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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917290/hypoxic-pulmonary-vasoconstriction-in-isolated-mouse-pulmonary-arterial-vessels
#1
Ievgen Strielkov, Nicole Catherine Krause, Natasha Sommer, Ralph Theo Schermuly, Hossein Ardeschir Ghofrani, Friedrich Grimminger, Thomas Gudermann, Alexander Dietrich, Norbert Weissmann
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction has never been characterized in isolated mouse pulmonary arteries of different generations in detail. What is the main finding and its importance? We found that only small intrapulmonary arteries (80 - 200 μm in diameter) exhibit hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. The observed response was sustained, significantly potentiated by depolarization-induced preconstriction, and not dependent on endothelium and TRPC6 channels...
June 19, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912902/enhancement-of-bradykinin-induced-relaxation-by-focal-brain-ischemia-in-the-rat-middle-cerebral-artery-receptor-expression-upregulation-and-activation-of-multiple-pathways
#2
Youhai Li, Natalia Lapina, Nina Weinzierl, Lothar Schilling
Focal brain ischemia markedly affects cerebrovascular reactivity. So far, these changes have mainly been related to alterations in the level of smooth muscle cell function while alterations of the endothelial lining have not yet been studied in detail. We have, therefore, investigated the effects of ischemia/reperfusion injury on bradykinin (BK)-induced relaxation since BK is an important mediator of tissue inflammation and affects vascular function in an endothelium-dependent manner. Focal brain ischemia was induced in rats by endovascular filament occlusion (2h) of the middle cerebral artery (MCA)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906223/new-mouse-model-of-pulmonary-hypertension-induced-by-respiratory-syncytial-virus-bronchiolitis
#3
Dai Kimura, Jordy Saravia, Sridhar Jaligama, Isabella McNamara, Luan D Vu, Ryan D Sullivan, Salvatore Mancarella, Dahui You, Stephania A Cormier
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) has been observed in up to 75% of infants with moderate to severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in infants with congenital heart disease. The purpose of this study was to establish a mouse model of PH secondary to RSV bronchiolitis that mimics the disease etiology as it occurs in infants. Neonatal mice were infected with RSV at 5 days of age, and then re-infected 4 weeks later. Serum free medium was administered to age-matched mice as control...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904091/naloxone-attenuates-ischemic-brain-injury-in-rats-through-suppressing-the-nik-ikk%C3%AE-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-neuronal-apoptotic-pathways
#4
Xuan Wang, Zu-Jun Sun, Jun-Lu Wu, Wen-Qiang Quan, Wei-Dong Xiao, Helen Chew, Cui-Min Jiang, Dong Li
Although naloxone has been documented to exert neuroprotection in animal model of cerebral ischemia, the mechanism is not well understood. In this present study we investigated whether naloxone affected the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in ischemic brain injury of rats. SD rats were subjected to a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion surgery, and received naloxone (0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg, i.v.) immediately after ischemia. Neurological deficits were evaluated 24 h after ischemia using the McGraw Stroke Index, and then the rats were killed, and the brains were collected for further analyses...
June 14, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903893/living-without-a-pulse-the-vascular-implications-of-continuous-flow-left-ventricular-assist-devices
#5
Suneet N Purohit, William K Cornwell, Jay D Pal, JoAnn Lindenfeld, Amrut V Ambardekar
Pulsatility seems to have a teleological role because evolutionary hierarchy favors higher ordered animals with more complex, multichamber circulatory systems that generate higher pulse pressure compared with lower ordered animals. Yet despite years of such natural selection, the modern generation of continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs) that have been increasingly used for the last decade have created a unique physiology characterized by a nonpulsatile, nonlaminar blood flow profile with the absence of the usual large elastic artery Windkessel effect during diastole...
