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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545126/pheromone-sensing-neurons-regulate-peripheral-lipid-metabolism-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#1
Rosalind Hussey, Jon Stieglitz, Jaleh Mesgarzadeh, Tiffany T Locke, Ying K Zhang, Frank C Schroeder, Supriya Srinivasan
It is now established that the central nervous system plays an important role in regulating whole body metabolism and energy balance. However, the extent to which sensory systems relay environmental information to modulate metabolic events in peripheral tissues has remained poorly understood. In addition, it has been challenging to map the molecular mechanisms underlying discrete sensory modalities with respect to their role in lipid metabolism. In previous work our lab has identified instructive roles for serotonin signaling as a surrogate for food availability, as well as oxygen sensing, in the control of whole body metabolism...
May 18, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543133/defense-syndromes-in-lodgepole-whitebark-pine-ecosystems-relate-to-degree-of-historical-exposure-to-mountain-pine-beetles
#2
Kenneth F Raffa, Charles J Mason, Pieruluigi Bonello, Stephen Cook, Nadir Erbilgin, Ken Keefover-Ring, Jennifer G Klutsch, Caterina Villari, Philip A Townsend
Warming climate is allowing tree-killing bark beetles to expand their ranges and access naïve and semi-naïve conifers. Conifers respond to attack using complex mixtures of chemical defenses that can impede beetle success, but beetles exploit some compounds for host location and communication. Outcomes of changing relationships will depend on concentrations and compositions of multiple host compounds, which are largely unknown. We analyzed constitutive and induced chemistries of Dendroctonus ponderosae's primary historical host, Pinus contorta, and P...
May 24, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541523/attraction-of-the-euwallacea-sp-near-fornicatus-coleoptera-curculionidae-to-quercivorol-and-to-infestations-in-avocado
#3
John A Byers, Yonatan Maoz, Anat Levi-Zada
The Euwallacea sp. near fornicatus (Euwallacea sp. 1 hereafter) feeds on many woody shrubs and trees and is a pest of avocado, Persea americana Mill., in several countries including Israel and the United States. Quercivorol baits are commercially available for Euwallacea sp. 1 females (males do not fly), but their attractive strength compared to other pheromones and potential for mass trapping are unknown. We used sticky traps baited with quercivorol released at 0.126 mg/d (1×) and at 0.01×, 0.1×, and 10× relative rates to obtain a dose-response curve of Euwallacea sp...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536987/sexual-deception-in-the-eucera-pollinated-ophrys-leochroma-a-chemical-intermediate-between-wasp-and-andrena-pollinated-species
#4
Monica Cuervo, Demetra Rakosy, Carlos Martel, Stefan Schulz, Manfred Ayasse
Ophrys flowers mimic sex pheromones of attractive females of their pollinators and attract males, which attempt to copulate with the flower and thereby pollinate it. Virgin females and orchid flowers are known to use the same chemical compounds in order to attract males. The composition of the sex pheromone and its floral analogue, however, vary between pollinator genera. Wasp-pollinated Ophrys species attract their pollinators by using polar hydroxy acids, whereas Andrena-pollinated species use a mixture of non-polar hydrocarbons...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535309/sex-pheromone-dosages-and-release-point-densities-for-mating-disruption-of-ostrinia-furnacalis-lepidoptera-crambidae-in-ne-china-corn-fields
#5
Ri-Zhao Chen, Chung-Kuang Jow, Michael G Klein, Yu-di Jia, Da-Yu Zhang, Lan-Bing Li
Mating disruption of Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with its sex pheromone has not been commonly used in NE China due to a lack of information about optimal sex pheromone dosages and the density of release points required in the field. During 2014-2016, first, the two active pheromone ingredients were evaluated in the laboratory alone at ca. 2.5-5.0 mg, or in combination at 0.2-6.0 mg, to disrupt male O. furnacalis mating behaviors. Then, mating disruption areas, with radii of <8...
May 23, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533978/conserved-queen-pheromones-in-bumblebees-a-reply-to-amsalem-et-al
#6
Luke Holman, Jelle S van Zweden, Ricardo C Oliveira, Annette van Oystaeyen, Tom Wenseleers
In a recent study, Amsalem, Orlova & Grozinger (2015) performed experiments with Bombus impatiens bumblebees to test the hypothesis that saturated cuticular hydrocarbons are evolutionarily conserved signals used to regulate reproductive division of labor in many Hymenopteran social insects. They concluded that the cuticular hydrocarbon pentacosane (C25), previously identified as a queen pheromone in a congeneric bumblebee, does not affect worker reproduction in B. impatiens. Here we discuss some shortcomings of Amsalem et al...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531159/a-family-of-aco-routing-protocols-for-mobile-ad-hoc-networks
#7
Delfín Rupérez Cañas, Ana Lucila Sandoval Orozco, Luis Javier García Villalba, Tai-Hoon Kim
In this work, an ACO routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks based on AntHocNet is specified. As its predecessor, this new protocol, called AntOR, is hybrid in the sense that it contains elements from both reactive and proactive routing. Specifically, it combines a reactive route setup process with a proactive route maintenance and improvement process. Key aspects of the AntOR protocol are the disjoint-link and disjoint-node routes, separation between the regular pheromone and the virtual pheromone in the diffusion process and the exploration of routes, taking into consideration the number of hops in the best routes...
