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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819196/specialized-odorant-receptors-in-social-insects-that-detect-cuticular-hydrocarbon-cues-and-candidate-pheromones
#1
Gregory M Pask, Jesse D Slone, Jocelyn G Millar, Prithwiraj Das, Jardel A Moreira, Xiaofan Zhou, Jan Bello, Shelley L Berger, Roberto Bonasio, Claude Desplan, Danny Reinberg, Jürgen Liebig, Laurence J Zwiebel, Anandasankar Ray
Eusocial insects use cuticular hydrocarbons as components of pheromones that mediate social behaviours, such as caste and nestmate recognition, and regulation of reproduction. In ants such as Harpegnathos saltator, the queen produces a pheromone which suppresses the development of workers' ovaries and if she is removed, workers can transition to a reproductive state known as gamergate. Here we functionally characterize a subfamily of odorant receptors (Ors) with a nine-exon gene structure that have undergone a massive expansion in ants and other eusocial insects...
August 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817572/tissue-specific-insulin-signaling-mediates-female-sexual-attractiveness
#2
Tatyana Y Fedina, Devin Arbuthnott, Howard D Rundle, Daniel E L Promislow, Scott D Pletcher
Individuals choose their mates so as to maximize reproductive success, and one important component of this choice is assessment of traits reflecting mate quality. Little is known about why specific traits are used for mate quality assessment nor about how they reflect it. We have previously shown that global manipulation of insulin signaling, a nutrient-sensing pathway governing investment in survival versus reproduction, affects female sexual attractiveness in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Here we demonstrate that these effects on attractiveness derive from insulin signaling in the fat body and ovarian follicle cells, whose signals are integrated by pheromone-producing cells called oenocytes...
August 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814748/functional-characterization-of-pbp1-gene-in-helicoverpa-armigera-lepidoptera-noctuidae-by-using-the-crispr-cas9-system
#3
Zhan-Feng Ye, Xiao-Long Liu, Qi Han, Hui Liao, Xiao-Tong Dong, Guan-Heng Zhu, Shuang-Lin Dong
Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) are thought to play crucial roles in perception of the sex pheromones particularly in noctuid moths, but this is rarely in vivo evidenced due to lacking an effective technique. Here, we reported an in vivo functional study of PBP1 in the important lepidopteran pest Helicoverpa armigera (HarmPBP1), by using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Efficient and heritable mutagenesis was achieved by egg injection of mixture of Cas9-mRNA and HarmPBP1-sgRNA. The TA cloning and sequencing revealed various insertion and/or deletion (indel) mutations at the target site...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814724/pathogenic-bacteria-enhance-dispersal-through-alteration-of-drosophila-social-communication
#4
Ian W Keesey, Sarah Koerte, Mohammed A Khallaf, Tom Retzke, Aurélien Guillou, Ewald Grosse-Wilde, Nicolas Buchon, Markus Knaden, Bill S Hansson
Pathogens and parasites can manipulate their hosts to optimize their own fitness. For instance, bacterial pathogens have been shown to affect their host plants' volatile and non-volatile metabolites, which results in increased attraction of insect vectors to the plant, and, hence, to increased pathogen dispersal. Behavioral manipulation by parasites has also been shown for mice, snails and zebrafish as well as for insects. Here we show that infection by pathogenic bacteria alters the social communication system of Drosophila melanogaster...
August 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813015/transcriptional-responses-of-creeping-bentgrass-to-2-3-butanediol-a-bacterial-volatile-compound-bvc-analogue
#5
Yi Shi, Kuiju Niu, Bingru Huang, Wenhui Liu, Huiling Ma
Bacterial volatile compounds (BVCs) have been reported to enhance plant growth and elicit plant defenses against fungal infection and insect damage. The objective of this study was to determine transcriptomic changes in response to synthetic BVC that could be associated with plant resistance to Rhizoctonia solani in creeping bentgrass. The 2,3-butanediol (BD) (250 µM) was sprayed on creeping bentgrass leaves grown in jam jars. The result showed that synthetic BD induced plant defense against R. solani for creeping bentgrass...
