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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725029/prominent-differences-in-left-ventricular-performance-and-myocardial-properties-between-right-ventricular-and-left-ventricular-based-pacing-modes-in-rats
#1
Wesam Mulla, Sharon Etzion, Sigal Elyagon, Roni Gillis, Michael Murninkas, Yuval Konstantino, Ingra Mannhardt, Thomas Eschenhagen, Noah Liel-Cohen, Yoram Etzion
Biventricular pacing is an important modality to improve left ventricular (LV) synchronization and long-term function. However, the biological effects of this treatment are far from being elucidated and existing animal models are limited and demanding. Recently, we introduced an implanted device for double-site epicardial pacing in rats and echocardiographically demonstrated favorable effects of LV and biventricular (LV-based) pacing modes typically observed in humans. Here, this new animal model was further characterized...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723882/altered-carnitine-homeostasis-in-children-with-increased-pulmonary-blood-flow-due-to-ventricular-septal-defects
#2
Stephen M Black, Aida Field-Ridley, Shruti Sharma, Sanjiv Kumar, Roberta L Keller, Rebecca Kameny, Emin Maltepe, Sanjeev A Datar, Jeffrey R Fineman
OBJECTIVES: Congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary blood flow results in progressive pulmonary vascular endothelial dysfunction and associated increased perioperative morbidity. Using our ovine model of congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary blood flow, we have previously demonstrated progressive endothelial dysfunction associated with disruption in carnitine homeostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction, decreased nitric oxide signaling, and enhanced reactive oxygen species generation...
July 18, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721054/neuroprotective-effects-of-curdione-against-focal-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#3
Xing-Jie Li, Li Liang, Hong-Xia Shi, Xiao-Ping Sun, Jing Wang, Lian-Sheng Zhang
BACKGROUND: Curdione is one of the most highly concentrated component of the active constituents in E-zhu, which has been reported to possess a variety of activities. However, the pharmacologic neuroprotective activity of curdione has not been evaluated. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of curdione on focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion-induced injury in rats and further exploring the underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery for 2 h, followed by reperfusion stage...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720883/chronic-high-sodium-diet-intake-after-weaning-lead-to-neurogenic-hypertension-in-adult-wistar-rats
#4
Paula Magalhães Gomes, Renato Willian Martins Sá, Giovana Lopes Aguiar, Milede Hanner Saraiva Paes, Andréia Carvalho Alzamora, Wanderson Geraldo Lima, Lisandra Brandino de Oliveira, Sean David Stocker, Vagner Roberto Antunes, Leonardo M Cardoso
In this study, we investigated some mechanisms involved in sodium-dependent hypertension of rats exposed to chronic salt (NaCl) intake from weaning until adult age. Weaned male Wistar rats were placed under high (0.90% w/w, HS) or regular (0.27% w/w, Cont) sodium diets for 12 weeks. Water consumption, urine output and sodium excretion were higher in HS rats compared to control. Blood pressure (BP) was directly measured by the arterial catheter and found 13.8% higher in HS vs Cont rats. Ganglionic blockade with hexamethonium caused greater fall in the BP of HS rats (33%), and central antagonism of AT1 receptors (losartan) microinjected into the lateral ventricle reduced BP level of HS, but not of Cont group...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718055/early-anti-inflammatory-and-pro-angiogenic-myocardial-effects-of-intravenous-serelaxin-infusion-for-72%C3%A2-h-in-an-experimental-rat-model-of-acute-myocardial-infarction
#5
Jesus Sanchez-Mas, Antonio Lax, Mari C Asensio-Lopez, Miriam Lencina, Maria J Fernandez-Del Palacio, Angela Soriano-Filiu, Rudolf A de Boer, Domingo A Pascual-Figal
Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. At the time of AMI, a subcutaneous mini-osmotic pump was implanted and animals were randomized into three groups, according to the intravenous therapy received during the first 72 h: placebo-treated (saline), serelaxin10-treated (SRLX10 = 10 μg/kg/day), or serelaxin30-treated (SRLX30 = 30 μg/kg/day). Treatment with SRLX30 reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as the infiltration of macrophages, and increased the expression of pro-angiogenic markers and vessel density in the infarcted myocardium after 7 days...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718030/precision-stroke-animal-models-the-permanent-mcao-model-should-be-the-primary-model-not-transient-mcao
#6
Devin W McBride, John H Zhang
An argument for preclinical stroke research to make more use of the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model, rather than transient MCAO, is presented. Despite STAIR recommending permanent MCAO as the primary model, preclinical stroke research has not been listened. In 2012, Hossmann reported that 64% of the treatment studies for MCAO used prompt transient MCAO models and only 36% of the studies used permanent MCAO or gradual transient MCAO (i.e., embolic stroke model). Then, in 2014 and 2015, 88% of published basic science studies on large vessel occlusion used the transient MCAO model...
