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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687902/impact-of-metabolic-diseases-on-cerebral-circulation-structural-and-functional-consequences
#1
Maha Coucha, Mohammed Abdelsaid, Rebecca Ward, Yasir Abdul, Adviye Ergul
Metabolic diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes have profound effects on cerebral circulation. These diseases not only affect the architecture of cerebral blood arteries causing adverse remodeling, pathological neovascularization, and vasoregression but also alter the physiology of blood vessels resulting in compromised myogenic reactivity, neurovascular uncoupling, and endothelial dysfunction. Coupled with the disruption of blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity, changes in blood flow and microbleeds into the brain rapidly occur...
March 25, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684516/reconsideration-of-neurogenic-pulmonary-oedema-as-a-source-of-metastatic-cerebral-abscess-following-subarachnoid-hemorrhages-a-preliminary-study
#2
Ahmet Gökyar, Mehmet D Aydın, Sevilay Özmen, Elif Demirci, Abdullah H Marangoz, Enis Kuruoğlu, Cengiz Çokluk
BACKGROUND: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may be a cause of neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE). It is well known that lymphatic fluid draining by thoracic duct to lungs consists of many dangerous metabolites, degraded tissue particles and microbiological pathogens. However, there is no enough study which investigates if NPE cause septicemia or not. In this study, we retrospectively examined our experimental materials whether there is a meaningful relationship between the NPE and cerebral abscess formation...
April 20, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676798/afferent-neural-feedback-overrides-the-modulating-effects-of-arousal-hypercapnia-and-hypoxemia-on-neonatal-cardio-respiratory-control
#3
Kathleen J Lumb, Jennifer M Schneider, Thowfique Ibrahim, Anita Rigaux, Shabih U Hasan
KEY POINTS: Evidence at whole animal, organ-system, and cellular and molecular levels suggests that afferent volume feedback is critical for establishment of adequate ventilation at birth. Due to the irreversible nature of vagal ablation studies to date, it was difficult to quantify the roles of afferent volume input, arousal and changes in blood gas tensions on neonatal respiratory control. During reversible perineural vagal block, profound apneas, and hypoxemia and hypercarbia were observed necessitating termination of perineural blockade...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676699/everted-suturing-of-the-inferior-vena-cava-is-addressed-in-the-abdominal-mouse-heart-transplant-model
#4
Hui Ren, Jiabin Zhang, Hongbo Wang, Shaotang Zhou
OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to investigate the techniques of vessel suturing in the abdominal mouse cardiac transplant model and animal outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our mouse group included 92 female inbred mice, in which 46 abdominal mouse heart transplants were performed. During transplant, the openings for the aorta and the inferior vena cava were not parallel. With everted anastomosis, the ascending aortae and the pulmonary arteries of donors were connected to the abdominal aortae and interior vena cavae of recipients, respectively, with 11-0 Prolene suture...
April 20, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676644/air-pollution-exposure-with-fine-dust-responses-in-the-pulmonary-vasculature-and-the-right-heart
#5
Nedim Durmus, Gabriele Grunig
Detrimental effects of air pollution with fine dust (particulate matter ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter, or PM2.5 ) on the systemic circulation and the left heart have been studied intensely during the past decade. In comparison, knowledge regarding the effects of exposure to air pollution with PM2.5 on the pulmonary vasculature and the right heart lags far behind. A report on severe lung disease and right heart failure in coal miners was published nearly 170 years ago. However, today, we still do not have a clear picture of how the effect of air pollution on the pulmonary circulation or the right heart should be viewed from a clinical, mechanistic biological, therapeutic, or economic angle...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675417/developing-a-reliable-mouse-model-for-cancer-therapy-induced-cardiovascular-toxicity-in-cancer-patients-and-survivors
