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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093447/inflammasomes-and-cancer
#1
Rajendra Karki, Si Ming Man, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
Inflammation affects all stages of tumorigenesis. A key signaling pathway leading to acute and chronic inflammation is through activation of the caspase-1 inflammasome. Inflammasome complexes are assembled on activation of certain nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat-containing proteins (NLR), AIM2-like receptors, or pyrin. Of these, NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4, NLRP6, and AIM2 influence the pathogenesis of cancer by modulating innate and adaptive immune responses, cell death, proliferation, and/or the gut microbiota...
January 16, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927741/a-strong-neutrophil-elastase-proteolytic-fingerprint-marks-the-carcinoma-tumor-proteome
#2
Michal Kistowski, Janusz Dębski, Jakub Karczmarski, Agnieszka Paziewska, Jacek Olędzki, Michał Mikula, Jerzy Ostrowski, Michał Dadlez
Proteolytic cascades are deeply involved in critical stages of cancer progression. During the course of peptide-wise analysis of shotgun proteomic datasets representative of colon adenocarcinoma (AC) and ulcerative colitis (UC), we detected a cancer-specific proteolytic fingerprint composed of a set of numerous protein fragments cleaved C-terminally to V, I, A, T, or C residues, significantly overrepresented in AC. A peptide set linked by a common VIATC cleavage consensus was the only prominent cancer-specific proteolytic fingerprint detected...
December 7, 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927666/epigenetic-biomarkers-in-progression-from-non-dysplastic-barrett-s-oesophagus-to-oesophageal-adenocarcinoma-a-systematic-review-protocol
#3
T Nieto, C L Tomlinson, J Dretzke, S Bayliss, M Dilworth, A D Beggs, O Tucker
INTRODUCTION: Barrett's oesophagus (BO), a metaplastic condition affecting the lower oesophagus due to long-standing gastro-oesophageal reflux and chronic inflammation, is a precursor lesion for oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OADC). There is no clinical test to predict which patients with BO will progress to OADC. The British Society of Gastroenterology recommends endoscopic surveillance of patients with BO. Epigenetic changes have been well characterised in the neoplastic progression of ulcerative colitis to colonic carcinoma, another gastrointestinal cancer associated with chronic inflammation...
December 7, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885870/transanal-total-mesorectal-excision-for-restorative-coloproctectomy-in-an-obese-high-risk-patient-with-colitis-associated-carcinoma
#4
Laura Isabel Hanke, Fabian Bartsch, Sebastian Försch, Florian Heid, Hauke Lang, Werner Kneist
Transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) offers great potential for the treatment of malign and benign diseases. However, laparoscopic-assisted TaTME in ulcerative colitis has not been described in more than a handful of patients. We present a 47-year-old highly comorbid female patient with an ulcerative colitis-associated carcinoma of the ascending colon and steroid-refractory pancolitis. A two-stage restorative coloproctectomy including right-sided complete mesocolic excision was conducted. The second step consisted of a successful nerve-sparing TaTME and a handsewn ileal pouch-anal anastomosis...
November 25, 2016: Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technologies: MITAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864128/prostaglandin-e2-activates-yap-and-a-positive-signaling-loop-to-promote-colon-regeneration-after-colitis-but-also-carcinogenesis-in-mice
#5
Han-Byul Kim, Minchul Kim, Young-Soo Park, Intae Park, Tackhoon Kim, Sung-Yeun Yang, Charles J Cho, DaeHee Hwang, Jin-Hak Jung, Sanford D Markowitz, Sung Wook Hwang, Suk-Kyun Yang, Dae-Sik Lim, Seung-Jae Myung
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is mediator of inflammation that regulates tissue regeneration, but its continual activation has been associated with carcinogenesis. Little is known about factors in the PGE2 signaling pathway that contribute to tumor formation. We investigated whether yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1), a transcriptional co-activator in the Hippo signaling pathway, mediates PGE2 function. METHODS: DLD-1 and SW480 colon cancer cell lines were transfected with vectors expressing transgenes or small hairpin RNAs and incubated with recombinant PGE2, with or without pharmacologic inhibitors of signaling proteins, and analyzed by immunoblot, immunofluorescence, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, transcriptional reporter, and proliferation assays...
