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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449326/area-wide-mass-trapping-by-pheromone-based-attractants-for-the-control-of-sugar-beet-weevil-bothynoderes-punctiventris-germar-coleoptera-curculionidae
#1
Z Drmić, M Toth, D Lemić, D Grubišić, M Pospišil, R Bažok
BACKGROUND: Due to the changing climate, narrow crop rotation, and changes in insecticide application practice, sugar beet weevil (SBW) (Bothynoderes punctiventris Germar) has become the most important economic pest in sugar beet. To develop alternative control methods, an area-wide (AW) control program using aggregation pheromones was implemented over four years on an area of 6 and 14.8 km(2) in east Croatia. RESULTS: The mass trapping of SBW on the "old" sugar beet fields reduced the population from 0...
April 27, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447367/sex-hormones-function-as-sex-attractant-pheromones-in-house-mice-and-brown-rats
#2
Stephen Takacs, Regine Gries, Gerhard J Gries
Sex hormones of mammals control the expression of sexual characteristics and bodily functions. The male hormone testosterone and the female hormones progesterone and estradiol are known to occur in urine markings of mice. Herein, we show that all three hormones are also present in urine of brown rats, and that they are effective sexual communication signals (pheromones) that elicit attraction behavior of prospective mates in both brown rats and house mice. When added as lures to trap boxes in field experiments, synthetic testosterone, e...
April 26, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446695/breaking-the-cipher-ant-eavesdropping-on-the-variational-trail-pheromone-of-its-termite-prey
#3
Xiao-Lan Wen, Ping Wen, Cecilia A L Dahlsjö, David Sillam-Dussès, Jan Šobotník
Predators may eavesdrop on their prey using innate signals of varying nature. In regards to social prey, most of the prey signals are derived from social communication and may therefore be highly complex. The most efficient predators select signals that provide the highest benefits. Here, we showed the use of eusocial prey signals by the termite-raiding ant Odontoponera transversaO. transversa selected the trail pheromone of termites as kairomone in several species of fungus-growing termites (Termitidae: Macrotermitinae: Odontotermes yunnanensis, Macrotermes yunnanensis, Ancistrotermes dimorphus)...
April 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444864/dose-reduction-and-alternatives-to-the-phenol-pheromone-in-monitoring-and-management-of-the-grass-grub-costelytra-zealandica
#4
Aimee R Harper, C Rikard Unelius, Richard J Townsend, David Maxwell Suckling
BACKGROUND: Endemic New Zealand grass grub Costelytra zealandica is a pest of introduced pasture that uses phenol as a sex pheromone. The pheromone could be used to monitor and manage grass grub populations, but the irritating properties and toxicity of phenol for human handlers, as well as the possible ecotoxicological effects, pose obstacles to the deployment of the pheromone. This study aimed to limit the use of phenol by dose-response studies and investigation into alternative attractants and synergists to phenol...
April 26, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440809/a-missense-polymorphism-in-the-putative-pheromone-receptor-gene-vn1r1-is-associated-with-sociosexual-behavior
#5
S Henningsson, D Hovey, K Vass, H Walum, K Sandnabba, P Santtila, P Jern, L Westberg
Pheromones regulate social and reproductive behavior in most mammalian species. These effects are mediated by the vomeronasal and main olfactory systems. Effects of putative pheromones on human neuroendocrine activity, brain activity and attractiveness ratings suggest that humans may communicate via similar chemosignaling. Here we studied two samples of younger and older individuals, respectively, with respect to one nonsynonymous polymorphism in the gene encoding the human vomeronasal type-1 receptor 1, VN1R1, and one nonsynonymous polymorphism in the gene encoding the olfactory receptor OR7D4...