July 17, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717006/extrinsic-sialylation-is-dynamically-regulated-by-systemic-triggers-in-vivo
#7
Charles T Manhardt, Patrick R Punch, Christopher W L Dougher, Joseph T Y Lau
Recent reports documented that extracellular sialyltransferases can remodel both cell surface and secreted glycans by a process other than the canonical cell-autonomous glycosylation that occurs within the intracellular secretory apparatus. Despite association of the abundance of these extracellular sialyltransferases, particularly ST6Gal-1, with disease states such as cancer and a variety of inflammatory conditions, the prevalence of this extrinsic glycosylation pathway in vivo remains unknown. Here we observed no significant extrinsic sialylation in resting mice, suggesting that extrinsic sialylation is not a constitutive process...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715643/new-insights-into-the-non-hemostatic-role-of-von-willebrand-factor-in-endothelial-protection
#8
Silvia Agostini, Vincenzo Lionetti
During exposure to ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) insult, angiotensin II (AngII)-induced endothelin-1 (ET-1) upregulation in endothelial cells progressively impairs nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability while increasing levels of superoxide anion (O2-) and leading to the onset of endothelial dysfunction. Moreover, the overexpression of ET-1 increases the endothelial and circulating levels of von Willebrand Factor (vWF), a glycoprotein with a crucial role in arterial thrombus formation. Nowadays, the non-hemostatic role of endothelial vWF is emerging; although we not yet know if its increased expression is cause or consequence of endothelial dysfunction...
July 17, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710042/new-evidence-for-a-causal-central-mechanism-of-hyperglicemia-in-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-secondary-to-ischemic-degenerative-disruption-of-circuitry-among-insular-cortex-nodose-ganglion-and-pancreas-experimental-study
#9
Mehmet Dumlu Aydın, Ayhan Kanat, Nazan Aydın, Abdulmecit Kantarci, Muhammet Ali Ayvaz, Halil Rakici, Coskun Yolas, Umit Kepoglu, Elif Demirci
INTRODUCTION: Although hyperglycemia is serious complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage, its pathophysiologic mechanism based on neural circuitry has not been known. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twent-Five rabbits were used in this study. They divided into four groups. 5 were control group. The SHAM and study group received 1cc saline and 1cc autologous arterial blood into the sylvian cisterna, respectivelly. Blood glucose values (BGV) of all animals were recorded three times in a week...
July 11, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709156/gastrointestinal-impedance-spectroscopy-to-detect-hypoperfusion-during-hemorrhage
#10
Andreas Bloch, Andreas Kohler, Horst Posthaus, David Berger, Laura Santos, Stephan Jakob, Jukka Takala, Matthias Haenggi
BACKGROUND: Changes in tissue impedance (Ω) have been proposed as early signs of impaired tissue perfusion. We hypothesized that hemorrhage may induce early changes in alimentary tract tissue impedance and that these can be detected by impedance spectroscopy. We evaluated impedance spectroscopy in an acute hemorrhage model in pigs. METHODS: Twenty anesthetized pigs were randomized to stepwise hemorrhage to mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) targets of 60 mm Hg, 50 mm Hg, 45 mm Hg, and 40 mm Hg, followed by retransfusion in two steps, or control (n = 10 each)...
