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Cynthia S A Caires, Cassia R B Leal, Carlos A N Ramos, Danielle Bogo, Alessandra R Lima, Eduardo J Arruda, Samuel L Oliveira, Anderson R L Caires, Valter A Nascimento
The use of eosin methylene blue according to Giemsa as photosensitizer is presented for the first time in this paper. The present study evaluated the potential application of chlorophyllin sodium copper salt (CuChlNa) and eosin methylene blue according to Giemsa (EMB) as antimicrobial photosensitizers (aPS) for photodynamic inactivation (PDI) of Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive) and Escherichia coli (gram-negative) bacteria. The experiments were performed using S. aureus stain ATCC 25923 and E. coli ATCC 25922 in which five aPS concentrations (0...
April 20, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
Davide De Francisci, Yixi Su, Arvo Iital, Irini Angelidaki
In the present study the feasibility of microalgae production coupled with wastewater treatment was assessed. Continuous cultivation of Chlorella sorokiniana with wastewater was tested in lab-scale flat panel photobioreactors. Biomass productivity was determined for four dilution rates (4.32 d(-1), 3.6 d(-1), 1.8 d(-1) and 0.72 d(-1)). The productivity peak was 1.524 g l(-1)d(-1) at the dilution rate of 2.41 d(-1). Nitrogen and phosphorus removals were found to be inversely proportional to dilution rates, while COD removal was found to be 50% at all the tested conditions...
March 17, 2017: Environmental Technology
Iman Gomaa, Aya Sebak, Nagia Afifi, Mahmoud Abdel-Kader
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous melanoma (CM) has substantially increased among Caucasian populations in the past few decades. This increased the number of CM deaths throughout the world. Pigmentation of melanoma reduces the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Third generation photosensitizers (PSs) are characterized by improved targeting to the diseased tissue and reduced systemic side effects. This study is directed towards synthesis and characterization of liposomes encapsulating sodium ferrous chlorophyllin (Fe-CHL) and assessing its efficacy as a PS in PDT of melanoma...
February 24, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Mohamed S Abdel-Latif, Khaled M Elmeleigy, Tahany A A Aly, Marwa S Khattab, Sara M Mohamed
Aflatoxin contamination of animal diet has adverse effects on animal health and productivity. This study was performed to investigate the effect of using coumarin and/or chlorophyllin in rat diet against aflatoxicosis. Fifty-four rats were assigned into 7 groups (6 rats each). G1 was a negative control. G2 received water with coumarin 0.5%. G3 received water with chlorophyllin 0.5%. G4 received water with coumarin 0.5% and chlorophyllin 0.5%. G5-8 fed aflatoxin B1 1000ppb in diet. Group 6-8 were administered similar treatments as G2-4...
February 9, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
Min-Jeong Kim, Hyun-Gyun Yuk
The aim of this study was to elucidate the antibacterial mechanism of 405 ± 5-nm light-emitting diode (LED) illumination against Salmonella at 4°C in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) by determining endogenous coproporphyrin content, DNA oxidation, damage to membrane function, and morphological change. Gene expression levels, including of oxyR, recA, rpoS, sodA, and soxR, were also examined to understand the response of Salmonella to LED illumination. The results showed that Salmonella strains responded differently to LED illumination, revealing that S...
March 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Beata Mysliwa-Kurdziel, Katalin Solymosi
Thylakoids and chloroplasts harbor several vital metabolic processes, but are most importantly associated with photosynthesis. The undisturbed functioning of this process necessitates the ceaseless synthesis of photosynthetic pigments, including closed tetrapyrroles such as chlorophylls (Chls). Chls probably represent the most abundant natural pigment molecules which are via photosynthesis not only crucial for the autotrophic production of food sources for heterotrophic organisms but have also contributed to oxygen production essential for aerobic metabolism...
October 4, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Małgorzata Norman, Przemysław Bartczak, Jakub Zdarta, Wiktor Tomala, Barbara Żurańska, Anna Dobrowolska, Adam Piasecki, Katarzyna Czaczyk, Hermann Ehrlich, Teofil Jesionowski
In this study, Hippospongia communis marine demosponge skeleton was used as an adsorbent for sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC). Obtained results indicate the high sorption capacity of this biomaterial with respect to SCC. Batch experiments were performed under different conditions and kinetic and isotherms properties were investigated. Acidic pH and the addition of sodium chloride increased SCC adsorption. The experimental data were well described by a pseudo-second order kinetic model. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms were determined and the experimental data were analyzed using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms...
