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Campylobacter jejuni

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781670/genetic-characterisation-of-virulence-genes-associated-with-adherence-invasion-and-cytotoxicity-in-campylobacter-spp-isolated-from-commercial-chickens-and-human-clinical-cases
#1
Samantha Reddy, Oliver T Zishiri
Virulence-associated genes have been recognised and detected in Campylobacter species. The majority of them have been proven to be associated with pathogenicity. This study aimed to detect the presence of virulence genes associated with pathogenicity and responsible for invasion, expression of adherence, colonisation and production of the cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Commercial chicken faecal samples were randomly sampled from chicken farms within the Durban metropolitan area in South Africa...
February 15, 2018: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778204/presence-of-helicobacter-and-campylobacter-species-in-faecal-samples-from-zoo-mammals
#2
C De Witte, C Lemmens, B Flahou, P De Laender, T Bouts, F Vercammen, R Ducatelle, A Smet, F Haesebrouck
Helicobacter and Campylobacter species (spp.) colonize the gastrointestinal tract of various domesticated animals. Apart from their pathogenic significance in animals, several species are of zoonotic importance as well. For most non-domesticated animal spp., however, little is known on the presence and importance of these agents. Therefore, we investigated the presence of Helicobacter and Campylobacter spp. in marine and terrestrial zoo mammals. Faecal samples of various marine and terrestrial zoo mammals were collected from 6 different zoos in Belgium...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774830/frequent-implication-of-multistress-tolerant-campylobacter-jejuni-in-human-infections
#3
Euna Oh, Linda Chui, Junghee Bae, Vincent Li, Angela Ma, Steven K Mutschall, Eduardo N Taboada, Lynn M McMullen, Byeonghwa Jeon
Campylobacter jejuni, a major cause of bacterial foodborne illnesses, is considered highly susceptible to environmental stresses. In this study, we extensively investigated the stress tolerance of 121 clinical strains of C. jejuni against 5 stress conditions (aerobic stress, disinfectant exposure, freeze-thaw, heat treatment, and osmotic stress) that this pathogenic bacterium might encounter during foodborne transmission to humans. In contrast to our current perception about high stress sensitivity of C. jejuni, a number of clinical strains of C...
June 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770558/pharmacokinetic-and-antimicrobial-activity-of-a-new-carvacrol-based-product-against-a-human-pathogen-campylobacter-jejuni
#4
Marion Allaoua, Pierre Etienne, Virginie Noirot, Jean-Luc Carayon, Nathan Téné, Elsa Bonnafé, Michel Treilhou
AIM: In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to test a new carvacrol-based product designed to delay the carvacrol release so that it could reach the caeca of broiler chickens in order to control Campylobacter jejuni. METHODS AND RESULTS: Antimicrobial activity of carvacrol, a constituent of oregano and thyme essential oil, has been demonstrated against C. jejuni in vitro, and this compound was found beneficial for broiler growth. Here, we tested a new liquid formulation that did not change the antibacterial efficacy of carvacrol against C...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770061/canadian-public-health-laboratory-network-position-statement-non-culture-based-diagnostics-for-gastroenteritis-and-implications-for-public-health-investigations
#5
B Berenger, L Chui, A R Reimer, V Allen, D Alexander, M-C Domingo, D Haldane, L Hoang, P Levett, A MacKeen, D Marcino, C Sheitoyan-Pesant, G Zahariadis
As clinical laboratories transition to using culture-independent detection test (CIDT) panels for cases of acute gastroenteritis, culture of clinical specimens is becoming less common. The reduction in bacterial cultures available for public health activities is expected to hinder surveillance and outbreak response by public health laboratories at the local, provincial, national and international levels. These recommendations are intended to serve as guidelines for the implementation of CIDT panels in frontline laboratories in Canada...