June 2018: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900768/hyperkalemia-in-two-jaguars-panthera-onca-anesthetized-with-dexmedetomidine-ketamine-and-isoflurane
#6
Marta Romano, Jordyn M Boesch, Santiago Peralta, Christine Parker, George Kollias
  Two jaguars were anesthetized with dexmedetomidine, ketamine, and isoflurane. Arterial blood samples analyzed shortly after darting revealed no abnormalities. Samples analyzed 2 and 1.5 hr after darting revealed moderate hyperkalemia in both animals (6.8 and 6.2 mEq/L, respectively). Shortly after hyperkalemia was recognized, one jaguar developed electrocardiographic abnormalities (sinoventricular rhythm and widened QRS complexes), and a few minutes later, suffered cardiopulmonary arrest. Resuscitation with chest compressions, intermittent positive-pressure ventilation, and epinephrine was successful, and autonomous breathing and circulation resumed within a few minutes...
June 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899023/nedd9-targets-col3a1-to-promote-endothelial-fibrosis-and-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#7
Andriy O Samokhin, Thomas Stephens, Bradley M Wertheim, Rui-Sheng Wang, Sara O Vargas, Lai-Ming Yung, Minwei Cao, Marcel Brown, Elena Arons, Paul B Dieffenbach, Jason G Fewell, Majed Matar, Frederick P Bowman, Kathleen J Haley, George A Alba, Stefano M Marino, Rahul Kumar, Ivan O Rosas, Aaron B Waxman, William M Oldham, Dinesh Khanna, Brian B Graham, Sachiko Seo, Vadim N Gladyshev, Paul B Yu, Laura E Fredenburgh, Joseph Loscalzo, Jane A Leopold, Bradley A Maron
Germline mutations involving small mothers against decapentaplegic-transforming growth factor-β (SMAD-TGF-β) signaling are an important but rare cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), which is a disease characterized, in part, by vascular fibrosis and hyperaldosteronism (ALDO). We developed and analyzed a fibrosis protein-protein network (fibrosome) in silico, which predicted that the SMAD3 target neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated 9 (NEDD9) is a critical ALDO-regulated node underpinning pathogenic vascular fibrosis...
June 13, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898239/a-novel-balloon-technique-to-induce-intra-abdominal-hypertension-and-its-effects-on-cardiovascular-parameters-in-a-conscious-dog-model
#8
Min Jang, Won-Gyun Son, Sang-Min Jo, Hyunseok Kim, Chi Won Shin, Inhyung Lee
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a new balloon technique to induce intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome in a conscious dog model, and to evaluate the effect of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) on cardiovascular, respiratory, and arterial blood gas values in conscious dogs with IAH. DESIGN: Prospective, experimental study. SETTING: University-based small animal research facility. ANIMALS: Six healthy Beagle dogs, 4 males, and 2 females...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896249/the-effect-of-nitric-oxide-inhalation-on-heart-and-pulmonary-circulation-in-rabbits-with-acute-massive-pulmonary-embolism
#9
Zeming Zhang, Kun Pan, Lu Chen, Yancun Wang
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of nitric oxide inhalation (NOI) on cardiac troponin I (CTnI) levels and mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) in rabbits with acute massive pulmonary embolism (AMPE). Thirty rabbits were used as animal models for AMPE and received different treatments. A total of 4 h after successful modeling, the control group (CON, n=10) received conventional thrombolysis, whereas the treatment group (TRE, n=10) received conventional thrombolysis plus NOI. The experimental group (EXP, n=10) did not receive any treatments...