September 27, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Divya Chaturvedi, Vinay Kumar Singh
Fasciolosis is a water and food-borne disease caused by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. This disease is widespread in different parts of the world. Lymnaeidae and Planorbidae snails are the intermediate hosts of these flukes. Snail population management is a good tool to control fasciolosis because gastropods represent the weakest link in the life-cycle of trematodes. Chlorophyll can be extracted from any green plant. Chlorophyllin was prepared from spinach in 100% ethanol by using different types of chemicals...
August 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Tao Li, Jin Xu, Hualian Wu, Guanghua Wang, Shikun Dai, Jiewei Fan, Hui He, Wenzhou Xiang
Microalgae oil is an optimal feedstock for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and biodiesel production, but its high levels of chlorophyll limit its large-scale application. To date, few effective approaches have been developed to remove chlorophyll from microalgae oil. The main purpose of this study was to present a preprocessing method of algae oil feedstock (Scenedesmus) to remove chlorophyll by saponification. The results showed that 96% of chlorophyll in biomass was removed. High quality orange transparent oil could be extracted from the chlorophyll reduced biomass...
September 7, 2016: Marine Drugs
John P McCook, Thomas J Stephens, Lily I Jiang, Robert M Law, Vincent Gotz
PURPOSE: To examine the effect of sodium copper chlorophyllin complex on the expression of biomarkers of photoaged dermal extracellular matrix indicative of skin repair. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Following a previously published 12-day clinical assessment model, skin biopsy samples from the forearms of four healthy females with signs of photoaged skin were obtained and samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for key biomarkers of aging skin after each subject was treated with a test material consisting of a gel containing a liposomal dispersion of sodium copper chlorophyllin complex 0...
2016: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
Jayeeta Das, Asmita Samadder, Jesmin Mondal, Suresh K Abraham, Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh
Chlorophyllin (CHL), a sodium-copper-salt derived from chlorophyll, has been widely used as a food-dye, also reportedly having some anti-cancer effect. We tested if PLGA-loaded CHL (NCHL) could have additional protective abilities through its faster and targeted drug delivery in cancer cells. Physico-chemical characterization of NCHL was done through atomic-force microscopy and UV-spectroscopy. NCHL demonstrated greater ability of drug uptake and strong anti-cancer potentials in non-small cell lung cancer cells, A549, as revealed from data of% cell viability, generation of reactive-oxygen-species and expression of bax, bcl2, caspase3, p53 and cytochrome c proteins...
September 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Quoc-Hung Phan, Yu-Lung Lo, Chih-Ling Huang
A novel method for enhanced circular dichroism (CD) detection is proposed based on a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) prism coupler and a polarization scanning ellipsometry technique. An analytical model is derived to extract the CD and degree of polarization (DOP) properties of optical samples with and without scattering effects, respectively. The validity of the analytical model is confirmed by means of numerical simulations. The simulation results show that the proposed detection method has a sensitivity of 10<sup>-5</sup>~10<sup>-6</sup> RIU (refractive index unit) for refractive indices in the range of 1...
June 13, 2016: Optics Express
Divya Jyoti Singh, Dinesh Kumar Singh
Fasciolosis is a food borne zoonosis, caused by the digenetic trematode Fasciola. Freshwater lymnaeid snails are the intermediate host of the trematodes. Chlorophyllin, a semi-synthetic derivative of chlorophyll and its formulations obtained from freeze dried cow urine (FCU) had their toxicity tested against redia and cercaria larvae of F. gigantica. The larvicidal activity of chlorophyllin and its formulations were found to depend on both, time and concentration used against the larvae. Toxicity of chlorophyllin + FCU (1:1 ratio) in sunlight against redia larva (8 h LC50: 0...
2016: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Gláucia Fernanda Rocha D Epiro, Simone Cristine Semprebon, Andressa Megumi Niwa, Juliana Cristina Marcarini, Mário Sérgio Mantovani
Chlorophyllin (Chl) has attracted interest in the scientific community due to its chemopreventive and antimutagenic properties. However, the molecular mechanisms of action of Chl remain unclear. This study assesses the effects on cell proliferation and the expression of genes involved in apoptosis, and the cell cycle in HB4a cells treated with Chl. Chl was cytotoxic and induced apoptosis to HB4a cells at 400 μg/mL. Analysis of gene expression showed that there was a decrease in the mRNA level of BIRC5 and CCNA2 genes involved in apoptosis and cell cycle progression, respectively...
