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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732030/identification-of-odorant-binding-proteins-and-chemosensory-proteins-in-microplitis-mediator-as-well-as-functional-characterization-of-chemosensory-protein-3
#1
Yong Peng, Shan-Ning Wang, Ke-Ming Li, Jing-Tao Liu, Yao Zheng, Shuang Shan, Ye-Qing Yang, Rui-Jun Li, Yong-Jun Zhang, Yu-Yuan Guo
Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) play important roles in transporting semiochemicals through the sensillar lymph to olfactory receptors in insect antennae. In the present study, twenty OBPs and three CSPs were identified from the antennal transcriptome of Microplitis mediator. Ten OBPs (MmedOBP11-20) and two CSPs (MmedCSP2-3) were newly identified. The expression patterns of these new genes in olfactory and non-olfactory tissues were investigated by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) measurement...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729739/host-plants-and-obligate-endosymbionts-are-not-the-sources-for-biosynthesis-of-the-aphid-alarm-pheromone
#2
Zhi-Juan Sun, Zheng-Xi Li
(E)-β-farnesene (EβF) is the major component of the alarm pheromone of many aphid species, but where EβF is synthesized in aphids is only partly understood. There are at least three most possible sources for the alarm pheromone: host plants, aphid obligate endosymbiont and aphids themselves. Here we eliminated the possibility of host plants and the obligate endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola as the sources for EβF released by aphids. We excluded the possible effects of host plants on EβF biosynthesis by rearing aphids on non-plant diets...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729683/a-positive-feedback-loop-mediated-by-sigma-x-enhances-expression-of-the-streptococcal-regulator-comr
#3
Rabia Khan, Roger Junges, Heidi A Åmdal, Tsute Chen, Donald A Morrison, Fernanda C Petersen
Natural transformation is used by bacteria to take up DNA from their surroundings and incorporate it into their genomes. Streptococci do so during a transient period of competence, triggered by pheromones that they produce, secrete and sense under conditions influenced by the environment. In Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus suis, and species of the bovis, salivarius and pyogenic groups of streptococci, the pheromone XIP is sensed by the intra-cellular regulator ComR, that in turn activates the transcription of comS, encoding the XIP precursor, and of sigX, encoding the only known alternative sigma factor in streptococci...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729609/maternally-transmitted-microbiota-affects-odor-emission-and-preference-in-drosophila-larva
#4
Jean-Pierre Farine, Wafa Habbachi, Jérôme Cortot, Suzy Roche, Jean-François Ferveur
Experimental studies show that early sensory experience often affects subsequent sensory preference, suggesting that the heterogeneity of sensory cues in nature could induce significant inter-individual behavioral variation, potentially contributing to maintain intraspecific diversity. To test this hypothesis, we explored the behavioral effect induced by variation in the levels of a self-produced chemical, acetoin, and its link with intraspecific diversity. Acetoin is a pheromone-like substance produced by gut-associated microorganisms in Drosophila...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723218/aluminum-chloride-mediated-dieckmann-cyclization-for-the-synthesis-of-cyclic-2-alkyl-1-3-alkanediones-one-step-synthesis-of-the-chiloglottones
#5
Ahlam M Armaly, Sukanta Bar, Corinna S Schindler
Cyclic 2-alkyl-1,3-alkanediones are ubiquitous structural motifs in many natural products of biological importance. Reported herein is an AlCl3·MeNO2-mediated Dieckmann cyclization reaction of general synthetic utility that enables direct access to complex 2-alkyl-1,3-dione building blocks from readily available dicarboxylic acid and acid chloride substrates. This new strategy enables direct synthetic access to the chiloglottone plant pheromones from commercial material in a single synthetic transformation...
July 19, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719023/identification-of-odorant-binding-and-chemosensory-protein-genes-and-the-ligand-affinity-of-two-of-the-encoded-proteins-suggest-a-complex-olfactory-perception-system-in-periplaneta-americana
#6
P He, Z-Q Li, Y-F Zhang, L Chen, J Wang, L Xu, Y-N Zhang, M He
The American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is an urban pest with a precise chemosensory system that helps it achieve complex physiological behaviours, including locating food and mating. However, its chemosensory mechanisms have not been well studied. Here, we identified 71 putative odorant carrier protein genes in P. americana, including 57 new odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and 11 chemosensory proteins (CSPs). To identify their physiological functions, we investigated their tissue expression patterns in antennae, mouthparts, legs, and the remainder of the body of both sexes, and determined that most of these genes were expressed in chemosensory organs...