#6
Kyung Ae Ko, Yin Wang, Sivareddy Kotla, Yuka Fujii, Hang Thi Vu, Bhanu P Venkatesulu, Tamlyn N Thomas, Jan L Medina, Young Jin Gi, Megumi Hada, Jane Grande-Allen, Zarana S Patel, Sarah A Milgrom, Sunil Krishnan, Keigi Fujiwara, Jun-Ichi Abe
Background: The high incidence of cardiovascular events in cancer survivors has long been noted, but the mechanistic insights of cardiovascular toxicity of cancer treatments, especially for vessel diseases, remain unclear. It is well known that atherosclerotic plaque formation begins in the area exposed to disturbed blood flow, but the relationship between cancer therapy and disturbed flow in regulating plaque formation has not been well studied. Therefore, we had two goals for this study; (1) Generate an affordable, reliable, and reproducible mouse model to recapitulate the cancer therapy-induced cardiovascular events in cancer survivors, and (2) Establish a mouse model to investigate the interplay between disturbed flow and various cancer therapies in the process of atherosclerotic plaque formation...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674325/adenylate-cyclase-type-9-adcy9-inactivation-protects-from-atherosclerosis-only-in-the-absence-of-cholesteryl-ester-transfer-protein-cetp
#7
Yohann Rautureau, Vanessa Deschambault, Marie-Ève Higgins, Daniel Rivas, Mélanie Mecteau, Pascale Geoffroy, Géraldine Miquel, Kurunradeth Uy, Rocio Sanchez, Véronique Lavoie, Geneviève Brand, Audrey Nault, Pierre-Marc Williams, Maria Laura Suarez, Nolwenn Merlet, Line Lapointe, Natacha Duquette, Marc-Antoine Gillis, Samaneh Samami, Gaétan Mayer, Philippe Pouliot, Adeline Raignault, Foued Maafi, Mathieu R Brodeur, Sylvie Levesque, Marie-Claude Guertin, Marie-Pierre Dubé, Éric Thorin, David Rhainds, Éric Rhéaume, Jean-Claude Tardif
Background -Pharmacogenomic studies have shown that ADCY9 genotype determines the effects of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor dalcetrapib on cardiovascular events and atherosclerosis imaging. The underlying mechanisms responsible for the interactions between ADCY9 and CETP activity have not yet been determined. Methods - Adcy9 -inactivated ( Adcy9 Gt/Gt ) and wild-type (WT) mice, that were or not transgenic for the CETP gene (CETPtg Adcy9 Gt/Gt and CETPtg Adcy9 WT ), were submitted to an atherogenic protocol (injection of an AAV8 expressing a PCSK9 gain-of-function variant and 0...
April 19, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673584/a-30-minutes-supraceliac-aortic-clamping-in-the-rat-causes-death-due-to-an-inflammatory-response-and-pulmonary-lesions
#8
Antoine Monnot, Anaïs Dumesnil, Sylvanie Renet, Marie Laurence Roquet, Vincent Richard, Didier Plissonnier
BACKGROUND: The treatment of thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysms through an open approach has general and pulmonary consequences of multiple etiologies. Our assumption was that the supraceliac aortic clamping needed for this operation causes a systemic inflammatory response associated with a pulmonary attack. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We developed a model of 30 min supraceliac aortic clamping in Wistar rats weighing 300 g. After 90 min of reperfusion the rats were sacrificed...
April 16, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673328/effect-of-laser-doppler-flowmetry-and-occlusion-time-on-outcome-variability-and-mortality-in-rat-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-inconclusive-results
#9
Edvin Ingberg, Hua Dock, Elvar Theodorsson, Annette Theodorsson, Jakob O Ström
BACKGROUND: Stroke is among the leading causes of death and disability. Although intense research efforts have provided promising treatment options in animals, most clinical trials in humans have failed and the therapeutic options are few. Several factors have been suggested to explain this translational difficulty, particularly concerning methodology and study design. Consistent infarcts and low mortality might be desirable in some, but not all, studies. Here, we aimed to investigate whether the use of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and the occlusion time (60 vs...
