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CALCIUM OXALATE STONES

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185107/protective-impact-of-resveratrol-in-experimental-rat-model-of-hyperoxaluria
#1
Taylan Oksay, Sedat Yunusoğlu, Mustafa Calapoğlu, I Aydın Candan, İbrahim Onaran, Osman Ergün, Alper Özorak
PURPOSE: Resveratrol (RES) is a polyphenol with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and many other physiological effects on tissues. In the present study, the effect of resveratrol in hyperoxaluria driven nephrolithiasis/nephrocalcinosis is investigated. METHODS: Wistar-Albino rats of 250-300 g (male, n = 24) were included in the present study. The rats were randomized into three groups: Group 1 consisted of the controls (n = 8), Group 2 of hyperoxaluria (1% ethylene glycol (EG), n = 8), and Group 3 of the treatment (1% EG + 10 mg/kg of RES, n = 8) group...
February 9, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176358/renal-calcium-oxalate-deposits-induce-a-pro-atherosclerotic-and-pro-osteoporotic-response-in-mice
#2
Kirsten Kusumi, Evan Barr-Beare, Vijay Saxena, Fayez Safedi, Andrew Schwaderer
BACKGROUND: Urinary stone disease (USD) is increasing in adult and pediatric populations Adult and pediatric studies have demonstrated decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture rates. USD has also been independently linked to increased rates of myocardial infarction and cerebral vascular accidents. Although USD is a multisystem disorder involving the kidneys, bone and vasculature, the molecular mechanisms linking these three organs remain unknown. METHODS: Calcium oxalate nephropathy was induced in C57BL/6J mice with intra-peritoneal (ip) injection of sodium glyoxolate...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150811/size-dependent-cellular-uptake-mechanism-and-cytotoxicity-toward-calcium-oxalate-on-vero-cells
#3
Xin-Yuan Sun, Qiong-Zhi Gan, Jian-Ming Ouyang
Urinary crystals with various sizes are present in healthy individuals and patients with kidney stone; however, the cellular uptake mechanism of calcium oxalate of various sizes has not been elucidated. This study aims to compare the internalization of nano-/micron-sized (50 nm, 100 nm, and 1 μm) calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and dihydrate (COD) crystals in African green monkey renal epithelial (Vero) cells. The internalization and adhesion of COM and COD crystals to Vero cells were enhanced with decreasing crystal size...
February 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125004/antioxidant-pre-treatment-reduces-the-toxic-effects-of-oxalate-on-renal-epithelial-cells-in-a-cell-culture-model-of-urolithiasis
#4
Tomislav Kizivat, Martina Smolić, Ivana Marić, Maja Tolušić Levak, Robert Smolić, Ines Bilić Čurčić, Lucija Kuna, Ivan Mihaljević, Aleksandar Včev, Sandra Tucak-Zorić
Urolithiasis is characterized by the formation and retention of solid crystals within the urinary tract. Kidney stones are mostly composed of calcium oxalate, which predominantly generates free radicals that are toxic to renal tubular cells. The aim of the study is to explore possible effects of antioxidant pre-treatment on inhibition of oxidative stress. Three cell lines were used as in vitro model of urolithiasis: MDCK I, MDCK II and LLC-PK1. Oxidative stress was induced by exposure of cells to sodium oxalate in concentration of 8 mM...