May 22, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528905/a-pheromone-antagonist-regulates-optimal-mating-time-in-the-moth-helicoverpa-armigera
#8
Hetan Chang, Yang Liu, Dong Ai, Xingchuan Jiang, Shuanglin Dong, Guirong Wang
Many insect species use multi-component sex pheromones to discriminate among potential mating partners [1-5]. In moths, pheromone blends tend to be dominated by one or two major components, but behavioral responses are frequently optimized by the inclusion of less abundant minor components [6]. An increasing number of studies have shown that female insects use these chemicals to convey their mating availability to males, who can assess the maturity of females and thus decide when to mate [7, 8]. However, little is known about the biological mechanisms that enable males to assess female reproductive status...
May 17, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526847/odorant-binding-proteins-expression-patterns-in-recently-diverged-species-of-anastrepha-fruit-flies
#9
Emeline Boni Campanini, Carlos Congrains, Felipe Rafael Torres, Reinaldo Alves de Brito
We studied two species of closely related South American fruit flies, Anastrepha fraterculus and Anastrepha obliqua which, despite being able to interbreed, still show some ecological and reproductive differences. Because part of these differences, such as host and mate preferences, may be related to olfactory perception, we focused our investigation on the differential expression of Odorant-binding protein (OBP) gene family, which participate in initial steps of the olfactory signal transduction cascade. We investigated patterns of expression of eight OBP genes by qPCR in male and female head tissues of both species...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525709/sensory-and-behavioral-responses-of-a-model-fish-to-oil-sands-process-affected-water-with-and-without-treatment
#10
Megan Reichert, Brian Blunt, Tia Gabruch, Tanja Zerulla, Allison Ralph, Mohamed Gamal El-Din, Bruce R Sutherland, Keith Tierney
If oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is to be returned to the environment, a desire is that it not adversely affect aquatic life. We investigated whether a relevant model fish (rainbow trout; Oncorhynchus mykiss) could detect OSPW using its olfactory sense (smell), and whether exposure to it would result in behavioural changes. We also investigated whether ozonation of OSPW, which lowers the concentration of organic compounds attributed with toxicity (naphthenic acids), would ameliorate any observed adverse effects...
May 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523739/mechanisms-of-peptide-sex-pheromone-regulation-of-conjugation-in-enterococcus-faecalis
#11
Yuqing Chen, Arpan Bandyopadhyay, Briana K Kozlowicz, Heather A H Haemig, Albert Tai, Wei-Shou Hu, Gary M Dunny
In many gram positive bacteria, horizontal transfer and virulence are regulated by peptide-mediated cell-cell signaling. The heptapeptide cCF10 (C) activates conjugative transfer of the Enterococcus faecalis plasmid pCF10, whereas the iCF10 (I) peptide inhibits transfer. Both peptides bind to the same domain of the master transcription regulator PrgX, a repressor of transcription of the prgQ operon encoding conjugation genes. We show that repression of prgQ by PrgX tetramers requires formation of a pCF10 DNA loop where each of two PrgX DNA-binding sites is occupied by a dimer...
May 19, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522864/quantitative-inheritance-of-volatile-pheromones-and-darcin-and-their-interaction-in-olfactory-preferences-of-female-mice
#12
Ying-Juan Liu, Hui-Fen Guo, Jian-Xu Zhang, Yao-Hua Zhang
In this study, we examined how urine-borne volatile compounds (UVCs) and darcin of male mice are inherited from parents and interact to modulate the olfactory preferences of females using two inbred strains of mice, C57Bl/6 (C57) and BALB/c (BALB), and their reciprocal hybrids (BC = BALB♀× C57♂; CB = C57♀ × BALB♂). Chemical analysis revealed that the UVCs of C57BL/6 males were quantitatively distinguishable from those of BALB/c males. Darcin was detected in C57 urine, but not in BALB urine...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520950/a-novel-economical-way-to-assess-virulence-in-field-populations-of-hessian-fly-diptera-cecidomyiidae-utilizing-wheat-resistance-gene-h13-as-a-model
#13
Alisha J Johnson, Hossam E M Abdel Moniem, Kathy L Flanders, G David Buntin, Francis P F Reay-Jones, Dominic Reisig, Jeffery J Stuart, Subhashree Subramanyam, Richard H Shukle, Brandon J Schemerhorn
Mayetiola destructor (Say) is a serious pest of wheat, Triticum aestivum L., in North America, North Africa, and Central Asia. Singly deployed resistance genes in wheat cultivars have provided effective management of Hessian fly populations for >50 yr. Thirty-five H genes have been documented. Defense mediated by the H gene constitutes strong selection on the Hessian fly population, killing 100% of larvae. A mutation in a matching Hessian fly avirulence gene confers virulence to the H gene, leading to survival on the resistant plant...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515207/early-social-learning-triggers-neurogenomic-expression-changes-in-a-swordtail-fish
#14
Rongfeng Cui, Pablo J Delclos, Molly Schumer, Gil G Rosenthal
Mate choice can play a pivotal role in the nature and extent of reproductive isolation between species. Mating preferences are often dependent on an individual's social experience with adult phenotypes throughout development. We show that olfactory preference in a swordtail fish (Xiphophorus malinche) is affected by previous experience with adult olfactory signals. We compare transcriptome-wide gene expression levels of pooled sensory and brain tissues between three treatment groups that differ by social experience: females with no adult exposure, females exposed to conspecifics and females exposed to heterospecifics...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514418/small-molecule-pheromones-and-hormones-controlling-nematode-development
#15
Rebecca A Butcher
The existence of small-molecule signals that influence development in Caenorhabditis elegans has been known for several decades, but only in recent years have the chemical structures of several of these signals been established. The identification of these signals has enabled connections to be made between these small molecules and fundamental signaling pathways in C. elegans that influence not only development but also metabolism, fertility, and lifespan. Spurred by these important discoveries and aided by recent advances in comparative metabolomics and NMR spectroscopy, the field of nematode chemistry has the potential to expand dramatically in the coming years...
