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Subramanian Muthukumar, Durairaj Rajesh, Ramu Muthu Selvam, Ganesan Saibaba, Suvaiyarasan Suvaithenamudhan, Mohammad Abdulkader Akbarsha, Parasuraman Padmanabhan, Balazs Gulyas, Govindaraju Archunan
Pheromones are odoriferous volatile chemical cues produced by animals for communication among conspecifics so as to regulate their social behaviors. In general, the odor compounds are recognized by receptors in the nasal cavity. Odorant-binding protein (OBP), a lipocalin family protein, mediates the air-borne odor cues to nasal receptors through nasal mucus. The presence of OBP in several mammalian species is well documented but to-date there is no report of a nasal OBP in buffalo. Hence, the present study was undertaken to investigate if OBP is present in buffalo nasal mucus...
June 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eyal Privman, Pnina Cohen, Amir B Cohanim, Oksana Riba-Grognuz, DeWayne Shoemaker, Laurent Keller
The fire ant Solenopsis invicta and its close relatives are highly invasive. Enhanced social cooperation may facilitate invasiveness in these and other invasive ant species. We investigated whether invasiveness in Solenopsis fire ants was accompanied by positive selection on sociobiological traits by applying a phylogenomics approach to infer ancient selection, and a population genomics approach to infer recent and ongoing selection in both native and introduced S. invicta populations. A combination of whole-genome sequencing of 40 haploid males and reduced-representation genomic sequencing of 112 diploid workers identified 1,758,116 and 169,682 polymorphic markers, respectively...
June 19, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Hideshi Naka, Seiichi Kubota, Fumitaka Kuchiki, Hiroshi Shibasaki, Masanobu Yamamoto, Yasuyoshi Soejima, Yutaka Arita, Tetsu Ando
Female sex pheromone of a clearwing moth Nokona feralis (Leech) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), a pest of kiwifruit, was identified to be a 7:3 mixture of (3E,13Z)-3,13-octadecadienyl acetate (E3,Z13-18:OAc) and (3E,13Z)-3,13-octadecadien-1-ol (E3,Z13-18:OH) by GC-EAD and GC/MS analyses. Males were attracted to wide-range mixtures of E3,Z13-18:OAc and E3,Z13-18:OH, and a 7:3 mixture of those two compounds strongly attracted the males in the field.
June 18, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Cheng-Xu Wu, Jian-Feng Liu, Xue-Yuan Di, Mao-Fa Yang
A pheromone-mediated mating disruption is a vital tool in the management of insect population dynamics that not only prevents mating but also delays mating in the target insect. Here, we examined the effect of delayed mating on the longevity and reproductive performance of the global pest, Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Delayed mating was imposed on both sexes simultaneously, males only, and females only. The results showed that a 30-40% reduction in the successful mating rate of S. litura was caused by 7-d delay in mating...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Anna K Wallingford, Thomas P Kuhar, Donald C Weber
In the development of an attract-and-kill approach for the management of harlequin bug (HB), Murgantia histrionica (Hahn), we evaluated attraction and retention of HB by pheromone-baited traps in the field. In release-recapture and on-farm experiments, traps with collard plants with lures-containing HB aggregation pheromone (murgantiol = 10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol) arrested and retained more HB than traps with either plant or lure. In order to avoid unwanted vicinity effects (increased feeding injury to neighboring crop plants due to halo or spillover effects), we also investigated two methods of retaining HB that were attracted to traps: a systemic toxicant (neonicotinoid applied to the trap plant as a drench) and a contact toxicant (long-lasting insecticidal netting [LLIN] with incorporated pyrethroid)...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Alexander Liberzon, Kyra Harrington, Nimrod Daniel, Roi Gurka, Ally Harari, Gregory Zilman
Some female moths attract male moths by emitting series of pulses of pheromone filaments propagating downwind. The turbulent nature of the wind creates a complex flow environment, and causes the filaments to propagate in the form of patches with varying concentration distributions. Inspired by moth navigation capabilities, we propose a navigation strategy that enables a flier to locate an upwind pulsating odor source in a windy environment using a single threshold-based detection sensor. This optomotor anemotaxis strategy is constructed based on the physical properties of the turbulent flow carrying discrete puffs of odor and does not involve learning, memory, complex decision making or statistical methods...