August 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812624/perceptive-costs-of-reproduction-drive-ageing-and-physiology-in-male-drosophila
#6
Zachary M Harvanek, Yang Lyu, Christi M Gendron, Jacob C Johnson, Shu Kondo, Daniel E L Promislow, Scott D Pletcher
Costs of reproduction are thought to result from natural selection optimizing organismal fitness within putative physiological constraints. Phenotypic and population genetic studies of reproductive costs are plentiful across taxa, but an understanding of their mechanistic basis would provide important insight into the diversity in life-history traits, including reproductive effort and ageing. Here, we dissect the causes and consequences of specific costs of reproduction in male Drosophila melanogaster. We find that key survival and physiological costs of reproduction arise from perception of the opposite sex, and they are reversed by the act of mating...
May 15, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811621/morphological-differences-of-the-reproductive-system-could-be-used-to-predict-the-optimum-grapholita-molesta-busck-control-period
#7
Zhiwei Zhang, Lina Men, Yunfei Peng, Jun Li, Angie Deng, Yuan Chen, Xianqian Liu, Ruiyan Ma
The oriental fruit moth (OFM), Grapholita molesta (Busck), is one of the dominant fruit-boring pests worldwide. In order to conduct integrated control of OFM effectively, it is important to predict the optimum control period. OFM populations have been monitored either by the number of trapped male moths exposed to sex pheromones or by the number of trapped male and female moths using food traps in orchards. The mating status and development stage of the trapped moths have not been characterized. The present paper studies the anatomical morphology of the OFM reproductive system at different development periods...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808423/in-search-for-pheromone-receptors-certain-members-of-the-odorant-receptor-family-in-the-desert-locust-schistocerca-gregaria-orthoptera-acrididae-are-co-expressed-with-snmp1
#8
Pablo Pregitzer, Xingcong Jiang, Ewald Grosse-Wilde, Heinz Breer, Jürgen Krieger, Joerg Fleischer
Under given environmental conditions, the desert locust (Schistocera gregaria) forms destructive migratory swarms of billions of animals, leading to enormous crop losses in invaded regions. Swarm formation requires massive reproduction as well as aggregation of the animals. Pheromones that are detected via the olfactory system have been reported to control both reproductive and aggregation behavior. However, the molecular basis of pheromone detection in the antennae of Schistocerca gregaria is unknown. As an initial step to disclose pheromone receptors, we sequenced the antennal transcriptome of the desert locust...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807837/characterization-of-two-odorant-binding-proteins-in-spodoptera-exigua-reveals-functional-conservation-and-difference
#9
Nai-Yong Liu, Jia-Yao Zhu, Ting Zhang, Shuang-Lin Dong
As the first biochemical step of olfactory reception and recognition, odorant binding proteins (OBPs) have been demonstrated to be essential. Considering functional diversities of OBPs within a single species, we here extended the characterization of two other OBPs from Spodoptera exigua, belonging to insect Classic OBPs. With a combination of transcriptome and Rapid Amplification of cDNA End (RACE) approaches, two OBP genes in S. exigua were first identified, namely SexiOBP1 and OBP7. Expression pattern analysis revealed that both of them exhibited a distinct expression, where OBP1 was broadly and highly expressed in several tissues including antennae of adults whereas OBP7 was abundant only in the antennae of both sexes, strongly indicative of olfactory roles...
August 11, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805643/the-evolution-of-cuticular-fertility-signals-in-eusocial-insects
#10
REVIEW
Adrian A Smith, Jürgen Liebig
A reproductive division of labor is a definitive characteristic of eusocial insect societies and it requires a means through which colony members can assess the presence and productivity of reproductive individuals. Cuticular hydrocarbons are the primary means of doing so across eusocial hymenopterans. However, recent experimental work presents conflicting views on how these chemical signals function, are interpreted by workers, and evolve. These recent advances include demonstrations of hydrocarbons as evolutionarily conserved 'queen pheromones' and as species-divergent 'fertility signals' used by both queens and workers...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804711/annotation-of-the-nuclear-receptors-in-an-estuarine-fish-species-fundulus-heteroclitus
#11
William S Baldwin, W Tyler Boswell, Gautam Ginjupalli, Elizabeth J Litoff
The nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors that respond to various internal as well as external cues such as nutrients, pheromones, and steroid hormones that play crucial roles in regulation and maintenance of homeostasis and orchestrating the physiological and stress responses of an organism. We annotated the Fundulus heteroclitus (mummichog; Atlantic killifish) nuclear receptors. Mummichog are a non-migratory, estuarine fish with a limited home range often used in environmental research as a field model for studying ecological and evolutionary responses to variable environmental conditions such as salinity, oxygen, temperature, pH, and toxic compounds because of their hardiness...