November 15, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853744/clinical-usefulness-of-narrow-band-imaging-magnifying-colonoscopy-for-assessing-ulcerative-colitis-associated-cancer-dysplasia
#6
Soki Nishiyama, Shiro Oka, Shinji Tanaka, Shintaro Sagami, Ryohei Hayashi, Yoshitaka Ueno, Koji Arihiro, Kazuaki Chayama
Background and study aims: Colitis-associated cancer/dysplasia (CC/D) can affect the life expectancy of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Although the utility of magnifying chromocolonoscopy has been shown, the use of optical magnification with narrow band imaging (NBI) for distinguishing CC/D from non-neoplastic lesions in patients with UC has not been reported. We evaluated whether endoscopic findings are distinguishing and thus assessed the clinical usefulness of NBI magnification for differentiating UC-associated lesions...
November 2016: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843449/short-term-efficacy-of-laparoscopic-treatment-for-colorectal-cancer-in-patients-with-schistosomiasis-japonica
#7
Zhu Yi, Jiang Hong-Gang, Chen Zhi-Heng, Lu Bo-Hao
Introduction. Schistosomiasis is associated with numerous complications such as thrombocytopenia, liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and colitis. To the best of our knowledge, the feasibility and outcomes of laparoscopic colorectal surgery in patients with schistosomiasis have not yet been studied. Methods. In this study, the data of 280 patients with colorectal carcinoma along with schistosomiasis japonica infection who underwent laparoscopic or open colorectal surgery were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperative data, operative data, pathological outcomes, postoperative complications, and recovery were compared between patients in the laparoscopic (LAC) and open (OC) groups...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825961/repression-of-microrna-function-mediates-inflammation-associated-colon-tumorigenesis
#8
Takeshi Yoshikawa, Jianfeng Wu, Motoyuki Otsuka, Takahiro Kishikawa, Nobumi Suzuki, Akemi Takata, Motoko Ohno, Rei Ishibashi, Mari Yamagami, Ryo Nakagawa, Naoya Kato, Masaaki Miyazawa, Jiahuai Han, Kazuhiko Koike
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known about the mechanisms by which chronic inflammation contributes to carcinogenesis, such as the development of colon tumors in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. Specific microRNA (miRNAs) can function as suppressors or oncogenes, and widespread alterations in miRNA expression have been associated with tumorigenesis. We studied whether alterations in miRNA function contribute to inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis. METHODS: We studied the effects of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1α (IL1A), and IL1β (IL1B), on miRNA function, measured by activity of reporter constructs containing miRNA-binding sites in their 3' untranslated regions, in human 293T embryonic kidney, Caco-2, HT29, and HCT116 colon carcinoma cells, as well as dicer(+/+) and dicer(-/-), and Apobec3(+/+) and Apobec3(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts...
November 5, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777770/safety-and-efficacy-of-anti-pd-1-in-patients-with-baseline-cardiac-renal-or-hepatic-dysfunction
#9
Bridgette A Kanz, Megan H Pollack, Romany Johnpulle, Igor Puzanov, Leora Horn, Alicia Morgans, Jeffrey A Sosman, Suthee Rapisuwon, R Martin Conry, Zeynep Eroglu, Douglas B Johnson
BACKGROUND: Anti-PD-1 therapy is increasingly used in various advanced malignancies. Patients with baseline organ dysfunction are largely excluded from clinical trials. Therefore it is unclear whether anti-PD-1 therapy is safe or effective in this setting. Further, these patients are often not candidates for other anti-cancer therapies, highlighting their need for active treatment options. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients from multiple centers with advanced solid tumors and baseline organ dysfunction who received anti-PD-1 therapy...