April 19, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670546/-in-utero-exposure-to-maternal-diabetes-is-associated-with-early-abnormal-vascular-structure-in-offspring
#10
Abdallah Dib, Cyrielle Payen, Jennifer Bourreau, Mathilde Munier, Linda Grimaud, Ziad Fajloun, Laurent Loufrani, Daniel Henrion, Céline Fassot
Aim/hypothesis: In utero exposure to maternal diabetes increases the risk of developing hypertension and cardiovascular disorders during adulthood. We have previously shown that this is associated with changes in vascular tone in favor of a vasoconstrictor profile, which is involved in the development of hypertension. This excessive constrictor tone has also a strong impact on vascular structure. Our objective was to study the impact of in utero exposure to maternal diabetes on vascular structure and remodeling induced by chronic changes in hemodynamic parameters...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670534/divergent-mitochondrial-antioxidant-activities-and-lung-alveolar-architecture-in-the-lungs-of-rats-and-mice-at-high-altitude
#11
Alexandra Jochmans-Lemoine, Susana Revollo, Gabriella Villalpando, Ibana Valverde, Marcelino Gonzales, Sofien Laouafa, Jorge Soliz, Vincent Joseph
Compared with mice, adult rats living at 3,600 m above sea level (SL-La Paz, Bolivia) have high hematocrit, signs of pulmonary hypertension, and low lung volume with reduced alveolar surface area. This phenotype is associated with chronic mountain sickness in humans living at high altitude (HA). We tested the hypothesis that this phenotype is associated with impaired gas exchange and oxidative stress in the lungs. We used rats and mice (3 months old) living at HA (La Paz) and SL (Quebec City, Canada) to measure arterial oxygen saturation under graded levels of hypoxia (by pulse oximetry), the alveolar surface area in lung slices and the activity of pro- (NADPH and xanthine oxidases-NOX and XO) and anti- (superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase-SOD and GPx) oxidant enzymes in cytosolic and mitochondrial lung protein extracts...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669326/atorvastatin-attenuates-myocardial-hypertrophy-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats-via-the-c-ebp%C3%AE-pgc-1%C3%AE-ucp3-pathway
#12
Yintao Chen, Ye Chang, Naijin Zhang, Xiaofan Guo, Guozhe Sun, Yingxian Sun
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Many clinical and experimental studies have shown that treatment with statins could prevent myocardial hypertrophy and remodeling induced by hypertension and myocardial infarction. But the molecular mechanism was not clear. We aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of atorvastatin on hypertension-induced myocardial hypertrophy and remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with the hope of revealing other potential mechanisms or target pathways to interpret the pleiotropic effects of atorvastatin on myocardial hypertrophy...
April 13, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668855/the-negative-ultraslow-potential-electrophysiological-correlate-of-infarction-in-the-human-cortex
#13
Janos Lückl, Coline L Lemale, Vasilis Kola, Viktor Horst, Uldus Khojasteh, Ana I Oliveira-Ferreira, Sebastian Major, Maren K L Winkler, Eun-Jeung Kang, Karl Schoknecht, Peter Martus, Jed A Hartings, Johannes Woitzik, Jens P Dreier
Spreading depolarizations are characterized by abrupt, near-complete breakdown of the transmembrane ion gradients, neuronal oedema, mitochondrial depolarization, glutamate excitotoxicity and activity loss (depression). Spreading depolarization induces either transient hyperperfusion in normal tissue; or hypoperfusion (inverse coupling = spreading ischaemia) in tissue at risk for progressive injury. The concept of the spreading depolarization continuum is critical since many spreading depolarizations have intermediate characteristics, as opposed to the two extremes of spreading depolarization in either severely ischaemic or normal tissue...
April 16, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663449/mild-hypothermia-33%C3%A2-c-increases-the-inducibility-of-atrial-fibrillation-an-in-vivo-large-animal-model-study
#14
Martin Manninger, Alessio Alogna, David Zweiker, Birgit Zirngast, Stefan Reiter, Viktoria Herbst, Heinrich Maechler, Burkert M Pieske, Frank R Heinzel, Helmut Brussee, Heiner Post, Daniel Scherr
OBJECTIVE: Application of therapeutic mild hypothermia in patients after resuscitation, often accompanied by myocardial infarction, cardiogenic shock and systemic inflammation may impact on cardiac rhythm. We therefore tested susceptibility to atrial arrhythmias during hyperthermia (HT, 40.5°C), normothermia (NT, 38.0°C) and mild hypothermia (MH, 33.0°C). METHODS: Nine healthy, anesthetized closed-chest landrace pigs were instrumented with a quadripolar stimulation catheter in the high right atrium and a decapolar catheter in the coronary sinus...
