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Laura Merlini, Bita Khalili, Omaya Dudin, Laetitia Michon, Vincent Vincenzetti, Sophie G Martin
In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe , pheromone signaling engages a signaling pathway composed of a G protein-coupled receptor, Ras, and a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade that triggers sexual differentiation and gamete fusion. Cell-cell fusion requires local cell wall digestion, which relies on an initially dynamic actin fusion focus that becomes stabilized upon local enrichment of the signaling cascade on the structure. We constructed a live-reporter of active Ras1 (Ras1-guanosine triphosphate [GTP]) that shows Ras activity at polarity sites peaking on the fusion structure before fusion...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Marlon R Schneider, Christos C Zouboulis
Sebocytes, the major cell type in sebaceous glands (SGs), are differentiated epithelial cells that gradually accumulate lipids and eventually disrupt, releasing their content (sebum) in a secretory process known as holocrine secretion. Via the hair canal, sebum reaches the skin surface, where it has several known or postulated functions, including pheromonal, thermoregulatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Altered sebum secretion and/or structural SG changes have also been involved in the pathogenesis of skin diseases, such as acne vulgaris and some forms of alopecia...
February 16, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Toshiyuki Fujita, Hiroko Kozuka-Hata, Yutaro Hori, Jun Takeuchi, Takeo Kubo, Masaaki Oyama
The honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) uses various chemical signals produced by the worker exocrine glands to maintain the functioning of its colony. The roles of worker postcerebral glands (PcGs), thoracic glands (TGs), and mandibular glands (MGs) and the functional changes they undergo according to the division of labor from nursing to foraging are not as well studied. To comprehensively characterize the molecular roles of these glands in workers and their changes according to the division of labor of workers, we analyzed the proteomes of PcGs, TGs, and MGs from nurse bees and foragers using shotgun proteomics technology...
2018: PloS One
Johann Mignolet, Laetitia Fontaine, Andrea Sass, Catherine Nannan, Jacques Mahillon, Tom Coenye, Pascal Hols
Small distortions in transcriptional networks might lead to drastic phenotypical changes, especially in cellular developmental programs such as competence for natural transformation. Here, we report a pervasive circuitry rewiring for competence and predation interplay in commensal streptococci. Canonically, in streptococci paradigms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans, the pheromone-based two-component system BlpRH is a central node that orchestrates the production of antimicrobial compounds (bacteriocins) and incorporates signal from the competence activation cascade...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Nanette Y Schneider, Frédérique Datiche, Gérard Coureaud
The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is a widely used model in fundamental, medical and veterinary neurosciences. Besides investigations in adults, rabbit pups are relevant to study perinatal neurodevelopment and early behaviour. To date, the rabbit is also the only species in which a pheromone - the mammary pheromone (MP) - emitted by lactating females and active on neonatal adaptation has been described. The MP is crucial since it contributes directly to nipple localisation and oral seizing in neonates, i...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
M Bedos, W Portillo, R G Paredes
Different conditions induce proliferation, migration and integration of new neurons in the adult brain. This process of neurogenesis is a clear example of long lasting plastic changes in the brain of different species. Sexual behavior is a motivated behavior that is crucial for the survival of the species, but an individual can spend all his life without displaying sexual behavior. In the present review, we briefly describe some of the effects of pheromones on neurogenesis. We review in detail studies describing the effects of sexual behavior in both males and females on proliferation, migration and integration of new cells and neurons...