April 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430975/behavioral-response-of-the-brown-marmorated-stink-bug-hemiptera-pentatomidae-to-semiochemicals-deployed-inside-and-outside-anthropogenic-structures-during-the-overwintering-period
#6
William R Morrison, Angelita Acebes-Doria, Emily Ogburn, Thomas P Kuhar, James F Walgenbach, J Christopher Bergh, Louis Nottingham, Anthony Dimeglio, Patricia Hipkins, Tracy C Leskey
The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is an invasive species from Asia capable of causing severe agricultural damage. It can also be a nuisance pest when it enters and exits anthropogenic overwintering sites. In recent years, pheromone lures and traps for H. halys have been developed and used to monitor populations in field studies. To date, no study has investigated the applicability of these monitoring tools for use indoors by building residents during the overwintering period. Herein, we 1) assessed when in late winter (diapause) and spring (postdiapause) H...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427347/comparative-transcriptomics-of-mountain-pine-beetle-pheromone-biosynthetic-tissues-and-functional-analysis-of-cyp6de3
#7
J A Nadeau, J Petereit, R L Tillett, K Jung, M Fotoohi, M MacLean, S Young, K Schlauch, G J Blomquist, C Tittiger
BACKGROUND: The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is a highly destructive pest of pine forests in western North America. During flight to a new host tree and initiation of feeding, mountain pine beetles release aggregation pheromones. The biosynthetic pathways of these pheromones are sex-specific and localized in the midgut and fat body, but the enzymes involved have not all been identified or characterized. RESULTS: We used a comparative RNA-Seq analysis between fed and unfed male and female MPB midguts and fat bodies to identify candidate genes involved in pheromone biosynthesis...
April 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424894/the-integrity-of-the-nucleus-of-the-lateral-olfactory-tract-is-essential-for-the-normal-functioning-of-the-olfactory-system
#8
Ricardo P Vaz, Armando Cardoso, Susana I Sá, Pedro A Pereira, M Dulce Madeira
The nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract (nLOT) is a relatively small component of the cortical pallial amygdala, with peculiar neurogenic, neurochemical and connectivity patterns. Although it has been suggested that it might be involved in non-pheromonal olfactory-guided behaviors, particularly feeding, the functional implications of the nLOT have never been investigated. In view of this fact, we have tackled this subject by performing a series of behavioral tests and by quantifying biological and biochemical parameters in sexually naïve adult male rats that were submitted to bilateral excitotoxic lesions of the nLOT...
April 19, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423428/aggregation-behavior-and-a-putative-aggregation-pheromone-in-sugar-beet-root-maggot-flies-diptera-ulidiidae
#9
Erik J Wenninger, Susan Y Emmert, Kelly Tindall, Hongjian Ding, Mark A Boetel, D Rajabaskar, Sanford D Eigenbrode
Male-biased aggregations of sugar beet root maggot, Tetanops myopaeformis (Röder) (Diptera: Ulidiidae), flies were observed on utility poles near sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. [Chenopodiaceae]) fields in southern Idaho; this contrasts with the approximately equal sex ratio typically observed within fields. Peak observation of mating pairs coincided with peak diurnal abundance of flies. Volatiles released by individual male and female flies were sampled from 08:00 to 24:00 hours in the laboratory using solid-phase microextraction and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423424/field-evaluation-of-potential-pheromone-lures-for-lygus-lineolaris-hemiptera-miridae-in-the-mid-south
#10
Katherine A Parys, David R Hall
Plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) are phytophagous pests of cultivated plants around the world. In the mid-South region of the United States, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) is a primary pest of cotton, and causes economic damage. Previously published research about the volatiles produced by members of the genus Lygus, and other closely related groups, indicated that they produce blends of hexyl butyrate, (E)-2-hexenyl butyrate, and (E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal. Varying ratios of the three compounds were loaded into pipette tips, and screened in combination with non-UV white sticky cards for attractiveness to field populations of L...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423417/multi-species-mating-disruption-in-cranberries-ericales-ericaceae-early-evidence-using-a-flowable-emulsion