December 7, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767678/identification-of-etiology-specific-diarrhea-associated-with-linear-growth-faltering-in-bangladeshi-infants
#6
Amanda E Schnee, Rashidul Haque, Mami Taniuchi, Jashim Uddin, Masud Alam, Jie Liu, Elizabeth T Rogawski, Beth Kirkpatrick, Eric R Houpt, William A Petri, James A Platts-Mills
Childhood diarrhea in low-resource settings has been variably linked to linear growth shortfalls. However, the association between etiology-specific diarrhea and growth has not been comprehensively evaluated. We tested diarrheal stools collected from the Performance of Rotavirus and Oral Polio Vaccines in Developing Countries study from 2011-2013 in Dhaka, Bangladesh by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for a broad range of enteropathogens to characterize diarrhea etiology and examine the association between etiology-specific diarrhea and linear growth and systemic inflammation...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764197/re-thinking-the-chicken-campylobacter-jejuni-interaction-a-review
#7
Wageha A Awad, Claudia Hess, Michael Hess
Chickens are recognized as an imperative source of thermophilic Campylobacter spp., carrying this microorganism in high numbers in their intestinal tract. For long time, C. jejuni has been considered as a commensal microorganism which colonizes its primary host rather than infecting it, in the absence of any obvious clinical signs. However, recent studies question this and argue for a deeper understanding of the host-bacteria interaction. Following oral uptake it was demonstrated that C. jejuni interacts intimately with the gut epithelium and influences cellular functions of the host, with consequences on nutrient absorption...
May 15, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762774/occurrence-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-campylobacter-spp-on-fresh-and-refrigerated-chicken-meat-products-in-central-italy
#8
P Casagrande Proietti, S Pergola, S Bellucci, L Menchetti, D Miraglia, M P Franciosini
This study investigated the presence and the level of Campylobacter spp. contamination in 41 thigh samples (with skin) and 37 skinless breast samples collected at the end of slaughter (T1) and after 10 day period at refrigeration temperature (4°C) (T2), corresponding to their commercial shelf life. The isolates were phenotypically classified as Campylobacter spp. and successively identified by conventional multiplex PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates from fresh thigh and breast samples was also determined via the microdilution method (MIC) in Eucamp microtitre plates with known scalar concentrations of: gentamicin (GEN), streptomycin (ST), ciprofloxacin (CIP), tetracycline (TET), erythromycin (ERY), and nalidixic acid (NA)...
May 11, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761597/the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-has-a-pathway-for-the-biosynthesis-of-4-formamido-4-6-dideoxy-d-glucose
#9
Haley A Brown, Evgeny Vinogradov, Michel Gilbert, Hazel M Holden
Recent studies have demonstrated that the O-antigens of some pathogenic bacteria such as Brucella abortus, Francisella tularensis, and Campylobacter jejuni contain quite unusual N-formylated sugars (3-formamido-3,6-dideoxy-d-glucose or 4-formamido-4,6-dideoxy-d-glucose). Typically, four enzymes are required for the formation of such sugars: a thymidylyltransferase, a 4,6-dehydratase, a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate or PLP-dependent aminotransferase, and an N-formyltransferase. To date, there have been no published reports of N-formylated sugars associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
May 15, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761123/zika-virus-and-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-in-bangladesh
#10
Corine H GeurtsvanKessel, Zhahirul Islam, Md Badrul Islam, Sandra Kamga, Nowshin Papri, David A M C van de Vijver, Chantal Reusken, Ramona Mogling, Astrid P Heikema, Israt Jahan, Florence K Pradel, Rebecca L Pavlicek, Quazi D Mohammad, Marion P G Koopmans, Bart C Jacobs, Hubert P Endtz
Objective: Previous studies have associated Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) with Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks in South America and Oceania. In Asia, ZIKV is known to circulate widely, but the association with Guillain-Barré syndrome is unclear. We investigated whether endemic ZIKV infection is associated with the development of GBS. Methods: A prospective study was conducted from 2011 to 2015 in Bangladesh. A total of 418 patients and 418 healthy family controls were included in the study...