April 16, 2018: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661292/etanercept-restores-vasocontractile-sensitivity-affected-by-mesenteric-ischemia-reperfusion
#15
S Erpulat Ozis, Tamila Akhayeva, Sahika Guner, Sibel S Kilicoglu, Arzu Pampal
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study is to evaluate in vivo and in vitro effects of etanercept, a soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor, on the contractile responses of superior mesenteric artery in an experimental mesenteric ischemia and reperfusion model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: After obtaining animal ethics committee approval, 24 Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to three groups. Control group (Gr C, n = 6) underwent a sham operation, whereas ischemia/reperfusion and treatment groups underwent 90 min ischemia and 24-h reperfusion (Gr I/R, n = 12; Gr I/R+E, n = 6)...
June 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659995/the-importance-of-wall-apposition-in-flow-diverters
#16
René Aquarius, Antonius de Korte, Debby Smits, Matthew Gounis, Kiek Verrijp, Léon Driessen, William Leenders, Joost de Vries
BACKGROUND: It is assumed that high pore densities in flow diverters (FDs) are beneficial for intracranial aneurysm (IA) healing. However, various animal studies are not conclusive on the issue, suggesting that other factors are in play. One important factor might be wall apposition. OBJECTIVE: To (1) determine the relationship between FD pore density and aneurysm occlusion, and (2) determine the relationship between FD wall apposition and aneurysm occlusion. METHODS: Saccular aneurysms were microsurgically created in the aorta of 36 Wistar rats...
April 4, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656362/evaluation-of-animal-models-by-comparison-with-human-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Bu-Yeo Kim, Hye-Sun Lim, Yoonju Kim, Yu Jin Kim, Imhoi Koo, Soo-Jin Jeong
Despite many efforts to alleviate the pathological conditions of Alzheimer's disease (AD), effective therapeutic drugs have not been developed, mainly because of the lack of molecular information about AD and animal models. We observed the reciprocal regulation of AD-associated genes (AD genes) and their related functions. Upregulated AD genes were positioned in central regions in the protein-protein interaction network and were involved in inflammation and DNA repair pathways. Downregulated AD genes positioned in the periphery of the network were associated with metabolic pathways...
April 14, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651581/single-15-min-protocol-yields-the-same-cryoablation-size-and-margin-as-the-conventional-10-8-10-min-protocol-results-of-kidney-and-liver-swine-experiment
#18
John D Werner, Aline C Tregnago, George J Netto, Constantine Frangakis, Christos S Georgiades
INTRODUCTION: The objective was to determine the ablation size of a single 15-min freeze and compare it with the conventional 10-min freeze-8-min thaw-10-min freeze protocol. Secondary objectives were to determine the ablation margin and to ascertain whether islands of viable tissue remain within the ablation zone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five adult swine under general anesthesia were used. After surgical abdominal exposure, two ablations were performed in liver and two in kidney...
April 12, 2018: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649316/effect-of-one-lung-ventilation-on-end-tidal-carbon-dioxide-during-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-in-a-pig-model-of-cardiac-arrest
#19
Dong Hyun Ryu, Yong Hun Jung, Kyung Woon Jeung, Byung Kook Lee, Young Won Jeong, Jong Geun Yun, Dong Hun Lee, Sung Min Lee, Tag Heo, Yong Il Min
Unrecognized endobronchial intubation frequently occurs after emergency intubation. However, no study has evaluated the effect of one-lung ventilation on end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We compared the hemodynamic parameters, blood gases, and ETCO2 during one-lung ventilation with those during conventional two-lung ventilation in a pig model of CPR, to determine the effect of the former on ETCO2. A randomized crossover study was conducted in 12 pigs intubated with double-lumen endobronchial tube to achieve lung separation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644315/limb-salvage-and-reconstruction-following-a-zebra-attack
#20
Jacob T Carlson, James C Yuen, Matthew R Smeds
Animal bites are fairly rare events but can cause devastating traumatic injuries to the victim. In addition to the soft tissue, vascular, and orthopedic trauma inflicted by these occurrences, bite injuries also have the potential to introduce an inoculum of microbes, which may progress to an infection if not treated properly and expeditiously. We present the case of a healthy male who sustained multiple bite wounds from a domestic zebra to his left upper extremity. This attack caused severe damage, including devascularization of the arm at the brachial artery, disruption of the distal biceps and brachialis, stripping of the forearm nerves, and shearing of the overlying soft tissue...
June 2017: Trauma Case Reports
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