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Heart physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735097/protecting-the-heart-through-mk2-modulation-toward-a-role-in-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-and-lipid-metabolism
#1
REVIEW
Matthieu Ruiz, Lise Coderre, Bruce Gordon Allen, Christine Des Rosiers
Various signaling pathways have been identified in the heart as important players during development, physiological adaptation or pathological processes. This includes the MAPK families, particularly p38MAPK, which is involved in several key cellular processes, including differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation, metabolism and survival. Disrupted p38MAPK signaling has been associated with several diseases, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD) as well as diabetes and its related complications...
July 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734877/enzymatic-and-free-radical-formation-of-cis-and-trans-epoxyeicosatrienoic-acids-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#2
Theresa Aliwarga, Brianne S Raccor, Rozenn N Lemaitre, Nona Sotoodehnia, Sina A Gharib, Libin Xu, Rheem A Totah
Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) oxidation that have important cardioprotective and signaling properties. AA is an ω -6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) that is prone to autoxidation. Although hydroperoxides and isoprostanes are major autoxidation products of AA, EETs are also formed from the largely overlooked peroxyl radical addition mechanism. While autoxidation yields both cis- and trans-EETs, cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases have been shown to exclusively catalyze the formation of all regioisomer cis-EETs, on each of the double bonds...
July 19, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734448/alternative-strategy-for-biventricular-assist-device-in-an-infant-with-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#3
John C Dykes, Olaf Reinhartz, Christopher S Almond, Vamsi Yarlagadda, Jenna Murray, David N Rosenthal, Katsuhide Maeda
We report an infant with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who underwent biventricular assist device placement with two 15-mL Berlin Heart EXCOR pediatric ventricular assist devices using an alternative atrial cannulation strategy. The systemic circulation was supported by left atrium (LA) to aorta cannulation. The LA was accessed through the right atrium by extending a 6-mm EXCOR cannula with a Gore-Tex graft connected to an atrial septal defect. The pulmonary circulation was supported with cannulation of the right atrium to pulmonary artery...
August 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733923/cardiovascular-mechanics-in-the-early-stages-of-pulmonary-hypertension-a-computational-study
#4
Sebastián Acosta, Charles Puelz, Béatrice Rivière, Daniel J Penny, Ken M Brady, Craig G Rusin
We formulate and study a new mathematical model of pulmonary hypertension. Based on principles of fluid and elastic dynamics, we introduce a model that quantifies the stiffening of pulmonary vasculature (arteries and arterioles) to reproduce the hemodynamics of the pulmonary system, including physiologically consistent dependence between compliance and resistance. This pulmonary model is embedded in a closed-loop network of the major vessels in the body, approximated as one-dimensional elastic tubes, and zero-dimensional models for the heart and other organs...
July 21, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733849/novel-pacing-strategies-for-heart-failure-management
#5
REVIEW
Jordan S Leyton-Mange, Theofanie Mela
Cardiac resynchronization therapy has emerged as the gold standard for heart failure patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and electrical dyssynchrony from an intrinsic intraventricular conduction delay or right ventricular pacing. However, the limits imposed by the coronary sinus venous anatomy restrict the applicability of the technology for many potential recipients. Furthermore, conventional resynchronization, by virtue of utilizing a single site of epicardial origin for left ventricular activation, is non-physiological...
August 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732265/chronic-work-stress-and-decreased-vagal-tone-impairs-decision-making-and-reaction-time-in-jockeys
#6
Kathleen Landolt, Paul Maruff, Ben Horan, Michael Kingsley, Glynda Kinsella, Paul D O'Halloran, Matthew W Hale, Bradley J Wright
The inverse relationship between acute stress and decision-making is well documented, but few studies have investigated the impact of chronic stress. Jockeys work exhaustive schedules and have extremely dangerous occupations, with safe performance requiring quick reaction time and accurate decision-making. We used the effort reward imbalance (ERI) occupational stress model to assess the relationship of work stress with indices of stress physiology and decision-making and reaction time. Jockeys (N=32) completed computerised cognitive tasks (Cogstate) on two occasions; September and November (naturally occurring lower and higher stress periods), either side of an acute stress test...
July 14, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731978/differences-in-spatiotemporal-parameters-between-trained-runners-and-untrained-participants
#7
Josué Gómez-Molina, Ana Ogueta-Alday, Christopher Stickley, Jesús Cámara, Jon Cabrejas-Ugartondo, Juan García-López
Gómez-Molina, J, Ogueta-Alday, A, Stickley, C, Tobalina, JC, Cabrejas-Ugartondo, J, and García-López, J. Differences in spatiotemporal parameters between trained runners and untrained participants. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2169-2175, 2017-The aim of this study was to compare the spatiotemporal parameters of trained runners and untrained participants with the same foot strike pattern (rearfoot) during running at controlled speeds. Twenty-one participants were classified in 2 groups according to their training experience: Trained (n = 10, amateur runners with long distance training experience) and Untrained (n = 11, healthy untrained participants)...