#11
Shawn A Steffan, Elissa M Chasen, Annie E Deutsch, Agenor Mafra-Neto
Pheromone-based mating disruption has proven to be a powerful pest management tactic in many cropping systems. However, in the cranberry system, a viable mating disruption program does not yet exist. There are commercially available pheromones for several of the major pests of cranberries, including the cranberry fruitworm, Acrobasis vaccinii Riley (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and blackheaded fireworm, Rhopobota naevana (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Previous studies have shown that mating disruption represents a promising approach for R...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423045/characterization-of-antennal-sensilla-larvae-morphology-and-olfactory-genes-of-melipona-scutellaris-stingless-bee
#12
Washington João de Carvalho, Patrícia Tieme Fujimura, Ana Maria Bonetti, Luiz Ricardo Goulart, Kevin Cloonan, Neide Maria da Silva, Ester Cristina Borges Araújo, Carlos Ueira-Vieira, Walter S Leal
There is growing evidence in the literature suggesting that caste differentiation in the stingless bee, Melipona scutellaris, and other bees in the genus Melipona, is triggered by environmental signals, particularly a primer pheromone. With the proper amount of food and a chemical stimulus, 25% of females emerge as queens, in agreement with a long-standing "two loci/two alleles model" proposed in the 1950s. We surmised that these larvae must be equipped with an olfactory system for reception of these chemical signals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423037/identification-of-candidate-chemosensory-genes-by-transcriptome-analysis-in-loxostege-sticticalis-linnaeus
#13
Hong-Shuang Wei, Ke-Bin Li, Shuai Zhang, Ya-Zhong Cao, Jiao Yin
Loxostege sticticalis Linnaeus is an economically important agricultural pest, and the larvae cause great damage to crops, especially in Northern China. However, effective and environmentally friendly chemical methods for controlling this pest have not been discovered to date. In the present study, we performed HiSeq2500 sequencing of transcriptomes of the male and female adult antennae, adult legs and third instar larvae, and we identified 54 candidate odorant receptors (ORs), including 1 odorant receptor coreceptor (Orco) and 5 pheromone receptors (PRs), 18 ionotropic receptors (IRs), 13 gustatory receptors (GRs), 34 odorant binding proteins (OBPs), including 1 general odorant binding protein (GOBP1) and 3 pheromone binding proteins (PBPs), 10 chemosensory proteins (CSPs) and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423024/interrelationships-of-vel1-and-env1-in-light-response-and-development-in-trichoderma-reesei
#14
Hoda Bazafkan, Christoph Dattenböck, Eva Stappler, Sabrina Beier, Monika Schmoll
Sexual development is regulated by a complex regulatory mechanism in fungi. For Trichoderma reesei, the light response pathway was shown to impact sexual development, particularly through the photoreceptor ENVOY. Moreover, T. reesei communicates chemically with a potential mating partner in its vicinity, a response which is mediated by the velvet family protein VEL1 and its impact on secondary metabolism. We therefore studied the regulatory interactions of ENV1 and VEL1 with a focus on sexual development. Although individual mutants in both genes are female sterile under standard crossing conditions (light-dark cycles), an altered light regime enabled sexual development, which we found to be due to conditional female sterility of Δenv1, but not Δvel1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421324/weathering-the-storm-how-lodgepole-pine-trees-survive-mountain-pine-beetle-outbreaks
#15
Nadir Erbilgin, Jonathan A Cale, Altaf Hussain, Guncha Ishangulyyeva, Jennifer G Klutsch, Ahmed Najar, Shiyang Zhao
Recent mountain pine beetle outbreaks in western North America killed millions of lodgepole pine trees, leaving few survivors. However, the mechanism underlying the ability of trees to survive bark beetle outbreaks is unknown, but likely involve phytochemicals such as monoterpenes and fatty acids that can drive beetle aggregation and colonization on their hosts. Thus, we conducted a field survey of beetle-resistant lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) trees to retrospectively deduce whether these phytochemicals underlie their survival by comparing their chemistry to that of non-attacked trees in the same stands...