January 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118755/expression-of-heterologous-oxalate-decarboxylase-in-hek293-cells-confers-protection-against-oxalate-induced-oxidative-stress-as-a-therapeutic-approach-for-calcium-oxalate-stone-disease
#5
Abhishek Albert, Vidhi Tiwari, Eldho Paul, Divya Ganesan, Mahesh Ayyavu, Ritu Kujur, Sasikumar Ponnusamy, Kathiresan Shanmugam, Luciano Saso, Selvam Govindan Sadasivam
Oxalates stimulate alterations in renal epithelial cells and thereby induce calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone formation. Bacillus subtilis YvrK gene encodes for oxalate decarboxylase (OxdC) which degrades oxalate to formate and CO2. The present work is aimed to clone the oxdC gene in a mammalian expression vector pcDNA and transfect into Human Embryonic Kidney 293 (HEK293) cells and evaluate the oxdC expression, cell survival rate and oxalate degrading efficiency. The results indicate cell survival rate of HEK293/pcDNAOXDC cells pre-incubated with oxalate was enhanced by 28%...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116736/association-study-of-klotho-gene-polymorphism-with-calcium-oxalate-stones-in-the-uyghur-population-of-xinjiang-china
#6
Abdusamat Ali, Halmurat Tursun, Alim Talat, Akpar Abla, Erpan Muhtar, Tao Zhang, Murat Mahmut
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between Klotho gene polymorphisms andcalcium oxalate stones in Xinjiang Uyghur people. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compared 128 patients with calcium oxalate stones (case group) and 94 healthypeople (control group), detected the genotype and allele distributions of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)of the Klotho gene (rs3752472, rs650439, and rs1207568) by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...
January 18, 2017: Urology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111301/temporal-changes-in-kidney-stone-composition-and-in-risk-factors-predisposing-to-stone-formation
#7
Li Hao Richie Xu, Beverley Adams-Huet, John R Poindexter, Naim M Maalouf, Orson W Moe, Khashayar Sakhaee
PURPOSE: The prevalence of kidney stones has increased globally in recent decades. However, studies investigating the association between temporal changes in risk of stone formation and stone types are scarce. We investigated temporal changes in stone composition, demographic, serum and urinary parameters of kidney stone formers from 1980-2015. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 1516 patients diagnosed with either calcium or uric acid stones at initial visits in a university kidney stone clinic from 1980-2015...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073210/the-importance-of-citrates-in-treatment-and-prophylaxis-of-calcium-oxalate-urinary-stones
#8
Michele Barbera, Andreas Tsirgiotis, Mauro Barbera, Quintino Paola
About 10% of the people is the subject of an episode of kidney stones during their lifetime, about 70% of these people undergoes relapses. About 80% of the urinary stones contains calcium, of wich 80% is formed of calcium oxalate, in pure form or associated with calcium phosphate. Therefore we can saythat in most cases (about 65%) the urinary stones are composedof calcium oxalate. Use of supplements of potassium citrate and magnesium citrate can help in the prevention of kidney stones of calcium oxalate, but mostly they can be used in the days before a shockwaves lithotripsy treatment to make the stones more fragile to the effect of the shock waves...
December 30, 2016: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039937/quantitative-evaluation-of-the-effects-of-urinary-stone-composition-and-size-on-color-doppler-twinkling-artifact-a-phantom-study
#9
Mengmeng Shang, Xiao Sun, Qing Liu, Jie Li, Dandan Shi, Song Ning, Lin Cheng
OBJECTIVES: The present study was conducted to quantitatively evaluate the influence of urinary stone composition and size on color Doppler twinkling artifact. METHODS: Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), apatite, L-cystine, and uric acid (UA) stone phantoms with 10 different sizes were prepared artificially and embedded in the renal sinus of porcine kidneys in vitro. Color Doppler ultrasound scanning was performed on the phantoms and TA pictures were recorded. The length of the twinkling artifact (TAL) and width of twinkling artifact (TAW) were measured...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005930/nanoparticle-tracking-analysis-for-the-enumeration-and-characterization-of-mineralo-organic-nanoparticles-in-feline-urine
#10
M Mellema, M Stoller, Y Queau, S P Ho, T Chi, J A Larsen, N Passlack, A J Fascetti, C Mohr, J L Westropp
Urinary stone disease, particularly calcium oxalate, is common in both humans and cats. Calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) are spherical nanocrystallite material, and are composed of proteins (fetuin, albumin) and inorganic minerals. CNP are suggested to play a role in a wide array of pathologic mineralization syndromes including urolithiasis. We documented the development of a clinically relevant protocol to assess urinary CNP in 9 healthy cats consuming the same diet in a controlled environment using Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA®)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984107/evaluating-region-of-interest-measurement-strategies-to-characterize-upper-urinary-tract-stones-on-computerized-tomography
#11
Vikram M Narayan, Shahab Bozorgmehri, Joseph H Ellen, Muna T Canales, Benjamin K Canales, Vincent G Bird
PURPOSE: Computerized tomography imaging is regularly used to assess stone HU values as a surrogate for stone composition and fragility. Techniques for measuring HU values are unstandardized, leading to high variability. We investigated several region of interest measurement strategies to quantify this variability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients from an institutional database who underwent preoperative computerized tomography, surgical stone extraction and stone composition analysis were identified...