2017: Nuclear Receptor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804450/whole-brain-mapping-of-the-inputs-and-outputs-of-the-medial-part-of-the-olfactory-tubercle
#12
Zhijian Zhang, Hongruo Zhang, Pengjie Wen, Xutao Zhu, Li Wang, Qing Liu, Jie Wang, Xiaobin He, Huadong Wang, Fuqiang Xu
The medial part of the olfactory tubercle (OT) is a brain structure located at the interface of the reward and olfactory system. It is closely related to pheromone-rewards, natural reinforcement, addiction and many other behaviors. However, the structure of the anatomic circuitry of the medial part of the OT is still unclear. In the present study, the medial part of the OT was found to be highly connected with a wide range of brain areas with the help of the pseudorabies virus tracing tool. In order to further investigate the detailed connections for specific neurons, another tracing tool - rabies virus was utilized for D1R-cre and D2R-cre mice...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802043/an-engineered-orco-mutation-produces-aberrant-social-behavior-and-defective-neural-development-in-ants
#13
Hua Yan, Comzit Opachaloemphan, Giacomo Mancini, Huan Yang, Matthew Gallitto, Jakub Mlejnek, Alexandra Leibholz, Kevin Haight, Majid Ghaninia, Lucy Huo, Michael Perry, Jesse Slone, Xiaofan Zhou, Maria Traficante, Clint A Penick, Kelly Dolezal, Kaustubh Gokhale, Kelsey Stevens, Ingrid Fetter-Pruneda, Roberto Bonasio, Laurence J Zwiebel, Shelley L Berger, Jürgen Liebig, Danny Reinberg, Claude Desplan
Ants exhibit cooperative behaviors and advanced forms of sociality that depend on pheromone-mediated communication. Odorant receptor neurons (ORNs) express specific odorant receptors (ORs) encoded by a dramatically expanded gene family in ants. In most eusocial insects, only the queen can transmit genetic information, restricting genetic studies. In contrast, workers in Harpegnathos saltator ants can be converted into gamergates (pseudoqueens) that can found entire colonies. This feature facilitated CRISPR-Cas9 generation of germline mutations in orco, the gene that encodes the obligate co-receptor of all ORs...
August 10, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802042/orco-mutagenesis-causes-loss-of-antennal-lobe-glomeruli-and-impaired-social-behavior-in-ants
#14
Waring Trible, Leonora Olivos-Cisneros, Sean K McKenzie, Jonathan Saragosti, Ni-Chen Chang, Benjamin J Matthews, Peter R Oxley, Daniel J C Kronauer
Life inside ant colonies is orchestrated with diverse pheromones, but it is not clear how ants perceive these social signals. It has been proposed that pheromone perception in ants evolved via expansions in the numbers of odorant receptors (ORs) and antennal lobe glomeruli. Here, we generate the first mutant lines in the clonal raider ant, Ooceraea biroi, by disrupting orco, a gene required for the function of all ORs. We find that orco mutants exhibit severe deficiencies in social behavior and fitness, suggesting they are unable to perceive pheromones...