May 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759200/rapid-colorimetric-lactoferrin-based-sandwich-immunoassay-on-cotton-swabs-for-the-detection-of-foodborne-pathogenic-bacteria
#11
Saleh Alamer, Shimaa Eissa, Raja Chinnappan, Paul Herron, Mohammed Zourob
Cotton swab is the conventional swabbing tool that is usually applied for collecting pathogens from contaminated surfaces, followed by cells lysis and DNA extraction before subjecting to genetic analysis. However, such an approach is time consuming as it involves several steps and requires highly trained personnel to perform the experiment. In this study, we developed a new cotton swab-based detection system that involved integrating bacterial collection, preconcentration and detection on Q-tips. The platform is based on a sandwich assay that can detect different pathogens visually by color changes...
August 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758485/isolation-characterization-and-strain-selection-of-a-paenibacillus-species-for-use-as-a-probiotic-to-aid-in-ruminal-methane-mitigation-nitrate-nitrite-detoxification-and-food-safety
#12
Elizabeth A Latham, William E Pinchak, Julian Trachsel, Heather K Allen, Todd R Callaway, David J Nisbet, Robin C Anderson
The effects of dietary nitrate and Paenibacillus 79R4 (79R4), a denitrifying bacterium, when co-administered as a probiotic, on methane emissions, nitrate and nitrite-metabolizing capacity and fermentation characteristics were studied in vitro. Mixed populations of rumen microbes inoculated with 79R4 metabolized all levels of nitrite studied after 24 h in vitro incubation. Results from in vitro simulations resulted in up to 2 log10 colony forming unit reductions in E. coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter jejuni when these were co-cultured with 79R4...
April 30, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758058/structural-studies-and-molecular-dynamics-simulations-suggest-a-processive-mechanism-of-exolytic-lytic-transglycosylase-from-campylobacter-jejuni
#13
Jagamya Vijayaraghavan, Vijay Kumar, Nikhil P Krishnan, Ross T Kaufhold, Ximin Zeng, Jun Lin, Focco van den Akker
The bacterial soluble lytic transglycosylase (LT) breaks down the peptidoglycan (PG) layer during processes such as cell division. We present here crystal structures of the soluble LT Cj0843 from Campylobacter jejuni with and without bulgecin A inhibitor in the active site. Cj0843 has a doughnut shape similar but not identical to that of E. coli SLT70. The C-terminal catalytic domain is preceded by an L-domain, a large helical U-domain, a flexible linker, and a small N-terminal NU-domain. The flexible linker allows the NU-domain to reach over and complete the circular shape, using residues conserved in the Epsilonproteobacteria LT family...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756542/campylobacteriosis-in-dogs-and-cats-a-review
#14
E Acke
Campylobacter species are commonly isolated from faecal samples collected from dogs and cats with the most prevalent species being C. upsaliensis, C. helveticus, and C. jejuni. Although the majority of dogs and cats are subclinically infected, some will develop mild to moderate enteritis. Immature animals, animals from intensive housing backgrounds, and animals with concurrent disease are especially predisposed to infection and the development of clinical signs. Bacterial culture methods applied in diagnostic laboratories remain biased to C...
May 13, 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753324/the-effect-of-the-timing-of-exposure-to-campylobacter-jejuni-on-the-gut-microbiome-and-inflammatory-responses-of-broiler-chickens
#15
Phillippa L Connerton, Philip J Richards, Geraldine M Lafontaine, Peter M O'Kane, Nacheervan Ghaffar, Nicola J Cummings, Darren L Smith, Neville M Fish, Ian F Connerton
BACKGROUND: Campylobacters are an unwelcome member of the poultry gut microbiota in terms of food safety. The objective of this study was to compare the microbiota, inflammatory responses, and zootechnical parameters of broiler chickens not exposed to Campylobacter jejuni with those exposed either early at 6 days old or at the age commercial broiler chicken flocks are frequently observed to become colonized at 20 days old. RESULTS: Birds infected with Campylobacter at 20 days became cecal colonized within 2 days of exposure, whereas birds infected at 6 days of age did not show complete colonization of the sample cohort until 9 days post-infection...
