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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240941/management-of-the-pine-processionary-moth-thaumetopoea-pityocampa-lepidoptera-thaumetopoeidae-in-urban-and-suburban-areas-trials-with-trunk-barrier-and-adhesive-barrier-trap-devices
#1
Marco Colacci, Nickolas G Kavallieratos, Christos G Athanassiou, Maria C Boukouvala, Christos I Rumbos, Demetrius C Kontodimas, David Pardo, José Sancho, Enrique Benavent-Fernández, Santiago Gálvez-Settier, Andrea Sciarretta, Pasquale Trematerra
In urban and suburban areas larvae of the pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Denis and Schiffermüller), cause serious defoliation to Cedrus, Pinus, and Pseudotsuga trees and health problems to humans and domestic or farm animals by their urticating setae. In this study, we present the results of biennial trials (2015-2016) on the management of T. pityocampa infestations using commercial or LIFE-PISA prototype trunk barrier and adhesive trap devices in Greece (Attica and Volos), Spain (Valencia), and Italy (Molise)...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239513/without-or-without-pheromone-habituation-possible-differences-between-insect-orders
#2
David Maxwell Suckling, Lloyd D Stringer, Alfredo Jiménez-Pérez, Gimme H Walter, Nicola Sullivan, Ashraf M El-Sayed
BACKGROUND: Habituation to sex pheromones is one of the key mechanisms in mating disruption, an insect control tactic. Male moths often show reduced sexual response after pre-exposure to female sex pheromone. Mating disruption is relatively rare in insect orders other than Lepidoptera. RESULTS: As a positive control we confirmed habituation in a moth (Epiphyas postvittana) using 24 h pre-exposure to sex pheromone to reduce subsequent activation behaviour. We then tested the impact of pre-exposure to sex or trail pheromone on subsequent behavioural response with insects from three other orders...
December 14, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236762/quantifying-male-and-female-pheromone-based-mate-choice-in-caenorhabditis-nematodes-using-a-novel-microfluidic-technique
#3
Flora Borne, Katja R Kasimatis, Patrick C Phillips
Pheromone cues are an important component of intersexual communication, particularly in regards to mate choice. Caenorhabditis nematodes predominant rely on pheromone production for mate finding and mate choice. Here we describe a new microfluidic paradigm for studying mate choice in nematodes. Specifically, the Pheromone Arena allows for a constant flow of odorants, including pheromones and other small molecules, to be passed in real time from signaling worms to those making a choice without any physical contact...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234288/lipocalin-2-in-fructose-induced-fatty-liver-disease
#4
Jessica Lambertz, Thorsten Berger, Tak W Mak, Josef van Helden, Ralf Weiskirchen
The intake of excess dietary fructose most often leads to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Fructose is metabolized mainly in the liver and its chronic consumption results in lipogenic gene expression in this organ. However, precisely how fructose is involved in NAFLD progression is still not fully understood, limiting therapy. Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) is a small secreted transport protein that binds to fatty acids, phospholipids, steroids, retinol, and pheromones. LCN2 regulates lipid and energy metabolism in obesity and is upregulated in response to insulin...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233811/dissecting-the-roles-of-the-calcineurin-pathway-in-unisexual-reproduction-stress-responses-and-virulence-in-cryptococcus-deneoformans
#5
Ci Fu, Nicholas Donadio, Maria E Cardenas, Joseph Heitman
The Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin orchestrates sexual reproduction, stress responses, and virulence via branched downstream pathways in the opportunistic human fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans The calcineurin binding protein Cbp1, the calcineurin temperature suppressor Cts1, the calcineurin responsive zinc finger transcription factor Crz1, and the calcineurin targets Pbp1, Tif3, and Puf4 all function downstream of calcineurin to orchestrate distinct cellular processes. To elucidate how the calcineurin pathway regulatory network governs unisexual reproduction, stress responses, and virulence, we have analyzed the self-filamentous C...
December 12, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233099/pronounced-strain-specific-chemosensory-receptor-gene-expression-in-the-mouse-vomeronasal-organ
#6
Kyle Duyck, Vasha DuTell, Limei Ma, Ariel Paulson, C Ron Yu
BACKGROUND: The chemosensory system plays an important role in orchestrating sexual behaviors in mammals. Pheromones trigger sexually dimorphic behaviors and different mouse strains exhibit differential responses to pheromone stimuli. It has been speculated that differential gene expression in the sensory organs that detect pheromones may underlie sexually-dimorphic and strain-specific responses to pheromone cues. RESULTS: We have performed transcriptome analyses of the mouse vomeronasal organ, a sensory organ recognizing pheromones and interspecies cues...