August 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730832/liraglutide-preserves-intracellular-calcium-handling-in-isolated-murine-myocytes-exposed-to-oxidative-stress
#8
S Palee, S C Chattipakorn, N Chattipakorn
In ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injured hearts, severe oxidative stress occurs and is associated with intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) overload. Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogues have been shown to exert cardioprotection in I/R heart. However, there is little information regarding the effects of GLP-1 analogue on the intracellular Ca(2+) regulation in the presence of oxidative stress. Therefore, we investigated the effects of GLP-1 analogue, (liraglutide, 10 microM) applied before or after hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2), 50 microM) treatment on intracellular Ca(2+) regulation in isolated cardiomyocytes...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730459/fetal-programming-as-a-predictor-of-adult-health-or-disease-the-need-to-reevaluate-fetal-heart-function
#9
REVIEW
Joana O Miranda, Carla Ramalho, Tiago Henriques-Coelho, José Carlos Areias
Epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggests that adverse stimuli during critical periods in utero permanently alters organ structure and function and may have persistent consequences for the long-term health of the offspring. Fetal hypoxia, maternal malnutrition, or ventricular overloading are among the major adverse conditions that can compromise cardiovascular development in early life. With the heart as a central organ in fetal adaptive mechanisms, a deeper understanding of the fetal cardiovascular physiology and of the echocardiographic tools to assess both normal and stressed pregnancies would give precious information on fetal well-being and hopefully may help in early identification of special risk groups for cardiovascular diseases later in life...
July 20, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729944/the-impact-of-multiple-sclerosis-onset-symptom-on-cardiac-repolarization
#10
Alma Mikkola, Aku Ojanen, Juha E K Hartikainen, Anne M Remes, Sakari Simula
INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis is associated with prolonged cardiac repolarization but the underlying physiology has remained unknown. In this study, we compared cardiac repolarization during the relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) disease course in patients with motor and sensory onset symptom. METHODS: Twenty-five RRMS patients with motor and 33 RRMS patients with sensory onset symptom having 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) recorded at the time of the first demyelinating event (ECG1) as well as at the later disease course (ECG2) were identified from the patient records...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728933/predictors-of-mortality-in-pulmonary-sarcoidosis
#11
Gamze Kirkil, Elyse E Lower, Robert P Baughman
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prognostic strength of factors in predicting respiratory death in a large cohort of sarcoidosis patients with at least eight years' follow-up. METHODS: We collected age, sex, self-declared race, time of death, spirometry, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, chest x-ray stage, extent of fibrosis on high resolution computer tomography (HRCT), and presence of pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension (PH). The gender, age, physiology (GAP) index and Walsh's criteria for high versus low risk were calculated...
July 17, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728823/piezo1-channels-in-vascular-development-and-the-sensing-of-shear-stress
#12
A J Hyman, S Tumova, D J Beech
A critical point in mammalian development occurs before mid-embryogenesis when the heart starts to beat, pushing blood into the nascent endothelial lattice. This pushing force is a signal, detected by endothelial cells as a frictional force (shear stress) to trigger cellular changes that underlie the essential processes of vascular remodeling and expansion required for embryonic growth. The processes are complex and multifactorial and Piezo1 became a recognized player only 2years ago, 4years after Piezo1's initial discovery as a functional membrane protein...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727673/exercise-training-improves-ventilatory-efficiency-in-patients-with-a-small-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-a-randomized-controlled-study
#13
Ricardo M Lima, Baruch Vainshelboim, Rucha Ganatra, Ronald Dalman, Khin Chan, Jonathan Myers
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of exercise training on ventilatory efficiency and physiological responses to submaximal exercise in subjects with small abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). METHODS: Sixty-five male patients (72.3 ± 7.0 years) were randomized to exercise training (n = 33) or usual care group (n = 32). Exercise subjects participated in a training groups for 3 mo. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed before and after the study period and peak VO2, the ventilatory threshold (VT), the oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), and the VE2/VCO2 slope were identified...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727492/chronic-psychological-stress-seems-associated-with-elements-of-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-patients-with-ischaemic-heart-disease
#14
Natasha Bergmann, Søren Ballegaard, Jesper Krogh, Per Bech, Åke Hjalmarson, Finn Gyntelberg, Jens Faber
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Chronic psychological stress, the metabolic syndrome (MS) and ischaemic heart disease (IHD) seem closely connected. In this study, we evaluate the association between chronic stress and elements of MS in patients with stable IHD. DESIGN: Cross-sectional cohort study. METHODS: Three hundred and fifty patients with stable IHD were included. Chronic stress was evaluated by the two questionnaires, Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and the psychological wellbeing index WHO-5, as well as by Pressure Pain Sensitivity (PPS), a physiological measure of hyperalgesia at the sternum known to be associated to elements of the chronic stress syndrome...