February 10, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Yipeng Liu, Yang Liu, Xingchuan Jiang, Guirong Wang
The highly specialized olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) on the antennae of male moths can recognize blends of several pheromone components. In previous studies, a total of six candidate pheromone receptor (PR) genes were cloned and functionally characterized in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. In the present work, we report on three novel candidate pheromone receptor genes: PxylOR8, PxylOR41, and PxylOR45 in the same species. Gene expression analysis revealed that PxylOR8 is specifically expressed in female adult antennae, while PxylOR41 and PxylOR45 are expressed in antennae in both sexes, but with a male bias...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Zachary C DeVries, Richard G Santangelo, Alexis M Barbarin, Coby Schal
Histamine is used in bronchial and dermal provocation, but it is rarely considered an environmental risk factor in allergic disease. Because bed bugs defecate large amounts of histamine as a component of their aggregation pheromone, we sought to determine if histamine accumulates in household dust in bed bug infested homes, and the effects of bed bug eradication with spatial heat on histamine levels in dust. We collected dust in homes and analyzed for histamine before, and up to three months after bed bug eradication...
2018: PloS One
Weliton D Silva, Jocelyn G Millar, Lawrence M Hanks, Camila M Costa, Mariana O G Leite, Mateus Tonelli, José Maurício S Bento
During field screening trials conducted in Brazil in 2015, adults of both sexes of the cerambycid beetles Cotyclytus curvatus (Germar) and Megacyllene acuta (Germar) (subfamily Cerambycinae, tribe Clytini) were significantly attracted to racemic 3-hydroxyhexan-2-one and racemic 2-methylbutan-1-ol, chemicals which previously have been identified as male-produced aggregation-sex pheromones of a number of cerambycid species endemic to other continents. Subsequent analyses of samples of beetle-produced volatiles revealed that males of C...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Hiroshi Nishino, Masazumi Iwasaki, Marco Paoli, Itsuro Kamimura, Atsushi Yoritsune, Makoto Mizunami
Animals rely on olfaction to navigate through complex olfactory landscapes, but the mechanisms that allow an animal to encode the spatial structure of an odorous environment remain unclear. To acquire information about the spatial distribution of an odorant, animals may rely on bilateral olfactory organs and compare side differences of odor intensity and timing [1-6] or may perform spatial and temporal signal integration of subsequent samplings [7]. The American cockroach can efficiently locate a source of sex pheromone even after the removal of one antenna, suggesting that bilateral comparison is not a prerequisite for odor localization in this species [8, 9]...
February 7, 2018: Current Biology: CB
M M Abdel-Azim, S A Aldosari, P Shukla
The effects of body size, age, feeding and mating status, conspecific volatiles from live adults, synthetic aggregation pheromone, and a pheromone synergist, ethyl acetate, on the mating behavior of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier, were investigated. To evaluate these factors, variables such as mating latency, frequency and duration, and refractory period were assessed. While both, body size and age, influenced the mating behavior, the latter showed a stronger effect. The large males recorded frequent and longer matings, whereas the young males outperformed the old weevils in all the studied variables...
February 10, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
Yuji Yasukochi, Bin Yang, Toshiaki Fujimoto, Ken Sahara, Takashi Matsuo, Yukio Ishikawa
General odorant binding proteins (GOBPs) and pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) form a monophyletic subfamily of insect odorant binding proteins (OBPs) specific for Lepidoptera, butterflies and moths. The GOBP/PBP genes include six subgroups (GOBP1-2, PBP-A-D) previously reported to form a complex arrayed in a conserved order in representative moths (superfamily Bombycoidea) and butterflies (Nymphalidae). Although our knowledge of lepidopteran genomes has increased greatly recently, the structure of the GOBP/PBP complex has been studied only for species that represent limited lineages of the highly diverged Ditrysia...
2018: PloS One
Liuhong Zhu, Zhenyu Li, Shufa Zhang, Baoyun Xu, Youjun Zhang, Myron P Zalucki, Qingjun Wu, Xianhui Yin
BACKGROUND: The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) is the most widely distributed pest of Brassica vegetables. Control of P. xylostella has relied on insecticides and it has developed resistance to most insecticides. Although research has clarified the resistance status and mechanisms in northern China, little work has been conducted on long-term population dynamics in the regions' key vegetable growing areas. RESULTS: We reviewed and summarized the history of P...