December 12, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231812/oxytocin-signaling-in-the-medial-amygdala-is-required-for-sex-discrimination-of-social-cues
#7
Shenqin Yao, Joseph Bergan, Anne Lanjuin, Catherine Dulac
The neural control of social behaviors in rodents requires the encoding of pheromonal cues by the vomeronasal system. Here we show that the typical preference of male mice for females is eliminated in mutants lacking oxytocin, a neuropeptide modulating social behaviors in many species. Ablation of the oxytocin receptor in aromatase-expressing neurons of the medial amygdala (MeA) fully recapitulates the elimination of female preference in males. Further, single-unit recording in the MeA uncovered significant changes in the sensory representation of conspecific cues in the absence of oxytocin signaling...
December 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229932/neutral-fitness-outcomes-contradict-inferences-of-sexual-coercion-derived-from-male-s-damaging-mating-tactic-in-a-widow-spider
#8
Luciana Baruffaldi, Maydianne C B Andrade
Sexual conflict over mating frequency has driven the evolution of morphological and behavioural traits across taxa. Interactions may be termed 'coercive' and assumed to arise from conflict when male mating behaviours cause physical injury to females and females appear to resist injurious matings.However, coercion per se occurs only if the behaviour reduces female fitness; and such outcomes are rarely measured. Here we show that a damaging mating tactic, apparently adaptive for males, is not coercive for females...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229187/plant-volatiles-as-mate-finding-cues-for-insects
#9
REVIEW
Hao Xu, Ted C J Turlings
Plant volatiles are used not only by herbivorous insects to find their host plants, but also by the natural enemies of the herbivores to find their prey. There is also increasing evidence that plant volatiles, in addition to species-specific pheromones, help these insects to find mating partners. Plant structures such as flowers, fruit, and leaves are frequently rendezvous sites for mate-seeking insects. Here we propose that the combined use of plant volatiles and pheromones can efficiently guide insects to these sites, where they will have access to both mates and food...
December 8, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228303/identifying-possible-pheromones-of-cerambycid-beetles-by-field-testing-known-pheromone-components-in-four-widely-separated-regions-of-the-united-states
#10
Jocelyn G Millar, Robert F Mitchell, Judith A Mongold-Diers, Yunfan Zou, Carlos E Bográn, Melissa K Fierke, Matthew D Ginzel, Crawford W Johnson, James R Meeker, Therese M Poland, Iral Ragenovich, Lawrence M Hanks
The pheromone components of many cerambycid beetles appear to be broadly shared among related species, including species native to different regions of the world. This apparent conservation of pheromone structures within the family suggests that field trials of common pheromone components could be used as a means of attracting multiple species, which then could be targeted for full identification of their pheromones. Here, we describe the results of such field trials that were conducted in nine states in the northeastern, midwestern, southern, and western United States...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225402/behavioral-assay-and-chemical-characters-of-female-sex-pheromones-in-the-hermit-crab-pagurus-filholi
#11
Saori Okamura, Takuma Kawaminami, Hiroshi Matsuura, Nobuhiro Fusetani, Seiji Goshima
Males of the hermit crab Pagurus filholi perform assessment behavior toward females, as a preliminary step of precopulatory guarding, during the reproductive season. It is known that such behavior is elicited by female sex pheromones, but the compounds involved have never been characterized in this species. Several experiments were conducted to develop a reliable bioassay along with purification procedures to identify potential compounds with pheromonal activity in Pagurus filholi. We developed a bioassay protocol to assess pheromonal activity by using an empty shell with cotton containing either artificial seawater (control) or test water...
2017: Journal of Ethology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223179/intra-and-inter-specific-variation-in-alarm-pheromone-produced-by-solenopsis-fire-ants
#12
L Hu, R R Balusu, W-Q Zhang, O S Ajayi, Y-Y Lu, R-S Zeng, H Y Fadamiro, L Chen
Some fire ants of the genus Solenopsis have become invasive species in the southern United States displacing native species by competition. Although the displacement pattern seems clear, the mechanisms underlying competitive advantage remain unclear. The ability of ant workers to produce relatively larger amount of alarm pheromone may correspond to relative greater fitness among sympatric fire ant species. Here we report on quantitative intra-specific (i.e. inter-caste) and inter-specific differences of alarm pheromone component, 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine (2E36DMP), for several fire ant species...