August 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708664/esmolol-administration-to-control-tachycardia-in-an-ovine-model-of-peritonitis
#11
Koji Hosokawa, Fuhong Su, Fabio Silvio Taccone, Emiel Hendrik Post, Adriano José Pereira, Antoine Herpain, Jacques Creteur, Jean-Louis Vincent
BACKGROUND: Excessive adrenergic signaling may be harmful in sepsis. Using β-blockers to reduce sympathetic overactivity may modulate sepsis-induced cardiovascular, metabolic, immunologic, and coagulation alterations. Using a randomized ovine fecal peritonitis model, we investigated whether administration of a short-acting β-blocker, esmolol, could control tachycardia without deleterious effects on hemodynamics, renal perfusion, cerebral perfusion, cerebral metabolism, or outcome. METHODS: After induction of fecal peritonitis, 14 anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, and hemodynamically monitored adult female sheep were randomly assigned to receive a continuous intravenous infusion of esmolol to control heart rate between 80 and 100 bpm (n = 7) or a saline infusion (control group, n = 7)...
July 13, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706454/participation-of-cox-1-and-cox-2-in-the-contractile-effect-of-phenylephrine-in-prepubescent-and-old-rats
#12
Gustavo Guevara-Balcazar, Israel Ramirez-Sanchez, Elvia Mera-Jimenez, Ivan Rubio-Gayosso, Maria Eugenia Aguilar-Najera, Maria C Castillo-Hernandez
Vascular reactivity can be influenced by the vascular region, animal age, and pathologies present. Prostaglandins (produced by COX-1 and COX-2) play an important role in the contractile response to phenylephrine in the abdominal aorta of young rats. Although these COXs are found in many tissues, their distribution and role in vascular reactivity are not clear. At a vascular level, they take part in the homeostasis functions involved in many physiological and pathologic processes (e.g., arterial pressure and inflammatory processes)...
July 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704614/carbon-dioxide-water-bath-treatment-augments-peripheral-blood-flow-through-the-development-of-angiogenesis
#13
Yan-Jun Xu, Vijayan Elimban, Naranjan S Dhalla
In this study, we investigated the effects of CO2 water-bath therapy on blood flow and angiogenesis in the ischemic hind limb as well as some plasma angiogenic factors in peripheral ischemic model. The hind limb ischemia was induced by occluding the femoral artery for 2 weeks in rats and treated with or without CO2 water-bath therapy at 37°C for 4 weeks (20 min treatment everyday for 5 days per week). The peak blood flow as well as minimal and mean blood flow in the ischemic skeletal muscle were markedly increased by the CO2 water-bath therapy...
July 13, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701578/circular-rna-expression-profiles-alter-significantly-in-mouse-brain-after-transient-focal-ischemia
#14
Suresh L Mehta, Gopal Pandi, Raghu Vemuganti
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel class of noncoding RNAs formed from many protein-coding genes by backsplicing. Although their physiological functions are not yet completely defined, they are thought to control transcription, translation, and microRNA levels. We investigated whether stroke changes the circRNAs expression profile in the mouse brain. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, and circRNA expression profile was evaluated in the penumbral cortex at 6, 12, and 24 hours of reperfusion using circRNA microarrays and real-time PCR...