July 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896110/plasmatic-concentrations-of-adma-and-homocystein-in-llama-lama-glama-and-regulation-of-arginase-type-ii-an-animal-resistent-to-the-development-of-pulmonary-hypertension-induced-by-hypoxia
#10
Vasthi López, Fernando A Moraga, Anibal J Llanos, German Ebensperger, María I Taborda, Elena Uribe
There are animal species that have adapted to life at high altitude and hypobaric hypoxia conditions in the Andean highlands. One such species is the llama ( Lama glama ), which seem to have developed efficient protective mechanisms to avoid maladaptation resulting from chronic hypoxia, such as a resistance to the development of hypoxia -induced pulmonary hypertension. On the other hand, it is widely known that different models of hypertension can arise as a result of changes in endothelial function. The respect, one of the common causes of deregulation in endothelial vasodilator function have been associated with down-regulation of the NO synthesis and an increase in plasma levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and homocysteine...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893202/carotid-taenia-solium-oncosphere-infection-a-novel-porcine-neurocysticercosis-model
#11
Karen A Alroy, Gianfranco Arroyo, Robert H Gilman, Eloy Gonzales-Gustavson, Linda Gallegos, Cesar M Gavidia, Manuela Verastegui, Silvia Rodriguez, Teresa Lopez, Luis A Gomez-Puerta, Joseph Alroy, Hector H Garcia, Armando E Gonzalez, For The Cysticercosis Working Group In Peru
Neurocysticercosis (NCC), the infection of the human central nervous system (CNS) with larval cysts of Taenia solium causes widespread neurological morbidity. Animal models are crucial for studying the pathophysiology and treatment of NCC. Some drawbacks of current NCC models include differences in the pathogenesis of the model and wild-type parasite, low rates of infection efficiency and lack of reproducibility. We describe a novel porcine model that recreates infection in the CNS with high efficiency. Activated oncospheres, either in a high (45,000-50,000) or low (10,000) dose were inoculated in the common carotid artery of 12 pigs by ultrasound-guided catheterization...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891211/effective-thiafentanil-immobilization-and-physiological-responses-of-free-ranging-moose-alces-alces-in-northern-sweden
#12
Daniela Sb Barros, Alina L Evans, Jon M Arnemo, Fredrik Stenbacka, Göran Ericsson
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical and physiological responses in moose to thiafentanil administration for immobilization. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional clinical study. ANIMALS: Eleven (six males and five females) free-ranging adult moose (Alces alces). METHODS: Each moose was darted from a helicopter with 7.5 mg thiafentanil during March 2014 in northern Sweden. Physiological evaluation included vital signs and blood gases...
March 31, 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890043/deletion-of-endothelial-arginase-1-does-not-improve-vasomotor-function-in-diabetic-mice
#13
Ramesh Chennupati, Merlijn J Meens, Ben J Janssen, Paul van Dijk, Theodorus B M Hakvoort, Wouter H Lamers, Jo G R De Mey, S Eleonore Koehler
Endothelial arginase 1 was ablated to assess whether this prevents hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction by improving arginine availability for nitric oxide production. Endothelial Arg1-deficient mice (Arg1-KOT ie2 ) were generated by crossing Arg1fl/fl (controls) with Tie2Cretg/- mice and analyzed by immunohistochemistry, measurements of hemodynamics, and wire myography. Ablation was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Mean arterial blood pressure was similar in conscious male control and Arg1-KOT ie2 mice...
June 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889909/rabbit-aortic-aneurysm-model-with-enlarging-diameter-capable-of-better-mimicking-human-aortic-aneurysm-disease
#14
Yonghua Bi, Hongmei Chen, Yahua Li, Zepeng Yu, Xinwei Han, Jianzhuang Ren
The self-healing phenomenon can be found in the elastase-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) model, and an enlarging AAA model was successfully induced by coarctation. Unfortunately, aortic coarctation in these enlarging models is generally not found in human AAA disease. This study aimed to create an experiment model of enlarging AAA in rabbits to better mimic human aortic aneurysm disease. Eighty-four male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three equal groups: two aneurysm groups (A and B) and a SHAM group...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888560/-correlation-between-referred-pain-region-and-sensitized-acupoints-in-patients-with-stable-angina-pectoris-and-distribution-of-sensitized-spots-in-rats-with-myocardial-ischemia
#15
Jing Shi, Jian Wang, Yuan Wang, Kun Liu, Yong Fu, Jian-Hua Sun, Ji-Ping Zhao, Xiao-Mei Shao, Si-Feng Feng, You-Wei Yang, Jie Li, Qian-An Cao, Xun He, Mei-Fang Liu, Lu Chen, Xiang Cui, Jiang-Yun Wu, Yuan-Yuan Wu, Xin-Yan Gao, Bing Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the correlation between the referred pain regions of stable angina pectoris (SAP) and the acupoints in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients and to investigate the rule of regional sensitized point distribution in rats. METHODS: A total of 1 046 CHD patients with SAP from 8 hospitals in China were recruited in the present study. The tenderness was palpated along the left and right chest, back, shoulder, upper limb, etc. by a specially-assigned researcher in each hospital...
