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ventral tegmental area (VTA)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741623/effects-of-suvorexant-a-dual-orexin-hypocretin-receptor-antagonist-on-impulsive-behavior-associated-with-cocaine
#1
Taylor A Gentile, Steven J Simmons, Mia N Watson, Krista L Connelly, Eugen Brailoiu, Yanan Zhang, John W Muschamp
Hypothalamic hypocretin (orexin) peptides mediate arousal, attention, and reward processing. Fibers containing orexins project to brain structures that govern motivated behavior, including the ventral tegmental area (VTA). A number of psychiatric conditions, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders, are characterized by deficits in impulse control, however the relationship between orexin and impulsive behavior is incompletely characterized. The effects of systemic or centrally administered orexin receptor (OXR) antagonists on measures of impulsive-like behavior in rats were evaluated using the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) and delay discounting procedures...
July 25, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740870/reduced-ventral-tegmental-area-hippocampal-connectivity-in-children-and-adolescents-exposed-to-early-threat
#2
Hilary A Marusak, Joshua R B Hatfield, Moriah E Thomason, Christine A Rabinak
BACKGROUND: Preclinical data suggest that early life stress has detrimental effects on the brain's dopaminergic system, particularly the mesocorticolimbic pathway. Altered dopamine function is thought to contribute to the development of stress-related pathologies; yet, little is known about the impact of early stress on dopamine systems during childhood and adolescence, when stress-related disorders frequently emerge. Here, we evaluate the impact of early threat exposure (violence, abuse) on functional connectivity of putative dopaminergic midbrain regions, the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN), giving rise to mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal pathways, respectively...
March 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739583/tonic-or-phasic-stimulation-of-dopaminergic-projections-to-prefrontal-cortex-causes-mice-to-maintain-or-deviate-from-previously-learned-behavioral-strategies
#3
Ian T Ellwood, Tosha Patel, Varun Wadia, Anthony T Lee, Alayna T Liptak, Kevin J Bender, Vikaas S Sohal
Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) encode reward prediction errors and can drive reinforcement learning through their projections to striatum, but much less is known about their projections to prefrontal cortex (PFC). Here we studied these projections, and observed phasic VTA-PFC fiber photometry signals following the delivery of rewards. Next, we studied how optogenetic stimulation of these projections affects behavior, using conditioned place preference (CPP), and a task in which mice learn associations between cues and food rewards, then use those associations to make choices...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736173/low-doses-of-17%C3%AE-ethinyl-estradiol-alter-the-maternal-brain-and-induce-stereotypies-in-cd-1-mice-exposed-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#4
Mary C Catanese, Laura N Vandenberg
Maternal care is critical for the survival, development and long-term success of offspring. Despite our current understanding of the role of endogenous estrogen in both maternal behavior and the maternal brain, the potential effects of exogenous estrogens on these endpoints remain poorly understood. Here, pregnant CD-1 mice were exposed to low doses of 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2), commonly used as a positive control in studies of other xenoestrogens, from day 9 of pregnancy until weaning. Using traditional maternal behavior assays, we document no significant changes in maternal behavior throughout the lactational period...
July 20, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729827/lateral-hypothalamic-control-of-the-ventral-tegmental-area-reward-evaluation-and-the-driving-of-motivated-behavior
#5
REVIEW
Susan M Tyree, Luis de Lecea
The lateral hypothalamus (LH) plays an important role in many motivated behaviors, sleep-wake states, food intake, drug-seeking, energy balance, etc. It is also home to a heterogeneous population of neurons that express and co-express multiple neuropeptides including hypocretin (Hcrt), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and neurotensin (NT). These neurons project widely throughout the brain to areas such as the locus coeruleus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the amygdala and the ventral tegmental area (VTA)...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727688/diazepam-actions-in-the-vta-enhance-social-dominance-and-mitochondrial-function-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-by-activation-of-dopamine-d1-receptors
#6
M A van der Kooij, F Hollis, L Lozano, I Zalachoras, S Abad, O Zanoletti, J Grosse, I Guillot de Suduiraut, C Canto, C Sandi
Benzodiazepines can ameliorate social disturbances and increase social competition, particularly in high-anxious individuals. However, the neural circuits and mechanisms underlying benzodiazepines' effects in social competition are not understood. Converging evidence points to the mesolimbic system as a potential site of action for at least some benzodiazepine-mediated effects. Furthermore, mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been causally implicated in the link between anxiety and social competitiveness...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710956/oxytocin-receptor-antagonist-treatments-alter-levels-of-attachment-to-mothers-and-central-dopamine-activity-in-pre-weaning-mandarin-vole-pups
#7
Zhixiong He, Wenjuan Hou, Xin Hao, Na Dong, Peirong Du, Wei Yuan, Jinfeng Yang, Rui Jia, Fadao Tai
Oxytocin (OT) is known to be important in mother-infant bonding. Although the relationship between OT and filial attachment behavior has been studied in a few mammalian species, the effects on infant social behavior have received little attention in monogamous species. The present study examined the effects of OT receptor antagonist (OTA) treatment on attachment behavior and central dopamine (DA) activity in male and female pre-weaning mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus). Our data showed that OTA treatments decreased the attachment behavior of pups to mothers, measured using preference tests at postnatal day 14, 16, 18 and 20...