December 10, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219213/effect-of-a-pheromone-on-stress-associated-reactivation-of-feline-herpesvirus-1-in-experimentally-inoculated-kittens
#13
Elena T Contreras, E Hodgkins, V Tynes, A Beck, F Olea-Popelka, M R Lappin
BACKGROUND: Stress contributes to reactivation of feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1). The usage of pheromones to decrease stress in FHV-1 experimentally inoculated kittens has not previously been investigated. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a feline pheromone would lessen stress, resulting in decreased recurrence of FHV-1-associated illness in kittens. ANIMALS: Twelve 5-month-old, purpose-bred kittens. METHODS: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211837/effect-of-ovarian-hormones-and-mating-experience-on-the-preference-of-female-mice-to-investigate-male-urinary-pheromones
#14
Elizabeth A McCarthy, Ajay S Naik, Allison F Coyne, James A Cherry, Michael J Baum
In female mice the expression of receptive lordosis behavior requires estradiol and progesterone actions in the nervous system; however, the contribution of these hormones to females' motivation to seek out male pheromones is less clear. In an initial experiment, sexually naïve ovary-intact female mice preferred to investigate (make nasal contact with) testes-intact male as opposed to estrous female urine, provided they were in vaginal estrus. In a second experiment, groups of sexually naïve and mating-experienced, ovariectomized females were tested for urinary pheromone preference first without and then with ovarian hormone replacement...
December 2, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209934/variability-in-sexual-pheromones-questions-their-role-in-bumblebee-pre-mating-recognition-system
#15
Nicolas Brasero, Thomas Lecocq, Baptiste Martinet, Irena Valterová, Klára Urbanová, Roland de Jonghe, Pierre Rasmont
Sex-specific chemical secretions have been widely used as diagnostic characters in chemotaxonomy. The taxonomically confused group of bumblebees has reaped the benefit of this approach through the analyses of cephalic labial gland secretions (CLGS). Most of currently available CLGS descriptions concern species from the West-Palearctic region but few from the New World. Here, the CLGS of four East-Palearctic species Bombus deuteronymus, B. filchnerae, B. humilis, and B. exil (subgenus Thoracobombus) are analysed...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209933/evaluating-the-role-of-drone-produced-chemical-signals-in-mediating-social-interactions-in-honey-bees-apis-mellifera
#16
Gabriel Villar, Megan D Wolfson, Abraham Hefetz, Christina M Grozinger
Pheromones play a critical role in shaping societies of social insects, including honey bees, Apis mellifera. While diverse functions have been ascribed to queen- and worker-produced compounds, few studies have explored the identity and function of male-produced (drone) compounds. However, several lines of evidence suggest that drones engage in a variety of social interactions inside and outside of the colony. Here we elucidate the chemical composition of extracts of the drone mandibular gland, and test the hypothesis that compounds produced in these glands, or a synthetic blend consisting of the six main compounds, mediate drone social interactions in and out of the colony...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209233/chemosensory-gene-families-in-ectropis-grisescens-and-candidates-for-detection-of-type-ii-sex-pheromones
#17
Zhao-Qun Li, Zong-Xiu Luo, Xiao-Ming Cai, Lei Bian, Zhao-Jun Xin, Yan Liu, Bo Chu, Zong-Mao Chen
Tea grey geometrid (Ectropis grisescens), a devastating chewing pest in tea plantations throughout China, produces Type-II pheromone components. Little is known about the genes encoding proteins involved in the perception of Type-II sex pheromone components. To investigate the olfaction genes involved in E. grisescens sex pheromones and plant volatiles perception, we sequenced female and male antennae transcriptomes of E. grisescens. After assembly and annotation, we identified 153 candidate chemoreception genes in E...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208930/attraction-of-halyomorpha-halys-hemiptera-pentatomidae-haplotypes-in-north-america-and-europe-to-baited-traps
#18
William R Morrison, Panos Milonas, Despoina Evr Kapantaidaki, Michele Cesari, Emanuele Di Bella, Roberto Guidetti, Tim Haye, Lara Maistrello, Silvia T Moraglio, Lucia Piemontese, Alberto Pozzebon, Giulia Ruocco, Brent D Short, Luciana Tavella, Gábor Vétek, Tracy C Leskey
Halyomorpha halys is a global invasive species, native to Southeast Asia, that is threatening agriculture in invaded regions. Our objectives were to: 1) establish the attractiveness of semiochemical stimuli paired with field-deployed traps in Europe (Greece, Hungary, Italy, and Switzerland), compared with Maryland, USA, and 2) identify H. halys haplotypes recovered from traps at each location. We found qualitatively identical patterns of capture between sites located across Europe and in Maryland, USA. In both regions, captures of H...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208232/editorial-overview-insect-pheromones-making-sense-of-a-rapidly-diversifying-field-of-study
#19
EDITORIAL
Kenneth F Haynes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208229/pheromones-involved-in-insect-parental-care-and-family-life
#20
REVIEW
Sandra Steiger, Johannes Stökl
Effective parental care requires recognition and communication processes. Whereas chemical communication has been studied intensively in eusocial organisms, in which the workers (siblings) predominantly provide brood care, insect groups in which parents engage in care have been largely neglected. However, the study of communication in insect families might complement and enhance our understanding not only of the evolution of signaling process involved in social insects, but also of those involved in vertebrate families...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
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