May 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887539/thrombus-formation-and-propagation-in-the-onset-of-cardiovascular-events
#16
Yujiro Asada, Atsushi Yamashita, Yuichiro Sato, Kinta Hatakeyama
Ischemic cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and thrombus formation on disrupted atherosclerotic plaques is considered to trigger its onset. Although the activation of platelets and coagulation pathways has been investigated intensively, the mechanisms of thrombus formation on disrupted plaques have not been understood in detail. Platelets are thought to play a central role in the formation of arterial thrombus because of rapid flow conditions; however, thrombus that develops on disrupted plaques consistently includes large amounts of fibrin in addition to aggregated platelets...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886482/differential-stiffening-between-the-abdominal-and-thoracic-aorta-effect-of-salt-loading-in-stroke-prone-hypertensive-rats
#17
George Lindesay, Yvonnick Bézie, Christophe Ragonnet, Véronique Duchatelle, Chandima Dharmasena, Nicole Villeneuve, Christine Vayssettes-Courchay
Central artery stiffening is recognized as a cardiovascular risk. The effects of hypertension and aging have been shown in human and animal models but the effect of salt is still controversial. We studied the effect of a high-salt diet on aortic stiffness in salt-sensitive spontaneously hypersensitive stroke-prone rats (SHRSP). Distensibility, distension, and β-stiffness were measured at thoracic and abdominal aortic sites in the same rats, using echotracking recording of the aortic diameter coupled with blood pressure (BP), in SHRSP-salt (5% salted diet, 5 weeks), SHRSP, and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882682/unintended-consequences-fluid-resuscitation-worsens-shock-in-an-ovine-model-of-endotoxemia
#18
Liam Byrne, Nchafatso G Obonyo, Sara D Diab, Kimble R Dunster, Margaret R Passmore, Ai-Ching Boon, Louise See Hoe, Sanne Pedersen, Mohd Hashairi Fauzi, Leticia Pretti Pimenta, Frank Van Haren, Christopher M Anstey, Louise Cullen, John-Paul Tung, Kiran Shekar, Kathryn Maitland, John F Fraser
BACKGROUND: Fluid resuscitation is widely considered a life saving intervention in septic shock however recent evidence has questioned both its safety and efficacy in sepsis. This study sought to compare fluid resuscitation with vasopressors with vasopressors alone in a hyperdynamic model of ovine endotoxemia. METHODS: Endotoxemic shock was induced in sixteen sheep after which they received fluid resuscitation with 40mls/kg of 0.9% saline or commenced haemodynamic support with protocolized noradrenaline and vasopressin...
June 8, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876993/from-pregnancy-to-cardiovascular-disease-lessons-from-relaxin-deficient-animals-to-understanding-relaxin-actions-in-the-vascular-system
#19
Maria Jelinic, Sarah A Marshall, Chen Huei Leo, Laura J Parry, Marianne Tare
Early maternal vascular adaptations to pregnancy are predominantly driven by changes in vascular tone, reactivity and remodelling. Failure of the maternal systemic vasculature to adapt sufficiently can lead to serious complications of pregnancy. The hormone relaxin is widely recognised for its contribution to the essential renal and systemic haemodynamic adaptations in early pregnancy through direct actions on the maternal vasculature. Studies in relaxin gene knockout mice revealed that endogenous relaxin is not only a 'pregnancy hormone' but has pleiotropic actions in various tissues in males and non-pregnant females...
June 7, 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872896/first-in-vivo-test-of-thermoembolization-turning-tissue-against-itself-using-transcatheter-chemistry-in-a-porcine-model
#20
Erik N K Cressman, Chunxiao Guo
PURPOSE: Embolotherapies are commonly used for management of primary liver cancer. Explant studies of treated livers, however, reveal an untreated tumor in a high fraction of cases. To improve on this, we propose a new concept referred to as thermoembolization. In this technique, the embolic material reacts in local tissues. Highly localized heat energy is released simultaneously with the generation of acid in the target vascular bed. Combined with ischemia, this should provide a multiplexed attack...
June 5, 2018: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
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