March 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981376/vitamin-d-deficiency-is-prevalent-among-idiopathic-stone-formers-but-does-correction-pose-any-risk
#12
Nikhil Johri, Philippe Jaeger, Pietro M Ferraro, Linda Shavit, Devaki Nair, William G Robertson, Giovanni Gambaro, Robert J Unwin
While vitamin D (vitD) deficiency is thought to contribute to poor health in a variety of ways and should be corrected, there is still concern about giving vitD supplements to patients with a history of nephrolithiasis. The aim is to study the prevalence of vitD deficiency and the effect on stone risk of cholecalciferol (vitD3) supplementation in a cohort of idiopathic stone formers (ISF). We screened for vitD deficiency and urinary measures of stone risk, comparing vitD deficient (serum 25-OH vitD ≤30 nmol/L; ≤12 ng/mL) with vitD insufficient (31-75 nmol/L; 13-30 ng/mL) or vitD replete (>75 nmol/L; >30 ng/mL); we investigated the effect of giving vitD3 (20,000 IU orally, weekly for 4 months) to 37 of the vitD deficients...
December 16, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979238/addition-of-calcium-compounds-to-reduce-soluble-oxalate-in-a-high-oxalate-food-system
#13
Wen-Chun Bong, Leo P Vanhanen, Geoffrey P Savage
Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is often used as a base vegetable to make green juices that are promoted as healthy dietary alternatives. Spinach is known to contain significant amounts of oxalates, which are toxic and, if consumed regularly, can lead to the development of kidney stones. This research investigates adding 50-500mg increments of calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, calcium citrate and calcium sulphate to 100g of raw homogenates of spinach to determine whether calcium would combine with the soluble oxalate present in the spinach...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960541/high-frequency-dusting-versus-conventional-holmium-laser-lithotripsy-for-intrarenal-and-ureteral-calculi
#14
Roger Li, David Ruckle, Mohamed Keheila, Jonathan Maldonado, Michelle Lightfoot, Muhannad Alsyouf, Alexander Yeo, Samuel R Abourbih, Gaudencio Olgin, Javier L Arenas, D Duane Baldwin
INTRODUCTION: The efficiency of holmium laser lithotripsy for urolithiasis depends upon several factors, including laser pulse energy and frequency and stone composition and retropulsion. This study investigates the complex interplay between these factors and quantifies lithotripsy efficiency using different laser settings in a benchtop kidney and ureter model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro caliceal and ex vivo porcine ureteral models were constructed. Calcium oxalate monohydrate stones were fragmented using a 200-μm laser fiber...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959841/kidney-stones-composition-frequency-and-relation-to-metabolic-diagnosis
#15
Francisco R Spivacow, Elisa E Del Valle, Ernesto Lores, Paula G Rey
Nephrolithiasis is one of the most frequent urologic diseases. The aim of this paper is to study the composition and frequency of 8854 patient kidney stones and in a subset of them their metabolic risk factors to be related to their type of calculi. Physicochemical and crystallographic methods were used to assess kidney stone composition. In a subset of 715 patients, we performed an ambulatory metabolic protocol with diagnostic purposes. From the total sample 79% of stones were made of calcium salts (oxalate and phosphate), followed by uric acid stones in 16...