July 6, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706288/spinal-pathways-involved-in-somatosensory-inhibition-of-the-psychomotor-actions-of-cocaine
#8
Suchan Chang, Yeonhee Ryu, Young Seob Gwak, Nam Jun Kim, Jin Mook Kim, Jun Yeon Lee, Seol Ah Kim, Bong Hyo Lee, Scott C Steffensen, Eun Young Jang, Chae Ha Yang, Hee Young Kim
Previous studies have demonstrated that somatosensory stimuli influence dopamine transmission in the mesolimbic reward system and can reduce drug-induced motor behaviors, craving and dependence. Until now, the central links between somatosensory and brain reward systems are not known. Here, we show that the dorsal column (DC) somatosensory pathway contains projections that convey an inhibitory input from the periphery to mesolimbic reward circuits. Stimulation of the ulnar nerve under HT7 acupoint suppressed psychomotor response to cocaine, which was abolished by disruption of the DC pathway, but not the spinothalamic tract (STT)...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701928/the-hyperpolarization-activated-current-determines-synaptic-excitability-calcium-activity-and-specific-viability-of-substantia-nigra-dopaminergic-neurons
#9
Carmen Carbone, Alessia Costa, Gustavo Provensi, Guido Mannaioni, Alessio Masi
Differential vulnerability between Substantia Nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons is a hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). Understanding the molecular bases of this key histopathological aspect would foster the development of much-needed disease-modifying therapies. Non-heterogeneous DAergic degeneration is present in both toxin-based and genetic animal models, suggesting that cellular specificity, rather than causing factors, constitutes the background for differential vulnerability...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701538/differential-expression-of-long-term-potentiation-among-identified-inhibitory-inputs-to-dopamine-neurons
#10
DeNard V Simmons, Alyssa K Petko, Carlos Antonio Paladini
The in vivo firing pattern of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons is controlled by GABA afferents originating primarily from the nucleus accumbens (NAc), rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), and from local GABA neurons within the VTA. Although different forms of plasticity have been observed from GABA inputs to VTA dopamine neurons - one dependent on cyclic GMP synthesis, the other dependent on adenylyl cyclase activation - it is unknown whether plasticity is differentially expressed in each. Using an optogenetic strategy, we show that identified inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) from local VTA GABA neurons and NAc afferents exhibit a cyclic GMP-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) that is capable of inhibiting the firing activity of dopamine neurons...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698920/prevention-and-reversal-of-social-stress-escalated-cocaine-self-administration-in-mice-by-intra-vta-crfr1-antagonism
#11
Xiao Han, Joseph F DeBold, Klaus A Miczek
BACKGROUND: A history of brief intermittent social defeat stress can escalate cocaine self-administration and induce long-term adaptations in the mesolimbic dopamine system. Extra-hypothalamic corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) has been shown to be closely associated with stress-induced escalation of drug use. How repeated stress modulates CRF release in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the roles of CRF receptors during different phases of stress-induced cocaine self-administration remain to be defined...
July 11, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690111/lateral-hypothalamic-gabaergic-neurons-encode-reward-predictions-that-are-relayed-to-the-ventral-tegmental-area-to-regulate-learning
#12
Melissa J Sharpe, Nathan J Marchant, Leslie R Whitaker, Christopher T Richie, Yajun J Zhang, Erin J Campbell, Pyry P Koivula, Julie C Necarsulmer, Carlos Mejias-Aponte, Marisela Morales, James Pickel, Jeffrey C Smith, Yael Niv, Yavin Shaham, Brandon K Harvey, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
Eating is a learned process. Our desires for specific foods arise through experience. Both electrical stimulation and optogenetic studies have shown that increased activity in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) promotes feeding. Current dogma is that these effects reflect a role for LH neurons in the control of the core motivation to feed, and their activity comes under control of forebrain regions to elicit learned food-motivated behaviors. However, these effects could also reflect the storage of associative information about the cues leading to food in LH itself...
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669916/imaging-neuronal-pathways-with-52-mn-pet-toxicity-evaluation-in-rats
#13
Hanna Napieczynska, Gregory W Severin, Jesper Fonslet, Stefan Wiehr, Apostolos Menegakis, Bernd J Pichler, Carsten Calaminus
Manganese in its divalent state (Mn(2+)) has features that make it a unique tool for tracing neuronal pathways. It is taken up and transported by neurons in an activity-dependent manner and it can cross synapses. It also acts as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enabling visualization of neuronal tracts. However, due to the limited sensitivity of MRI systems relatively high Mn(2+) doses are required. This is undesirable, especially in long-term studies, because of the known toxicity of the metal...