2016: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766414/combining-aneuploidy-and-dysplasia-for-colitis-cancer-risk-assessment-outperforms-current-surveillance-efficiency-a-meta-analysis
#10
Rüdiger Meyer, Sandra Freitag-Wolf, Silke Blindow, Jürgen Büning, Jens K Habermann
PURPOSE: Cancer risk assessment for ulcerative colitis patients by evaluating histological changes through colonoscopy surveillance is still challenging. Thus, additional parameters of high prognostic impact for the development of colitis-associated carcinoma are necessary. This meta-analysis was conducted to clarify the value of aneuploidy as predictor for individual cancer risk compared with current surveillance parameters. METHODS: A systematic web-based search identified studies published in English that addressed the relevance of the ploidy status for individual cancer risk during surveillance in comparison to neoplastic mucosal changes...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563706/selenoproteins-and-oxidative-stress-induced-inflammatory-tumorigenesis-in-the-gut
#11
Caitlyn W Barrett, Sarah P Short, Christopher S Williams
Selenium is an essential micronutrient that is incorporated into at least 25 selenoproteins encoded by the human genome, many of which serve antioxidant functions. Because patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) demonstrate nutritional deficiencies and are at increased risk for colon cancer due to heightened inflammation and oxidative stress, selenoprotein dysfunction may contribute to disease progression. Over the years, numerous studies have analyzed the effects of selenoprotein loss and shown that they are important mediators of intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis...
August 25, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562801/identification-of-signet-ring-cell-change-in-colonic-subserosa-in-the-setting-of-clostridium-difficile-colitis-report-of-a-nonneoplastic-mimicker-of-signet-ring-cell-carcinoma
#12
Omar Khan, Saverio Ligato
Signet ring cell change of intestinal epithelial cells is a rare but well-known mimicker of signet ring cell carcinoma and is often associated with ischemic and/or pseudomembranous colitis. Instead, signet ring cell change involving nonepithelial cells in the subserosa of the intestine is an extremely rare finding with only a single case report in the literature to date. We report a new case of benign signet ring cell change localized in the subserosa of the large bowel incidentally identified in a resection specimen for Clostridium difficile colitis mimicking a metastatic signet ring cell carcinoma...
August 25, 2016: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517638/programmed-cell-death-1-pathway-inhibitors-in-genitourinary-malignancies-specific-side-effects-and-their-management
#13
Abhishek Tripathi, Marina D Kaymakcalan, Nicole R LeBoeuf, Lauren C Harshman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immune checkpoint inhibitors such as those that target the programmed cell death (PD)-1 pathway harness the host immune system to elicit an antitumor response. Their remarkable clinical benefit has led to regulatory approvals in several malignancies including the genitourinary cancers, renal cell carcinoma, and urothelial carcinoma. This review will focus on the management of the toxicities encountered with these agents. RECENT FINDINGS: Although generally well tolerated, a small proportion of patients (10-20%) treated with PD-1 directed agents as monotherapy can develop severe autoimmune manifestations, also known as, immune-related adverse events...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482886/egfr-regulates-macrophage-activation-and-function-in-bacterial-infection
#14
Dana M Hardbower, Kshipra Singh, Mohammad Asim, Thomas G Verriere, Danyvid Olivares-Villagómez, Daniel P Barry, Margaret M Allaman, M Kay Washington, Richard M Peek, M Blanca Piazuelo, Keith T Wilson
EGFR signaling regulates macrophage function, but its role in bacterial infection has not been investigated. Here, we assessed the role of macrophage EGFR signaling during infection with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial pathogen that causes persistent inflammation and gastric cancer. EGFR was phosphorylated in murine and human macrophages during H. pylori infection. In human gastric tissues, elevated levels of phosphorylated EGFR were observed throughout the histologic cascade from gastritis to carcinoma. Deleting Egfr in myeloid cells attenuated gastritis and increased H...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482192/crystal-associated-colitis-with-ulceration-leading-to-hematochezia-and-abdominal-pain
#15
Meeta Desai, Aaron Reiprich, Nancy Khov, Zhaohai Yang, Abraham Mathew, John Levenick
Lower GI bleeding is a common cause for hospitalization in adults. Medication-associated mucosal injury is an important clinical entity that can result in significant morbidity and mortality. We present the case of a 45-year-old woman with a 3-month history of intermittent abdominal cramping and rectal bleeding. Her medical history was extensive and included end-stage renal disease and a remote history of endometrial carcinoma that was treated with radiation. Initial workup was concerning for ischemic and radiation colitis, however, histology was most consistent with acute inflammation and ulceration associated with crystal fragments...