February 8, 2018: Pest Management Science
H F Groba, G Martínez, C Rossini, A González
The bronze bug, Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae), is an exotic emerging pest in Eucalyptus commercial forests in South America, Africa, and southern Europe. Information on the chemical communication system and reproductive ecology of this insect is scant, and it may be relevant for designing management strategies for eucalypt plantations. Males emit large amounts of 3-methyl-2-butenyl butyrate, which attracts conspecific adult males but not females. To learn more about the biological function of this putative male-produced pheromone, we quantified this compound in volatile emissions collected from males, females, and couples, in three 4-h collecting periods during the morning, afternoon, and night of a single 24-h cycle...
February 7, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
Eduardo A Silva-Junior, Antonio C Ruzzini, Camila R Paludo, Fabio S Nascimento, Cameron R Currie, Jon Clardy, Mônica T Pupo
Ants use pheromones to coordinate their communal activity. Volatile pyrazines, for instance, mediate food resource gathering and alarm behaviors in different ant species. Here we report that leaf-cutter ant-associated bacteria produce a family of pyrazines that includes members previously identified as ant trail and alarm pheromones. We found that L-threonine induces the bacterial production of the trail pheromone pyrazines, which are common for the host leaf-cutter ants. Isotope feeding experiments revealed that L-threonine along with sodium acetate were the biosynthetic precursors of these natural products and a biosynthetic pathway was proposed...
February 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Albert E Mayfield, Jackson Audley, Robert Camp, Bryan T Mudder, Adam Taylor
The walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a regulated pest in the United States due to its causal role in thousand cankers disease of walnut trees, including the commercially valuable eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra L.). Several state quarantines designed to limit spread of P. juglandis regulate movement of kiln-dried walnut lumber that contains bark. Previous research demonstrated that P. juglandis will enter and re-emerge from bark of kiln-dried, J. nigra slabs subjected to extreme beetle pressure (baited with a pheromone lure and hung in infested J...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Michael P O'Donnell, Pin-Hao Chao, Jan E Kammenga, Piali Sengupta
Animals integrate external cues with information about internal conditions such as metabolic state to execute the appropriate behavioral and developmental decisions. Information about food quality and quantity is assessed by the intestine and transmitted to modulate neuronal functions via mechanisms that are not fully understood. The conserved Target of Rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2) controls multiple processes in response to cellular stressors and growth factors. Here we show that TORC2 coordinates larval development and adult behaviors in response to environmental cues and feeding state in the bacterivorous nematode C...
February 7, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Irene Saavedra, Luisa Amo
Chemical cues play a fundamental role in mate attraction and mate choice. Lepidopteran females, such as the winter moth (Operophtera brumata), emit pheromones to attract males in the reproductive period. However, these chemical cues could also be eavesdropped by predators. To our knowledge, no studies have examined whether birds can detect pheromones of their prey. O. brumata adults are part of the winter diet of some insectivorous tit species, such as the great tit (Parus major) and blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus)...
2018: PloS One
Etienne Toffin, Edith Gabriel, Marceau Louis, Jean-Louis Deneubourg, Jean-Claude Grégoire
Bark beetles use aggregation pheromones to promote group foraging, thus increasing the chances of an individual to find a host and, when relevant, to overwhelm the defences of healthy trees. When a male beetle finds a suitable host, it releases pheromones that attract potential mates as well as other 'spying' males, which result in aggregations on the new host. To date, most studies have been concerned with the use of aggregation pheromones by bark beetles to overcome the defences of living, well-protected trees...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Tereza Schořálková, Lukáš Kratochvíl, Lukáš Kubička
The nature and hormonal control of cues used for recognition of sex and reproductive status of conspecifics remain largely unstudied in reptiles. It has been proposed that production of a female attractiveness pheromone controlled by female ovarian hormones (and which is suppressed by male gonadal androgens) is necessary to elicit courtship in males. In the case of leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius), it has been suggested that an individual is recognized as a male and attacked unless it produces female-specific stimuli in its skin and that females are attacked, not courted, while shedding...
February 1, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
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