2018: PloS One
C Michael Wagner, James E Hanson, Trevor D Meckley, Nicholas S Johnson, Jason D Bals
Semiochemicals that elicit species-specific attraction or repulsion have proven useful in the management of terrestrial pests and hold considerable promise for control of nuisance aquatic species, particularly invasive fishes. Because aquatic ecosystems are typically large and open, use of a semiochemical to control a spatially dispersed invader will require the development of a cost-effective emitter that is easy to produce, environmentally benign, inexpensive, and controls the release of the semiochemical without altering its structure...
2018: PloS One
Bernarda Calla, Marina MacLean, Ling-Hsiu Liao, Inderpreet Dhanjal, Claus Tittiger, Gary J Blomquist, May R Berenbaum
Determining the functionality of CYP4G11, the only CYP4G in the genome of the western honeybee Apis mellifera, can provide insight into its reduced CYP4 inventory. Toward this objective, CYP4G11 transcripts were quantified, and CYP4G11 was expressed as a fusion protein with housefly CPR in Sf9 cells. Transcript levels varied with age, task, and tissue type in a manner consistent with the need for cuticular hydrocarbon production to prevent desiccation or with comb wax production. Young larvae, with minimal need for desiccation protection, expressed CYP4G11 at very low levels...
June 12, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
Jothi Kumar Yuvaraj, Martin N Andersson, Jacob A Corcoran, Olle Anderbrant, Christer Löfstedt
The odorant receptors (ORs) of insects are crucial for host and mate recognition. In moths (Lepidoptera), specialized ORs are involved in male detection of the sex pheromone produced by females. Most moth sex pheromones are C10 -C18 acetates, alcohols, and aldehydes (Type I pheromones), and most pheromone receptors (PRs) characterized to date are from higher Lepidoptera (Ditrysia), responding to these types of compounds. With few exceptions, functionally characterized PRs fall into what has been called the "PR-clade", which also contains receptors that have yet to be characterized...
June 9, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Masami Ikeda, Minoru Sugihara, Makiko Suwa
We report the development of the SEVENS database, which contains information on G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) genes that are identified with high confidence levels (A, B, C, and D) from various eukaryotic genomes, by using a pipeline comprising bioinformatics softwares, including a gene finder, a sequence alignment tool, a motif and domain assignment tool, and a transmembrane helix predictor. SEVENS compiles detailed information on GPCR genes, such as chromosomal mapping position, phylogenetic tree, sequence similarity to known genes, and protein function described by motif/domain and transmembrane helices...
2018: Biophysics and Physicobiology
Micheline Grillet, Jean-François Ferveur, Claude Everaerts
Sensory cues exchanged during courtship are crucial for mate choice: if they show intraspecific divergence, this may cause or reinforce sexual isolation between strains, ultimately leading to speciation. There is a strong asymmetric sexual isolation between Drosophila melanogaster females from Zimbabwe (Z) and males from all other populations (M). While M and Z flies of both sexes show different cuticular pheromones, this variation is only partly responsible for the intraspecific isolation effect. Male acoustic signals are also partly involved in sexual isolation...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Weiwu Ren, Regine Gries, Catherine McCaughey, Nathan Derstine, Santosh Alamsetti, Kenji Kurita, Lorna Tu, Roger Linington, Robert Britton, Gerhard J Gries
Yellowjackets in the genera Vespula and Dolichovespula are prevalent eusocial insects of great ecological and economic significance but the chemical signals of their sexual communication systems have defied structural elucidation. Herein, we report the identification of sex attractant pheromone components of virgin bald-faced hornet queens (Dolichovespula maculata). We analyzed body surface extract of queens by coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), isolated the compounds that elicited responses from male antennae by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and identified these components by GC-mass spectrometry (MS), HPLC-MS and NMR spectroscopy...
June 11, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Koudai Morishita, Masafumi Iwami, Taketoshi Kiya
In the central nervous system of insects, motor patterns are generated in the thoracic ganglia under the control of brain, where sensory information is integrated and behavioral decisions are made. Previously, we established neural activity-mapping methods using an immediate early gene, BmHr38, as a neural activity marker in the brain of male silkmoth Bombyx mori. In the present study, to gain insights into neural mechanisms of motor-pattern generation in the thoracic ganglia, we investigated expression of BmHr38 in response to sex pheromone-induced courtship behavior...