May 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450459/ulcerative-colitis-associated-with-nephrotic-syndrome-after-treatment-with-mesalazine-developed-into-rectal-carcinoma-a-case-study
#16
Shinichi Sameshima, Shinichiro Koketsu, Takashi Okuyama, Yawara Kubota, Yuko Ono, Tamaki Noie, Masatoshi Oya
BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported that nephrotic syndrome is associated with ulcerative colitis (UC) patients treated with mesalazine. Dysplasia associated with UC often develops into colorectal carcinoma. CASE PRESENTATION: A 17-year-old man was referred to our hospital, complaining of diarrhea and bloody stool. Total colonoscopy (TC) was performed and total-type UC was diagnosed. After treatment with mesalazine for 5 years, a low-grade dysplasia (LGD) was detected in the rectum by histological analysis of a biopsy sample...
July 22, 2016: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356846/low-colectomy-rate-five-years-after-diagnosis-of-ulcerative-colitis-results-from-a-prospective-population-based-cohort-in-sweden-icure-diagnosed-during-2005-2009
#17
Anders Rönnblom, Tommy Holmström, Hans Tanghöj, Urban Karlbom, Mari Thörn, Daniel Sjöberg
OBJECTIVE: The medical treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) has seen a change towards a more active attitude during recent years, including both the use of more traditional drugs as well as new biological substances. In this epidemiological study we have evaluated the results of modern treatment of UC in a population-based cohort of patients including all age groups, with regard to relapse rate, colectomy and IBD-associated mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients diagnosed with UC in the Uppsala health care region in the middle of Sweden during 2005-2009 were included in the study...
November 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27314080/selenoprotein-p-in-colitis-associated-carcinoma
#18
Sarah P Short, Caitlyn Whitten-Barrett, Christopher S Williams
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease are often deficient in micronutrients such as selenium and have an increased risk of colon cancer. We tested whether the selenium transport protein, selenoprotein P, could modify colitis-associated cancer. Our results indicate that global SEPP1 haploinsufficiency augments tumorigenesis and mediates oxidative damage in the intestine.
May 2016: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27273946/identification-of-disrupted-pathways-in-ulcerative-colitis-related-colorectal-carcinoma-by-systematic-tracking-the-dysregulated-modules
#19
Deshun Wu, Qing Li, Guixiang Song, Jun Lu
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify the altered biological pathways associated with ulcerative colitis (UC)-related colorectal carcinoma (CRC) by systematic tracking the dysregulated modules from re-weighted protein- protein interaction (PPI) networks based on the expression profiles from normal, UC and various stages of CRC. METHODS: We firstly recruited the UC- and CRC-related microarray data from ArrayExpress database, and obtained 8 expression profiles which contained 5 conditions (normal, UC, early stage CRC, stage II CRC and stage III CRC)...
March 2016: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27246042/aom-dss-model-of-colitis-associated-cancer
#20
Bobak Parang, Caitlyn W Barrett, Christopher S Williams
Our understanding of colitis-associated carcinoma (CAC) has benefited substantially from mouse models that faithfully recapitulate human CAC. Chemical models, in particular, have enabled fast and efficient analysis of genetic and environmental modulators of CAC without the added requirement of time-intensive genetic crossings. Here we describe the Azoxymethane (AOM)/Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) mouse model of inflammatory colorectal cancer.
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
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