July 18, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714217/evolutionary-relationships-among-pollinators-and-repeated-pollinator-sharing-in-sexually-deceptive-orchids
#7
R D Phillips, G R Brown, K W Dixon, C Hayes, C C Linde, R Peakall
The mechanism of pollinator attraction is predicted to strongly influence both plant diversification and the extent of pollinator sharing between species. Sexually deceptive orchids rely on mimicry of species-specific sex pheromones to attract their insect pollinators. Given that sex pheromones tend to be conserved among related species, we predicted that in sexually deceptive orchids, (i) pollinator sharing is rare, (ii) closely related orchids use closely related pollinators and (iii) there is strong bias in the wasp lineages exploited by orchids...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707018/postoperative-enterococcus-faecalis-endophthalmitis-virulence-factors-leading-to-poor-visual-outcome
#8
Daisuke Todokoro, Takashi Suzuki, Shinichiro Kobayakawa, Haruyoshi Tomita, Yuichi Ohashi, Hideo Akiyama
Purpose Postoperative endophthalmitis caused by Enterococcus faecalis often results in poor visual outcome due to retinal destruction. We evaluated the virulence factors of Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates and analyzed their relationship with retinal destruction and poor visual outcomes in postoperative bacterial endophthalmitis (PBE) following cataract surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective. METHODS: E. faecalis isolates from nine acute-onset PBE cases were examined using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of genomic DNA, plasmid isolation and pheromone response experiments...
July 13, 2017: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705633/transcriptome-analysis-of-helicoverpa-armigera-male-hairpencils-alcohol-biosynthesis-and-requirement-for-mating-success
#9
Mengfang Du, Wenhui Zhao, Russell Jurenka, Xiaoguang Liu, Xinming Yin, Qisheng Song, Shiheng An
Many female animals use different strategies to assess male quality to increase their own reproductive fitness. In moths, females usually use chemical signals (sex pheromones) to attract males from a distance. Once males approach a female, they release close range pheromones from hairpencils to facilitate female acceptance. However, detailed mechanisms involved in male sex pheromone biosynthesis and its action in promoting female acceptance have not yet been fully characterized. This study screened a series of candidate genes via a transcriptome analysis of the male hairpencil of Helicoverpa armigera...
July 10, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702274/yeast-chemotropism-a-paradigm-shift-in-chemical-gradient-sensing
#10
Amber Ismael, David E Stone
The ability of cells to direct their movement and growth in response to shallow chemical gradients is essential in the life cycles of all eukaryotic organisms. The signaling mechanisms underlying directional sensing in chemotactic cells have been well studied; however, relatively little is known about how chemotropic cells interpret chemical gradients. Recent studies of chemotropism in budding and fission yeast have revealed 2 quite different mechanisms-biased wandering of the polarity complex, and differential internalization of the receptor and G protein...
2017: Cellular Logistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701553/walking-like-an-ant-a-quantitative-and-experimental-approach-to-understanding-locomotor-mimicry-in-the-jumping-spider-myrmarachne-formicaria
#11
Paul S Shamble, Ron R Hoy, Itai Cohen, Tsevi Beatus
Protective mimicry, in which a palatable species avoids predation by being mistaken for an unpalatable model, is a remarkable example of adaptive evolution. These complex interactions between mimics, models and predators can explain similarities between organisms beyond the often-mechanistic constraints typically invoked in studies of convergent evolution. However, quantitative studies of protective mimicry typically focus on static traits (e.g. colour and shape) rather than on dynamic traits like locomotion...
July 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696298/functional-characterization-of-odorant-receptors-in-the-ponerine-ant-harpegnathos-saltator
#12
Jesse D Slone, Gregory M Pask, Stephen T Ferguson, Jocelyn G Millar, Shelley L Berger, Danny Reinberg, Jürgen Liebig, Anandasankar Ray, Laurence J Zwiebel
Animals use a variety of sensory modalities-including visual, acoustic, and chemical-to sense their environment and interact with both conspecifics and other species. Such communication is especially critical in eusocial insects such as honey bees and ants, where cooperation is critical for survival and reproductive success. Various classes of chemoreceptors have been hypothesized to play essential roles in the origin and evolution of eusociality in ants, through their functional roles in pheromone detection that characterizes reproductive status and colony membership...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695826/an-insect-anti-antiaphrodisiac
#13
Colin S Brent, John A Byers, Anat Levi-Zada
Passive mechanisms of mate guarding are used by males to promote sperm precedence with little cost, but these tactics can be disadvantageous for their mates and other males. Mated females of the plant bug Lygus hesperus are rendered temporarily unattractive by seminal fluids containing myristyl acetate and geranylgeranyl acetate. These antiaphrodisiac pheromones are gradually released from the female's gonopore, declining until they no longer suppress male courtship. Because starting quantities of these compounds can vary widely, the repellant signal becomes less reliable over time...