May 12, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750889/therapeutic-administration-of-enrofloxacin-in-mice-does-not-select-for-fluoroquinolone-resistance-in-i-campylobacter-jejuni-i
#16
G Douglas Inglis, S J M Zaytsoff, L Brent Selinger, Eduardo N Taboada, R R E Uwiera
Enrofloxacin is registered for therapeutic use in beef cattle to treat bovine respiratory disease in Canada. A murine model was used to experimentally examine the impact of therapeutic administration of enrofloxacin on fluoroquinolone resistance development in <i>Campylobacter jejuni</i>. Administration of enrofloxacin to mice via subcutaneous injection or <i>per os</i> routes resulted in equivalent levels of bioactive enrofloxacin within the intestine, but bioactivity was short-lived (<48 hr after cessation)...
May 11, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747820/gangliosides-and-autoimmune-peripheral-nerve-diseases
#17
John A Goodfellow, Hugh J Willison
A wide range of neuroimmunological diseases, referred to as autoimmune neuropathies, affect the peripheral nervous systems (PNS). The PNS is structurally diverse with complex anatomical compartments enriched in many different myelin and neuronal glycolipids, notably gangliosides. Autoimmune neuropathies are a proportion of autoimmune neuropathies mediated by autoimmune attack due to antibodies reactive with these compartmentally localized gangliosides. Antiganglioside antibodies are principally associated with the acute paralytic disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and are also found in several chronic autoimmune neuropathy syndromes...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739988/functional-insights-into-the-interplay-between-dna-interaction-and-metal-coordination-in-ferric-uptake-regulators
#18
Sabina Sarvan, François Charih, Momen Askoura, James Butcher, Joseph S Brunzelle, Alain Stintzi, Jean-François Couture
Ferric uptake regulators (Fur) are a family of transcription factors coupling gene regulatory events to metal concentration. Recent evidence has expanded the mechanistic repertoires employed by Fur to activate or repress gene expression in the presence or absence of regulatory metals. However, the mechanistic basis underlying this extended repertoire has remained largely unexplored. In this study, we used an extensive set of mutations to demonstrate that Campylobacter jejuni Fur (CjFur) employs the same surface to positively and negatively control gene expression regardless of the presence or absence of metals...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734778/antibiotic-sensitivity-profiling-and-virulence-potential-of-campylobacter-jejuni-isolates-from-estuarine-water-in-the-eastern-cape-province-south-africa
#19
Anthony C Otigbu, Anna M Clarke, Justine Fri, Emmanuel O Akanbi, Henry A Njom
Campylobacter jejuni (CJ) is a zoonotic microbe and a major causative organism of diarrheal infection in humans that often has its functional characteristics inactivated in stressed conditions. The current study assessed the correlation between recovered CJ and water quality parameters and the drug sensitivity patterns of the pathogen to frontline antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine. Water samples ( n = 244) from rivers/estuarines were collected from April⁻September 2016, and physicochemical conditions were recorded on-site...
May 6, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730196/functional-rescue-of-dystrophin-deficiency-in-mice-caused-by-frameshift-mutations-using-campylobacter-jejuni-cas9
#20
Taeyoung Koo, Ngoc B Lu-Nguyen, Alberto Malerba, Eunji Kim, Daesik Kim, Ornella Cappellari, Hee-Yeon Cho, George Dickson, Linda Popplewell, Jin-Soo Kim
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal, X-linked muscle-wasting disease caused by mutations in the DMD gene. In 51% of DMD cases, a reading frame is disrupted because of deletion of several exons. Here, we show that CjCas9 derived from Campylobacter jejuni can be used as a gene-editing tool to correct an out-of-frame Dmd exon in Dmd knockout mice. Herein, we used Cas9 derived from S. pyogenes to generate Dmd knockout mice with a frameshift mutation in Dmd gene. Then, we expressed CjCas9, its single-guide RNA, and the EGFP gene in the tibialis anterior muscle of the Dmd knockout mice using an all-in-one adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector...
March 30, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
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