2016: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932479/progress-in-understanding-the-genetics-of-calcium-containing-nephrolithiasis
#16
John A Sayer
Renal stone disease is a frequent condition, causing a huge burden on health care systems globally. Calcium-based calculi account for around 75% of renal stone disease and the incidence of these calculi is increasing, suggesting environmental and dietary factors are acting upon a preexisting genetic background. The familial nature and significant heritability of stone disease is known, and recent genetic studies have successfully identified genes that may be involved in renal stone formation. The detection of monogenic causes of renal stone disease has been made more feasible by the use of high-throughput sequencing technologies and has also facilitated the discovery of novel monogenic causes of stone disease...
December 8, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924845/caffeine-prevents-kidney-stone-formation-by-translocation-of-apical-surface-annexin-a1-crystal-binding-protein-into-cytoplasm-in-vitro-evidence
#17
Paleerath Peerapen, Visith Thongboonkerd
Recent large 3 cohorts have shown that caffeinated beverage consumption was associated with lower risk of kidney stone disease. However, its protective mechanisms remained unknown and had not been previously investigated. We thus evaluated protective effects of caffeine (1 μM-10 mM) on calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) kidney stone formation, using crystallization, crystal growth, cell-crystal adhesion, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence assays. The results showed that caffeine reduced crystal number but, on the other hand, increased crystal size, resulting in unchanged crystal mass, consistent with crystal growth that was not affected by caffeine...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921023/effects-of-hydrophilic-extract-of-nasturtium-officinale-on-prevention-of-ethylene-glycol-induced-renal-stone-in-male-wistar-rats
#18
Sadrollah Mehrabi, Eslam Askarpour, Farhad Mehrabi, Ramin Jannesar
BACKGROUND: Nasturtium officinale is a traditional herb that is used for diuresis. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to determine the effects of hydrophilic extract of Nasturtium officinale on ethylene glycol-induced renal stone in male Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study 32 male Wistar rats were randomly divided in six groups and studied during 30 days. Two groups of negative and healthy control received 1% ethylene glycol in water respectively...
October 2016: Journal of Nephropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913854/the-role-of-macromolecules-in-the-formation-of-kidney-stones
#19
REVIEW
Jeffrey D Rimer, Ann M Kolbach-Mandel, Michael D Ward, Jeffrey A Wesson
The formation of crystal aggregates, one of the critical processes in kidney stone pathogenesis, involves interactions between crystals (predominantly calcium oxalate monohydrate, COM) and urinary constituents (e.g., proteins), which serve as an adhesive "glue" between crystals in stones. To develop a better understanding of the protein-crystal interactions that lead to crystal aggregation, we have measured the effect of model proteins on bulk COM crystal properties as well as their adsorption on crystal surfaces using three synthetic polyanions: poly(aspartic acid) (polyD), poly(glutamic acid) (polyE), and poly(acrylic acid) (polyAA)...
February 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913853/the-role-of-intestinal-oxalate-transport-in-hyperoxaluria-and-the-formation-of-kidney-stones-in-animals-and-man
#20
REVIEW
Jonathan M Whittamore, Marguerite Hatch
The intestine exerts a considerable influence over urinary oxalate in two ways, through the absorption of dietary oxalate and by serving as an adaptive extra-renal pathway for elimination of this waste metabolite. Knowledge of the mechanisms responsible for oxalate absorption and secretion by the intestine therefore have significant implications for understanding the etiology of hyperoxaluria, as well as offering potential targets for future treatment strategies for calcium oxalate kidney stone disease. In this review, we present the recent developments and advances in this area over the past 10 years, and put to the test some of the new ideas that have emerged during this time, using human and mouse models...
February 2017: Urolithiasis
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