July 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727480/pilot-study-of-propranolol-premedication-to-reduce-fdg-uptake-in-brown-adipose-tissue-on-pet-scans-of-adolescent-and-young-adult-oncology-patients
#15
Anil George, Partha Sinha, Gary Conrad, Aum A Memon, Emily V Dressler, Lars M Wagner
OBJECTIVE: Physiologic uptake of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in brown adipose tissue (adipose tissue) of cancer patients may confound interpretation of positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Uptake in adipose tissue occurs in up to half of pediatric oncology patients undergoing PET scans, and is especially common in adolescents. adipose tissue is innervated by the sympathetic nervous system, and beta blockers such as propranolol have shown efficacy in reducing adipose tissue uptake on PET scans done in older adult oncology patients...
July 20, 2017: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727025/effect-of-handling-intensity-at-the-time-of-transport-for-slaughter-on-physiological-response-and-carcass-characteristics-in-beef-cattle-fed-ractopamine-hydrochloride
#16
J A Hagenmaier, C D Reinhardt, S J Bartle, J N Henningson, M J Ritter, M S Calvo-Lorenzo, G J Vogel, C A Guthrie, M G Siemens, D U Thomson
The effects of handling intensity on the physiological response and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle fed ractopamine hydrochloride were evaluated at the time of transport to slaughter. Eighty steers (BW = 668 ± 36 kg) representing 10 lots of similar breed, frame size, and degree of finish were blocked by lot, stratified by weight, and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 handling intensities (HI) over a 1,600 m dirt alley course: 1) low-stress handling (LSH) or 2) high-stress handling (HSH). For the LSH treatment, 4 penmates were kept at a walk with the use of a lead rider...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726511/how-do-probiotics-and-prebiotics-function-at-distant-sites
#17
G Reid, T Abrahamsson, M Bailey, L B Bindels, R Bubnov, K Ganguli, C Martoni, C O'Neill, H M Savignac, C Stanton, N Ship, M Surette, K Tuohy, S van Hemert
The realisation that microbes regarded as beneficial to the host can impart effects at sites distant from their habitat, has raised many possibilities for treatment of diseases. The objective of a workshop hosted in Turku, Finland, by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics, was to assess the evidence for these effects and the extent to which early life microbiome programming influences how the gut microbiota communicates with distant sites. In addition, we examined how probiotics and prebiotics might affect the skin, airways, heart, brain and metabolism...
July 20, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726495/use-of-adeno-associated-virus-vector-for-cardiac-gene-delivery-in-large-animal-surgical-models-of-heart-failure
#18
Michael G Katz, Anthony S Fargnoli, Thomas Weber, Roger Hajjar, Charles Bridges
The advancement of gene-therapy-based approaches to treat heart disease represents a need for clinically-relevant animal models with characteristics equivalent to human pathologies. Rodent models of cardiac disease do not precisely reproduce heart failure phenotype and molecular defects. This has motivated researchers to use large animals whose heart size and physiological processes more similar and comparable to those of humans. Today, adeno-associated viruses (AAV)-based vectors are undoubtedly among the most promising DNA delivery vehicles...
July 20, 2017: Human Gene Therapy. Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725553/behavioral-physiological-and-morphological-correlates-of-parasite-intensity-in-the-wild-cururu-toad-rhinella-icterica
#19
Eduardo Hermógenes Moretti, Braz Titon, Carla Bonetti Madelaire, Raquel de Arruda, Tatiana Alvarez, Fernando Ribeiro Gomes
Large numbers of parasites are found in various organs of anuran amphibians, with parasite intensities thought to modulate the host's Darwinian fitness traits. Interaction between the anuran hosts and their multiple parasites should modulate the host's phenotypic characteristic, such as those associated with high energetic demand (such as calling effort and locomotor performance), energy balance (standard metabolic rate), and morphological plasticity (as indicated by organ masses). The present study investigated the impact of parasite intensities on the behavioral, physiological, and morphological traits of wild adult male Rhinella icterica (Anura: Bufonidae)...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725206/physiological-signal-analysis-for-evaluating-flow-during-playing-of-computer-games-of-varying-difficulty
#20
Yu Tian, Yulong Bian, Piguo Han, Peng Wang, Fengqiang Gao, Yingmin Chen
Flow is the experience of effortless attention, reduced self-consciousness, and a deep sense of control that typically occurs during the optimal performance of challenging tasks. On the basis of the person-artifact-task model, we selected computer games (tasks) with varying levels of difficulty (difficult, medium, and easy) and shyness (personality) as flow precursors to study the physiological activity of users in a flow state. Cardiac and respiratory activity and mean changes in skin conductance (SC) were measured continuously while the participants (n = 40) played the games...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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