July 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689277/identification-of-the-aggregation-sex-pheromone-produced-by-male-monochamus-saltuarius-a-major-insect-vector-of-the-pine-wood-nematode
#14
Hyo-Rim Lee, Sung-Chan Lee, Dong Ha Lee, Won-Sil Choi, Chan-Sik Jung, Jae-Ho Jeon, Jeong-Eun Kim, Il-Kwon Park
In this study, we isolated and identified an aggregation-sex pheromone from Monochamus saltuarius, the major insect vector of the pine wood nematode in Korea. Adult males of M. saltuarius produce 2-undecyloxy-1-ethanol, which is known as an aggregation-sex pheromone in other Monochamus species. We performed field experiments to determine the attractiveness of the pheromone and other synergists. More M. saltuarius adult beetles were attracted to traps baited with the pheromone than to unbaited traps. Ethanol and (-)-α-pinene interacted synergistically with the pheromone...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686351/the-molting-biomarker-molecule-exists-as-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-gluconic-acid-in-urine-of-blue-crabs-and-helmet-crabs
#15
Michiya Kamio, Yasuhiro Nagakura, Hirona Yano
N-Acetyl-D-glucosamino-1,5-lactone (NAGL) 1 has been reported as a candidate component of the sex pheromone mixture of female blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, since it is present in the urine of reproductive females and males detect it. Theoretically, 1 can convert to a 1,4-lactone isomer 2 or corresponding carboxylic acid, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-gluconic acid 3 by hydrolysis in aqueous solution. In this study, we examined the biologically relevant state of equilibrium mixture of 1, 2 and 3 in crab urine using ESI-MS and NMR analyses...
July 7, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686341/three-regulators-of-g-protein-signaling-differentially-affect-mating-morphology-and-virulence-in-the-smut-fungus-ustilago-maydis
#16
Marino Moretti, Lei Wang, Pierre Grognet, Daniel Lanver, Hannes Link, Regine Kahmann
Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins modulate heterotrimeric G protein signaling negatively. To broaden an understanding of the roles of RGS proteins in fungal pathogens, we functionally characterized the three RGS protein-encoding genes (rgs1, rgs2 and rgs3) in the phytopathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis. We found that RGS proteins play distinct roles in the regulation of development and virulence. rgs1 had a minor role in virulence when deleted in a solopathogenic strain. In crosses, rgs1 was dispensable for mating and filamentation, but was required for teliospore production...
July 7, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685186/the-protein-pheromone-temptin-is-an-attractant-of-the-gastropod-biomphalaria-glabrata
#17
Emmanuel A Pila, Shauna J Peck, Patrick C Hanington
The freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata has drawn much research interest by virtue of it being one of the intermediate hosts of the parasitic flatworm Schistosoma mansoni, a causative agent of human schistosomiasis. Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease that affects over 260 million people globally, particularly in tropical and sub-tropical regions. One strategy that has been proposed as a way to prevent human infection by the parasite, involves the use of pheromone traps to lure the snail host away from areas of human activity...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684461/a-species-specific-nematocide-that-results-in-terminal-embryogenesis
#18
Tess Renahan, Ray L Hong
Nematode-insect interactions are ubiquitous, complex, and constantly changing as the host and nematode coevolve. The entomophilic nematode Pristionchus pacificus is found on a myriad beetle species worldwide, though the molecular dynamics of this relationship are largely unknown. To better understand how host cues affect P. pacificus embryogenesis, we characterized the threshold of sensitivity to the pheromone (Z)-7-tetradecen-2-one (ZTDO) by determining the minimum exposure duration and developmental window that results in P...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677202/dreadd-induced-silencing-of-the-medial-amygdala-reduces-the-preference-for-male-pheromones-and-the-expression-of-lordosis-in-estrous-female-mice
#19
Elizabeth A McCarthy, Arman Maqsudlu, Matthew Bass, Sofia Georghiou, James A Cherry, Michael J Baum
Sexually naïve estrous female mice seek out male urinary pheromones; however, they initially display little receptive (lordosis) behavior in response to male mounts. Vomeronasal - accessory olfactory bulb inputs to the medial amygdala (Me) regulate courtship in female rodents. We used a reversible inhibitory chemogenetic technique (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs; DREADDs) to assess the contribution of Me signaling to females' preference for male pheromones and improvement in receptivity normally seen with repeated testing...
July 5, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676323/visual-cues-of-oviposition-sites-and-spectral-sensitivity-of-cydia-strobilella-l
#20
Johan Jakobsson, Miriam J Henze, Glenn P Svensson, Olle Lind, Olle Anderbrant
We investigated whether the spruce seed moth (Cydia strobilella L., Tortricidae: Grapholitini), an important pest in seed orchards of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), can make use of the spectral properties of its host when searching for flowers to oviposit on. Spectral measurements showed that the flowers, and the cones they develop into, differ from a background of P. abies needles by a higher reflectance of long wavelengths. These differences increase as the flowers develop into mature cones. Electroretinograms (ERGs) in combination with spectral adaptation suggest that C...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
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