August 10, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801577/effects-of-disulfide-bridges-and-backbone-connectivity-on-water-sorption-by-protein-matrices
#15
Sang Beom Kim, Rakesh S Singh, Prem K C Paul, Pablo G Debenedetti
Understanding the water sorption behavior of protein powders is important in applications such as the preservation of protein-based pharmaceuticals. Most globular proteins exhibit a characteristic sigmoidal water adsorption isotherm at ambient conditions. However, it is not well understood how water sorption behavior is influenced by intrinsic factors that are related to structural properties of proteins. We investigate computationally how structural constraints on proteins influence the water sorption isotherms of amorphous protein powders...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792049/a-synthetic-dodecanolide-library-for-the-identification-of-putative-semiochemicals-emitted-by-mantellid-frogs
#16
Pardha Saradhi Peram, Miguel Vences, Stefan Schulz
Aliphatic macrolides are used by various organisms as semiochemicals or pheromones, e.g. by the endemic Madagascan frog family Mantellinae. Volatile, methyl-branched aliphatic macrolides occur in various species, but their identification by MS is difficult, while isolation is not possible due to the low amounts produced. Therefore, we synthesized a library of methyl-branched 11-dodecanolides to identify unknown macrolides secreted by Gephyromantis moseri, a mantelline frog restricted to the rainforest and characterized by largely terrestrial habitats...
August 9, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780719/the-rare-north-american-cerambycid-beetle-dryobius-sexnotatus-shares-a-novel-pyrrole-pheromone-component-with-species-in-asia-and-south-america
#17
Natalie M Diesel, Yunfan Zou, Todd D Johnson, Donald A Diesel, Jocelyn G Millar, Judith A Mongold-Diers, Lawrence M Hanks
The compound 1-(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-1,2-propanedione ("pyrrole") is an important pheromone component of several Asian and South American species of longhorned beetles in the subfamily Cerambycinae. Here, we report the first confirmed identification of this compound as a pheromone component of a cerambycine species native to North America, the rare beetle Dryobius sexnotatus Linsley. Headspace volatiles from males contained (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one and pyrrole (ratio 1:0.13), neither of which were detected in samples from a female...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775361/a-conserved-neuronal-daf-16-foxo-plays-an-important-role-in-conveying-pheromone-signals-to-elicit-repulsion-behavior-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#18
Donha Park, Jeong-Hoon Hahm, Saeram Park, Go Ha, Gyeong-Eon Chang, Haelim Jeong, Heekyeong Kim, Sunhee Kim, Eunji Cheong, Young-Ki Paik
Animals use pheromones as a conspecific chemical language to respond appropriately to environmental changes. The soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans secretes ascaroside pheromones throughout the lifecycle, which influences entry into dauer phase in early larvae, in addition to sexual attraction and aggregation. In adult hermaphrodites, pheromone sensory signals perceived by worms usually elicit repulsion as an initial behavioral signature. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal pheromone sensory process from perception to repulsion in adult hermaphrodites remain poorly understood...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770501/unsaturated-cuticular-hydrocarbons-enhance-responses-to-sex-pheromone-in-spruce-budworm-choristoneura-fumiferana
#19
P J Silk, E Eveleigh, L Roscoe, K Burgess, S Weatherby, G Leclair, P Mayo, M Brophy
The primary sex pheromone components of the female spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), are (E)- and (Z)-11-tetradecenal, produced in 95:5 ratio. However, male flight responses to calling females in a wind tunnel were faster and maintained longer than responses to any synthetic aldehyde blend. Analyses of cuticular extracts from spruce budworm adults revealed series of n-alkanes and n-monoalkenes with predominantly odd numbers of carbon atoms from C23- C29 in both sexes...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763279/effect-of-a-synthetic-feline-facial-pheromone-product-on-stress-scores-and-incidence-of-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-in-shelter-cats
#20
Robin M Chadwin, Melissa J Bain, Philip H Kass
OBJECTIVE To determine whether a synthetic feline facial pheromone product would decrease stress scores and upper respiratory tract infection (URI) incidence in shelter-housed cats. DESIGN Randomized controlled clinical trial. ANIMALS 336 stray, feral, owner-relinquished, or legally impounded cats at 2 animal shelters in northern California. PROCEDURES 5 cat holding rooms (3 at shelter A and 2 at shelter B) were used. A diffuser containing either synthetic pheromone or placebo was randomly assigned to each room, and cats were exposed for a 21-day period...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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