April 18, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420678/automated-analysis-of-high-content-microscopy-data-with-deep-learning
#16
Oren Z Kraus, Ben T Grys, Jimmy Ba, Yolanda Chong, Brendan J Frey, Charles Boone, Brenda J Andrews
Existing computational pipelines for quantitative analysis of high-content microscopy data rely on traditional machine learning approaches that fail to accurately classify more than a single dataset without substantial tuning and training, requiring extensive analysis. Here, we demonstrate that the application of deep learning to biological image data can overcome the pitfalls associated with conventional machine learning classifiers. Using a deep convolutional neural network (DeepLoc) to analyze yeast cell images, we show improved performance over traditional approaches in the automated classification of protein subcellular localization...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419833/sexual-selection-sexual-isolation-and-pheromones-in-drosophila-melanogaster-strains-after-long-term-maintaining-on-different-diets
#17
Jelena Trajković, Dragana Miličić, Tatjana Savić, Sofija Pavković-Lučić
Evolution of reproductive isolation may be a consequence of a variety of signals used in courtship and mate preferences. Pheromones play an important role in both sexual selection and sexual isolation. The abundance of pheromones in Drosophila melanogaster may depend on different environmental factors, including diet. The aim of this study was to ascertain to which degree principal pheromones affect sexual selection in D. melanogaster. We used D. melanogaster strains reared for 14 years on four substrates: standard cornmeal substrate and those containing tomato, banana and carrot...
April 15, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419678/secondary-compounds-from-exotic-tree-plantations-change-female-mating-preferences-in-the-palmate-newt-lissotriton-helveticus
#18
Maider Iglesias-Carrasco, Megan L Head, Michael D Jennions, Carlos Cabido
Selection can favor phenotypic plasticity in mate choice in response to environmental factors that alter the costs and benefits of being choosy, or of choosing specific mates. Human-induced environmental change could alter sexual selection by affecting the costs of mate choice, or by impairing the ability of individuals to identify preferred mates. For example, variation in mate choice could be driven by environmentally induced differences in body condition (e.g. health) that change the cost of choosiness, or by environmental effects on the ability to detect or discriminate sexual signals...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417051/morphology-of-cat-vomeronasal-organ-non-sensory-epithelium-during-postnatal-development
#19
Sanaa A M Elgayar, Heba M Saad-Eldin, Ola A Haussein
The vomeronasal organ has an important role in mammal's social and sexual behaviours. In addition, it mediates defensive behavior through detection of protein pheromone homologues. In this work, a detailed morphological description of the postnatal development of the non-sensory epithelium (NSE) lining the vomeronasal duct (VND) of the female cat is provided using various histological techniques. The study focused on newborn, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks of postnatal ages using four animals for each age. We report here for the first time that three types of NSE line the rostral segment of the VND; nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium, stratified cuboidal epithelium, and ciliated pseudo stratified columnar ciliated epithelium with goblet cells and that the VND undergoes 90° a change in its its axis from the vertical position caudally to the horizontal position rostral...
March 2017: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410430/caste-sex-and-age-dependent-expression-of-immune-related-genes-in-a-japanese-subterranean-termite-reticulitermes-speratus
#20
Yuki Mitaka, Kazuya Kobayashi, Kenji Matsuura
Insects protect themselves from microbial infections through innate immune responses, including pathogen recognition, phagocytosis, the activation of proteolytic cascades, and the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides. Termites, eusocial insects inhabiting microbe-rich wood, live in closely-related family groups that are susceptible to shared pathogen infections. To resist pathogenic infection, termite families have evolved diverse immune adaptations at both individual and societal levels, and a strategy of trade-offs between reproduction and immunity has been suggested...
2017: PloS One
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