June 30, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669546/biased-oxytocinergic-modulation-of-midbrain-dopamine-systems
#14
Lei Xiao, Michael F Priest, Jordan Nasenbeny, Ting Lu, Yevgenia Kozorovitskiy
The release of dopamine (DA) regulates rewarding behavior and motor actions through striatum-targeting efferents from ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Here, we map and functionally characterize axonal projections from oxytocin neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus to midbrain DA regions. Electrophysiological recordings of DA neurons reveal that both the application of oxytocin and optogenetic stimulation of oxytocinergic terminals suffice to increase DA neuron activity in the VTA but downregulate it in SNc...
July 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669034/cannabinoid-reward-and-aversion-effects-in-the-posterior-ventral-tegmental-area-are-mediated-through-dissociable-opiate-receptor-subtypes-and-separate-amygdalar-and-accumbal-dopamine-receptor-substrates
#15
Tasha Ahmad, Steven R Laviolette
RATIONALE: The ventral tegmental area (VTA) and its projections to the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) are critical for cannabinoid-related motivational effects. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) transmission modulates VTA dopamine (DA) neuron activity and previous reports demonstrate anatomically segregated effects of CB1R transmission in the VTA. However, the underlying pharmacological and anatomical regions responsible for these effects are currently unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to characterize the motivational effects of localized anterior vs...
August 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666837/operant-responding-for-optogenetic-excitation-of-ldtg-inputs-to-the-vta-requires-d1-and-d2-dopamine-receptor-activation-in-the-nacc
#16
Stephan Steidl, Shannon O'Sullivan, Dustin Pilat, Nancy Bubula, Jason Brown, Paul Vezina
Behavioral studies in rats and mice indicate that laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDTg) inputs to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) importantly contribute to reward function. Further evidence from anesthetized rat and mouse preparations suggests that these LTDg inputs may exert this effect by regulating mesolimbic dopamine (DA) signaling. Direct evidence supporting this possibility remains lacking however. To address this lack, rat LDTg neurons were transfected with adeno-associated viral vectors encoding channelrhodopsin2 and eYFP (ChR2) or eYFP alone (eYFP) and rats were subsequently trained to lever press for intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) of the inputs of these neurons to the VTA...
June 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653666/endocannabinoid-regulation-of-reward-and-reinforcement-through-interaction-with-dopamine-and-endogenous-opioid-signaling
#17
J M Wenzel, J F Cheer
The endocannabinoid system (eCB) is implicated in the mediation of both reward and reinforcement. This is evidenced by the ability of exogenous cannabinoid drugs to produce hedonia and maintain self-administration in both human and animal subjects. eCBs similarly facilitate behaviors motivated by reward through interaction with the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) and endogenous opioid systems. Indeed, eCB signaling in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) stimulates activation of midbrain DA cells and promotes DA release in terminal regions such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc)...
June 27, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649993/kappa-opioid-receptor-activation-in-dopamine-neurons-disrupts-behavioral-inhibition
#18
Antony D Abraham, Harrison M Fontaine, Allisa J Song, Mackenzie M Andrews, Madison A Baird, Brigitte L Kieffer, Benjamin B Land, Charles Chavkin
The dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system has been previously implicated in the regulation of cognition, but the neural circuitry and molecular mechanisms underlying KOR-mediated cognitive disruption are unknown. Here, we used an operational test of cognition involving timing and behavioral inhibition and found that systemic KOR activation impairs performance of male and female C57BL/6 mice in the differential reinforcement of low response rates (DRL) task. Systemic KOR antagonism also blocked stress-induced disruptions of DRL performance...
June 26, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645621/two-delta-opioid-receptor-subtypes-are-functional-in-single-ventral-tegmental-area-neurons-and-can-interact-with-the-mu-opioid-receptor
#19
Elyssa B Margolis, Wakako Fujita, Lakshmi A Devi, Howard L Fields
The mu and delta opioid receptors (MOR and DOR) are highly homologous members of the opioid family of GPCRs. There is evidence that MOR and DOR interact, however the extent to which these interactions occur in vivo and affect synaptic function is unknown. There are two stable DOR subtypes: DPDPE sensitive (DOR1) and deltorphin II sensitive (DOR2); both agonists are blocked by DOR selective antagonists. Robust motivational effects are produced by local actions of both MOR and DOR ligands in the ventral tegmental area (VTA)...
June 21, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635140/noradrenergic-signaling-in-the-vta-modulates-cocaine-craving
#20
Wojciech Barnaba Solecki, Klaudia Szklarczyk, Kamil Pradel, Krystyna Kwiatkowska, Grzegorz Dobrzański, Ryszard Przewłocki
Exposure to drug-associated cues evokes drug-seeking behavior and is regarded as a major cause of relapse. Conditional stimulus upregulates noradrenaline (NA) system activity, but the drug-seeking behavior depends particularly on phasic dopamine signaling downstream from the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The VTA dopamine-ergic activity is regulated via the signaling of alpha1 -adrenergic and alpha2 -adrenergic receptors (α1 -ARs and α2 -ARs); thus, the impact of the conditional stimulus on drug-seeking behavior might involve NAergic signaling in the VTA...
June 21, 2017: Addiction Biology
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