June 2018: Zoological Science
David P Bowles, Alexandar L Hansen, Calvin A Rhoads, Sidharth Mohan, Chunhua Yuan, Thomas J Magliery
Er-23 is a small, 51 amino acid, disulfide-rich pheromone protein used for cell signaling by Euplotes raikovi. Ten of the 51 amino acids are cysteine, allowing up to five disulfide bonds. Previous NMR work with Er-23 utilized homologously expressed protein, prohibiting isotopic labeling, and consequently the chemical shift assignments were incomplete. We have expressed uniformly 15 N and 13 C-labeled Er-23 in an E. coli expression system. Here we report the full backbone and side chain resonance assignments for recombinant Er-23...
June 6, 2018: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
Wei Liu, Xing-Chuan Jiang, Song Cao, Bin Yang, Gui-Rong Wang
Lepidopteran insects use sex pheromones for sexual communication. Pheromone receptors expressed on peripheral olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) are critical part to detect the sex pheromones. In genus Ostrinia , several pheromone receptors were functional analyzed in O. nubilalis and O. scapulalis but the knowledge in O. furnacalis was rare. In this study, seven pheromone receptors were deorphanized by heterologous expression system of Xenopus oocytes. Functional types of sensilla trichoidea were classified by single sensillum recordings to interpret the response pattern of olfactory sensory neurons to Ostrinia pheromone components...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Verena Kohler, Walter Keller, Elisabeth Grohmann
Conjugative type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) are multi-protein complexes in Gram-negative and Gram-positive (G+) bacteria, responsible for spreading antibiotic resistances and virulence factors among different species. Compared to Gram-negative bacteria, which establish close contacts for conjugative transfer via sex pili, G+ T4SSs are suggested to employ surface adhesins instead. One example is pCF10, an enterococcal conjugative sex-pheromone responsive plasmid with a narrow host range, thus disseminating genetic information only among closely related species...
June 5, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Zhiqiang Tian, Guisheng Qiu, Yanyan Li, Huaijiang Zhang, Wentao Yan, Qiang Yue, Lina Sun
BACKGROUND: The peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae), is one of the most destructive pests of pome and stone fruits, while few studies of their molecular biology and physiology have been conducted . Research into CsasPBPs and CsasGOBPs may provide insights in to the mechanisms of olfaction in C. sasakii. RESULTS: In our study, results of real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays demonstrated that CsasPBP1-3 and CsasGOBP1-2 transcripts were abundantly expressed in the antennae of both sexes, suggesting they play a their vital roles in olfaction...
June 4, 2018: Pest Management Science
Nuria Ruiz-Reig, Belen Andres, Thomas Lamonerie, Thomas Theil, Alfonso Fairén, Michèle Studer
In rodents, the medial nucleus of the amygdala receives direct inputs from the accessory olfactory bulbs and is mainly implicated in pheromone-mediated reproductive and defensive behaviors. The principal neurons of the medial amygdala are GABAergic neurons generated principally in the caudo-ventral medial ganglionic eminence and preoptic area. Beside GABAergic neurons, the medial amygdala also contains glutamatergic Otp-expressing neurons cells generated in the lateral hypothalamic neuroepithelium and a non-well characterized Pax6-positive population...
June 4, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Hui Qian, Qiuyi Chen, Shizhu Zhang, Ling Lu
The claudin family protein Fig1 is a unique fungal protein that is involved in pheromone-induced calcium influx and membrane fusion during the mating of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans . Whether and how Fig1 regulates Ca2+ homeostasis in response to extracellular stimuli is poorly understood. Previously, we found Aspergillus nidulans FigA, a homolog of Fig1 in S. cerevisiae , similar to the high-affinity calcium uptake system, is required for normal growth under low-Ca2+ minimal medium. In this study, using the calcium-sensitive photoprotein aequorin to monitor cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+ ]c ) in living cells, we found that the FigA dysfunction decreases the transient [Ca2+ ]c induced by a high extracellular calcium stress...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hong-Li Zhang, Zhi-Feng Sun, Lu-Nan Zhou, Lu Liu, Tao Zhang, Zhen-Ting Du
Synthesis of the sex pheromone of the tea tussock moth in 33% overall yield over 10 steps was achieved. Moreover, the chiral pool concept was applied in the asymmetric synthesis. The synthesis used a chemical available on a large-scale from recycling of wastewater from the steroid industry. The carbon skeleton was constructed using the C4+C5+C8 strategy. Based on this strategy, the original chiral center was totally retained.
June 4, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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