May 17, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514374/-the-role-of-the-vomeronasal-system-in-the-formation-of-the-human-sexual-behaviour
#16
S V Morozova, D M Savvateeva, V M Svistushkin, L A Toporkova
This review deals with the structure and function of the vomeronasal system and evaluation of its influence on the sexual sphere of humans and animals. Special attention is given to the role of pheromones in the regulation of the sexual behaviour. The data concerning the function of the vomeronasal organ following surgical interventions in the nasal cavity are discussed.
2017: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512400/exposure-to-hedione-increases-reciprocity-in-humans
#17
Sebastian Berger, Hanns Hatt, Axel Ockenfels
Cooperation among unrelated humans is frequently regarded as a defining feature in the evolutionary success of our species. Whereas, much research has addressed the strategic and cognitive mechanisms that underlie cooperation, investigations into chemosensory processes have received very limited research attention. To bridge that gap, we build on recent research that has identified the chemically synthesized odorant Hedione (HED) as a ligand for the putative human pheromone receptor (VN1R1) expressed in the olfactory mucosa, and hypothesize that exposure to HED may increase reciprocity...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506583/synthesis-of-enantiomerically-enriched-drug-precursors-and-an-insect-pheromone-via-reduction-of-ketones-using-commercially-available-carbonyl-reductase-screening-kit-chiralscreen%C3%A2-oh
#18
Toshiya Nagai, Saki Sakurai, Naoki Natori, Manaka Hataoka, Takako Kinoshita, Hiroyoshi Inoue, Kengo Hanaya, Mitsuru Shoji, Takeshi Sugai
Commercially available "Chiralscreen® OH" starter kit containing five types of carbonyl reductases (E001, E007, E031, E039, and E078) was used for the reduction of several aromatic and aliphatic ketones to obtain enantiomerically enriched drug precursors and an insect pheromone. Almost stereochemically pure secondary alcohols, used in the synthesis of drugs such as (R)-rasagiline mesylate, (S)-rivastigmine, (R)-chlorphenesin carbamate, and (R)-mexiletine, and the insect pheromone (4S,5R)-sitophilure, were conveniently obtained...
April 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505612/behavioral-performance-and-neural-systems-are-robust-to-sensory-injury-in-workers-of-the-ant-pheidole-dentata
#19
Hannah K Waxman, Mario L Muscedere, James F A Traniello
Miniaturized nervous systems have been thought to limit behavioral ability, and animals with miniaturized brains may be less flexible when challenged by injuries resulting in sensory deficits that impact the development, maintenance, and plasticity of small-scale neural networks. We experimentally examined how injuries to sensory structures critical for olfactory ability affect behavioral performance in workers of the ant Pheidole dentata, which have minute brains (0.01 mm3) and primarily rely on the perception and processing of chemical signals and cues to direct their social behavior...
May 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500568/female-sex-pheromone-of-the-cone-moth-dioryctria-mendacella-investigation-of-synergism-between-type-i-and-type-ii-pheromone-components
#20
David R Hall, Dudley Farman, Juan C Domínguez, Juan A Pajares
Polyunsaturated hydrocarbons (Type II pheromone components) have been reported to be synergists for unsaturated acetates, alcohols or aldehydes (Type I components) in the sex pheromones of several species of Lepidoptera. However, there is some debate over whether the active components are the hydrocarbons themselves or more volatile degradation products. Extracts of pheromone glands of adult females of the cone moth, Dioryctria mendacella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), contain (Z,E)-9,11-tetradecadienyl acetate (ZE9,11-14:Ac) and at least ten times as much (Z,Z,Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9,12,15-pentacosapentaene (ZZZZZ3,6,9,12,15-25:H)...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
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