, we isolated and characterized two new desaturase-like genes, termed Asutdes1 and Asutdes2, from Adelphocoris suturalis, an important agricultural pest in China...
June 16, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620738/variation-in-sex-pheromone-emission-does-not-reflect-immunocompetence-but-affects-attractiveness-of-male-burying-beetles-a-combination-of-laboratory-and-field-experiments
#13
Johanna Chemnitz, Nadiia Bagrii, Manfred Ayasse, Sandra Steiger
Life history theory predicts a trade-off between male sexual trait expression and immunocompetence. Using burying beetles, Nicrophorus vespilloides, as a model, we investigated the relationship between male immune function, sex pheromone emission, and attractiveness under field conditions. In the first experiment, we tested whether there is a positive correlation between immune capacity, sex pheromone characteristics (quantity, relative composition, and time invested in pheromone emission), and male attractiveness...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619669/sex-pheromone-in-the-moth-heliothis-virescens-is-produced-as-a-mixture-of-two-pools-de-novo-and-via-precursor-storage-in-glycerolipids
#14
Stephen P Foster, Karin G Anderson, Jérôme Casas
Most species of moths use a female-produced volatile sex pheromone, typically produced via de novo fatty acid synthesis in a specialized gland, for communication among mates. While de novo biosynthesis of pheromone (DNP) is rapid, suggesting transient precursor acids, substantial amounts of pheromone precursor (and other) acids are stored, predominantly in triacylglycerols in the pheromone gland. Whether these stored acids are converted to pheromone later or not has been the subject of some debate. Using a tracer/tracee approach, in which we fed female Heliothis virescens U-(13)C-glucose, we were able to distinguish two pools of pheromone, in which precursors were temporally separated (after and before feeding on labeled glucose): DNP synthesized from a mixed tracer/tracee acetyl CoA pool after feeding, and pheromone made from precursor acids primarily synthesized before feeding, which we call recycled precursor fat pheromone (RPP)...
June 12, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615497/excavation-and-aggregation-as-organizing-factors-in-de-novo-construction-by-mound-building-termites
#15
Ben Green, Paul Bardunias, J Scott Turner, Radhika Nagpal, Justin Werfel
Termites construct complex mounds that are orders of magnitude larger than any individual and fulfil a variety of functional roles. Yet the processes through which these mounds are built, and by which the insects organize their efforts, remain poorly understood. The traditional understanding focuses on stigmergy, a form of indirect communication in which actions that change the environment provide cues that influence future work. Termite construction has long been thought to be organized via a putative 'cement pheromone': a chemical added to deposited soil that stimulates further deposition in the same area, thus creating a positive feedback loop whereby coherent structures are built up...
June 14, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614901/x-ray-crystal-structures-of-the-pheromone-binding-domains-of-two-quorum-hindered-transcription-factors-yenr-of-yersinia-enterocolitica-and-cepr2-of-burkholderia-cenocepacia
#16
Youngchang Kim, Gekleng Chhor, Ching-Sung Tsai, Gabriel Fox, Chia-Sui Chen, Nathan J Winans, Robert Jedrzejczak, Andrzej Joachimiak, Stephen C Winans
The ability of LuxR-type proteins to regulate transcription is controlled by bacterial pheromones, N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). Most LuxR-family proteins require their cognate AHLs for activity, and some of them require AHLs for folding and stability, and for protease-resistance. However, a few members of this family are able to fold, dimerize, bind DNA, and regulate transcription in the absence of AHLs; moreover, these proteins are antagonized by their cognate AHLs. One such protein is YenR of Yersinia enterocolitica, which is antagonized by N-3-oxohexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (OHHL)...
June 14, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614384/antennal-transcriptome-analysis-of-the-piercing-moth-oraesia-emarginata-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#17
Bo Feng, Qianshuang Guo, Kaidi Zheng, Yuanxia Qin, Yongjun Du
The piercing fruit moth Oraesia emarginata is an economically significant pest; however, our understanding of its olfactory mechanisms in infestation is limited. The present study conducted antennal transcriptome analysis of olfactory genes using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis (RT-qPCR). We identified a total of 104 candidate chemosensory genes from several gene families, including 35 olfactory receptors (ORs), 41 odorant-binding proteins, 20 chemosensory proteins, 6 ionotropic receptors, and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612045/lack-of-trpm5-expressing-microvillous-cells-in-mouse-main-olfactory-epithelium-leads-to-impaired-odor-evoked-responses-and-olfactory-guided-behavior-in-a-challenging-chemical-environment
#18
Kayla Lemons, Ziying Fu, Imad Aoudé, Tatsuya Ogura, Julianna Sun, Justin Chang, Kenechukwu Mbonu, Ichiro Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Arakawa, Weihong Lin
The mammalian main olfactory epithelium (MOE) modifies its activities in response to changes in the chemical environment. This process is essential for maintaining the functions of the olfactory system and the upper airway. However, mechanisms involved in this functional maintenance, especially those occurring via paracrine regulatory pathways within the multicellular MOE, are poorly understood. Previously, a population of non-neuronal, transient receptor potential M5-expressing microvillous cells (TRPM5-MCs) was identified in the MOE, and the initial characterization of these cells showed that they are cholinergic and responsive to various xenobiotics including odorants at high concentrations...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608842/talaromyces-marneffei-genomic-transcriptomic-proteomic-and-metabolomic-studies-reveal-mechanisms-for-environmental-adaptations-and-virulence
#19
REVIEW
Susanna K P Lau, Chi-Ching Tsang, Patrick C Y Woo
Talaromycesmarneffei is a thermally dimorphic fungus causing systemic infections in patients positive for HIV or other immunocompromised statuses. Analysis of its ~28.9 Mb draft genome and additional transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic studies revealed mechanisms for environmental adaptations and virulence. Meiotic genes and genes for pheromone receptors, enzymes which process pheromones, and proteins involved in pheromone response pathway are present, indicating its possibility as a heterothallic fungus...
June 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606855/variation-in-the-web-based-chemical-cues-of-argiope-keyserlingi
#20
Jessica Henneken, Jason Q D Goodger, Therèsa M Jones, Mark A Elgar
Pheromones are chemical compounds used to transmit information between individuals of the same species. Pheromone composition is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Numerous studies, predominately of insects, have demonstrated a role for diet in pheromone expression. The chemical composition of spider web-silk varies with diet and in many species these chemicals are crucial to mate choice processes. Here, we investigated individual variation in the chemical compounds found on the surface of web-silk of female Argiope keyserlingi, and further explored the degree to which they are influenced by diet, investment in egg sac production and site of collection...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
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