June 2016: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Akiko Ito, Akeno Tsuneki, Yu Yoshida, Kazuo Ryoke, Toshiyuki Kaidoh, Seiji Kageyama
BACKGROUND: Although the link between oral and oropharyngeal health status and susceptibility to infection has long been recognized, there is a limit to the selection of antiseptics for oral care. METHODS: Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were exposed to influenza virus and cultured in the presence or absence of test reagents: bamboo leaf extract solution and sodium copper chrolophyllin. MDCK cells were pre-incubated with the reagents to assess the inhibitory activity at adsorption (viral attachment)...
March 2016: Yonago Acta Medica
Irina Buchovec, Viktorija Lukseviciute, Arunas Marsalka, Ignas Reklaitis, Zivile Luksiene
This study is focused on the novel approaches to enhance the inactivation of the Gram (-) food pathogen Salmonella enterica and harmful molds in vitro and on the surface of strawberries using the chlorophyllin-chitosan complex. Salmonella enterica (∼1 × 10(7) CFU mL(-1)) was incubated with chlorophyllin 1.5 × 10(-5) M (Chl, food additive), chitosan 0.1% (CHS, food supplement) or the chlorophyllin-chitosan complex (1.5 × 10(-5) M Chl-0.1% CHS) and illuminated with visible light (λ = 405 nm, light dose 38 J cm(-2)) in vitro...
April 2016: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
D-P Häder, J Schmidl, R Hilbig, M Oberle, H Wedekind, P Richter
Water-soluble chlorophyll (chlorophyllin) was used in a phototoxic reaction against a number of fish ectoparasites such as Ichtyobodo, Dactylogyrus, Trichodina, and Argulus. Chlorophyllin is applied to the water at concentrations of several micrograms per milliliter for a predefined incubation time, and afterwards, the parasites are exposed to simulated solar radiation. Application in the dark caused only little damage to the parasites; likewise, light exposure without the addition of the photosensitizer was ineffective...
June 2016: Parasitology Research
Navneet Kumar, D K Singh, Vinay Kumar Singh
Fasciolosis is a waterborne disease, caused by Fasciola species. Snail Lymnaea acuminata is an intermediate host of these flukes. Control of snail population is major tool in reducing the incidences. Variation in light intensity and wavelength caused significant changes in reproduction pattern of snails. Maximum fecundity was noted with bait containing carbohydrate (starch, 468 ± 0.10/20 snails) or amino acid (serine, 319 ± 0.29/20 snails) as attractant. Sublethal feeding of chlorophyllin bait with starch or serine attractant to infected and uninfected snails caused significant reduction in fecundity, hatchability, and survivability...
2016: Scientifica
D-P Häder, J Schmidl, R Hilbig, M Oberle, H Wedekind, P R Richter
Water-soluble chlorophyll (chlorophyllin) exerts pronounced photodynamic activity on fish parasites. In order to determine its potential as a remedy against ectoparasites in fish carps were incubated in water with defined concentrations of chlorophyllin. The main focus of the experiments was on the ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Fouquet) which is responsible for considerable losses in livestock in aquaculture. As malachite green, which in the past efficiently cured infected fishes, is banned because of its possible carcinogenicity; no effective remedy is presently available in aquaculture to treat ichthyophthiriasis...
April 2016: Parasitology Research
Kyoungju Choi, Maria T Ortega, Brett Jeffery, Jim E Riviere, Nancy A Monteiro-Riviere
In vitro cell culture systems are a useful tool to rapidly assess the potential safety or toxicity of chemical constituents of food. Here, we investigated oxidative stress and organ-specific antioxidant responses by 7 potential dietary ingredients using canine in vitro culture of hepatocytes, proximal tubule cells (CPTC), bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) and enterocyte-like cells (ELC). Cellular production of free radical species by denatonium benzoate (DB), epigallocatechin gallate (EPI), eucalyptol (EUC), green tea catechin extract (GTE) and sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC), tetrahydroisohumulone (TRA) as well as xylitol (XYL) were continuously measured for reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and superoxide (SO) for up to 24h...
January 22, 2016: Toxicology Letters
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