July 12, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699682/2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-promotes-endothelial-cell-apoptosis-through-activation-of-ep3-p38mapk-bcl-2-pathway
#15
Yu Yu, Qian Liu, Shumin Guo, Qianqian Zhang, Juan Tang, Guizhu Liu, Deping Kong, Juanjuan Li, Shuai Yan, Ruiguo Wang, Peilong Wang, Xiaoou Su, Ying Yu
Endothelial injury or dysfunction is an early event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Epidemiological and animal studies have shown that 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure increases morbidity and mortality from chronic cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. However, whether or how TCDD exposure causes endothelial injury or dysfunction remains largely unknown. Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to different doses of TCDD, and cell apoptosis was examined...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695302/argatroban-attenuates-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-in-rats-by-reducing-fibrosis-inflammation-apoptosis-and-protease-activated-receptor-expression
#16
Yogesh Bulani, Shyam Sunder Sharma
PURPOSE: Chronic diabetes is associated with cardiovascular dysfunctions. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is one of the serious cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes. Despite significant efforts in understanding the pathophysiology of DCM, management of DCM is not adequate due to its complex pathophysiology. Recently, involvement of protease-activated receptors (PARs) has been postulated in cardiovascular diseases. These receptors are activated by thrombin, trypsin, or other serine proteases...
July 10, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689680/is-low-iodine-a-risk-factor-for-cardiovascular-disease-in-americans-without-thyroid-dysfunction-findings-from-nhanes
#17
H V Tran, N A Erskine, C I Kiefe, B A Barton, K L Lapane, V T H Do, R J Goldberg
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Low body iodine levels are associated with cardiovascular disease, in part through alterations in thyroid function. While this association suggested from animal studies, it lacks supportive evidence in humans. This study examined the association between urine iodine levels and presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke in adults without thyroid dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS: This cross-sectional study included 2440 adults (representing a weighted n = 91,713,183) aged ≥40 years without thyroid dysfunction in the nationally-representative 2007-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey...
June 15, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684629/genetic-deletion-of-nadph-oxidase-1-rescues-microvascular-function-in-mice-with-metabolic-disease
#18
Jennifer A Thompson, Sebastian Larion, James D Mintz, Eric J Belin de Chantemele, David J Fulton, David W Stepp
Rationale: Early vascular changes in metabolic disease that precipitate the development of cardiovascular complications are largely driven by reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, yet the extent to which excess ROS derive from specific Nox isoforms remains ill-defined. Objective: Identify the role of Nox1 in the development of microvascular dysfunction in metabolic disease. Methods and Results: Four genotypes were generated by breeding Nox1 knock-out (KO) mice with db/db mice: lean (HdbWnox1); lean Nox1 KO (HdbKnox1); obese (KdbWnox1); obese KK (KdbKnox1)...
July 6, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680568/combined-oral-administration-of-l-arginine-and-tetrahydrobiopterin-in-a-rat-model-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#19
C Schreiber, M S Eilenberg, A Panzenboeck, M P Winter, H Bergmeister, R Herzog, J Mascherbauer, I M Lang, D Bonderman
Alterations in the nitric oxide (NO) pathway play a major role in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). L-arginine (LA) and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) are main substrates in the production of NO, which mediates pulmonary vasodilation. Administration of either LA or BH4 decrease pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). A combined administration of both may have synergistic effects in the therapy of PAH. In a telemetrically monitored model of unilateral pneumonectomy and monocrotaline-induced PAH, male Sprague-Dawley rats received either LA (300 mg/kg; n = 15), BH4 (20 mg/kg; n = 15), the combination of LA and BH4 (300 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg; n = 15), or vehicle (control group; n = 10) from day 28 after monocrotaline induction...
March 2017: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678928/the-diterpene-sclareol-vascular-effect-in-normotensive-and-hypertensive-rats
#20
Debora Ribeiro Campos, Andrea Carla Celotto, Agnes Afrodite S Albuquerque, Luciana Garros Ferreira, Ariadne Santana E Neves Monteiro, Eduardo Barbosa Coelho, Paulo Roberto Barbosa Evora
Background: The diterpene Sclareol has antimicrobial action, cytotoxic and cytostatic effects and anti-tumor activities. However, researches on the cardiovascular system are scarce. Objective: This study was designed to investigate the mechanisms involved in the Sclareol cardiovascular effect in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Methods: The arterial hypertension was promoted using 2-kidneys 1-clip model in rats. The effect of sclareol on blood pressure was performed by using three dose (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg)...
June 29, 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
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