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Antibiotics in pediatrics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653437/early-infectious-exposures-are-not-associated-with-increased-risk-of-pediatric-onset-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Leena Suleiman, Emmanuelle Waubant, Gregory Aaen, Anita Belman, Leslie Benson, Meghan Candee, Tanuja Chitnis, Mark Gorman, Manu Goyal, Benjamin Greenberg, Yolanda Harris, Janace Hart, Ilana Kahn, Lauren Krupp, Timothy Lotze, Soe Mar, Manikum Moodley, Jayne Ness, Bardia Nourbakhsh, Mary Rensel, Moses Rodriguez, John Rose, Jennifer Rubin, Teri Schreiner, Jan-Mendelt Tillema, Amy Waldman, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, T Charles Casper, Michael Waltz, Jennifer S Graves
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine if early infectious exposures such as daycare, early use of antibiotics, vaccinations and other germ exposures including pacifier use and playing on grass are associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) risk in children. METHODS: This was a case-control study of children with MS or clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and healthy controls enrolled at sixteen clinics participating in the US Network of Pediatric MS Centers. Parents completed a comprehensive environmental questionnaire that captured early infectious exposures, habits, and illnesses in the first five years of life...
March 26, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628968/clinical-manifestation-of-campylobacter-enteritis-in-children
#2
Joon Yeol Bae, Dong Hyuk Lee, Kyung Ok Ko, Jae Woo Lim, Eun Jeong Cheon, Young Hwa Song, Jung Min Yoon
Purpose: Timely antibiotic therapy in selected cases of diarrhea associated with bacterial infections can reduce the duration and severity of illness and prevent complications. The availability of a predictive index before identification of causative bacteria would aid in the choice of a therapeutic agent. Methods: The study included patients admitted to the pediatrics unit at Konyang University Hospital for acute inflammatory diarrhea from August 1, 2015 to July 31, 2016 who underwent multiplex polymerase chain reaction testing...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628457/hypocarnitinemia-observed-in-an-infant-treated-with-short-term-administration-of-antibiotic-containing-pivalic-acid
#3
Kimitaka Nakazaki, Erika Ogawa, Mika Ishige, Nobuyuki Ishige, Tatsuo Fuchigami, Shori Takahashi
Carnitine is a water-soluble amino acid derivative required for β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. In carnitine cycle abnormalities and low carnitine states, fatty acid β-oxidation is inhibited during fasting, resulting in hypoglycemia. Pivalic acid is a substance used in prodrugs to increase absorption of parent drugs, and antibiotics containing pivalic acid are frequently used as wide spectrum antibiotics for pediatric patients in Japan. Pivalic acid released after absorption is conjugated with free carnitine to form pivaloylcarnitine, which is then excreted in urine...
2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628008/abdominal-drainage-after-laparoscopic-appendectomy-in-children-an-endless-controversy
#4
B Aneiros Castro, I Cano, A García, P Yuste, E Ferrero, A Gómez
BACKGROUND: Routine prophylactic abdominal drains after laparoscopic appendectomy for perforated appendicitis in children are still controversial. Throughout the history of surgery, potential benefits of the abdominal drains have been described. However, in recent studies, no benefits were observed and serious complications have been reported. METHODS: From January 2000 to December 2013, all charts of the pediatric patients who underwent laparoscopic appendectomy in our tertiary center were revised...
April 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Surgery: SJS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626010/comparison-of-empiric-antibiotics-for-acute-osteomyelitis-in-children
#5
Sarah McBride, Cary Thurm, Ramikan Gouripeddi, Bryan Stone, Phil Jaggard, Samir S Shah, Joel S Tieder, Ryan Butcher, Jason Weiser, Matt Hall, Ron Keren, Christopher P Landrigan
OBJECTIVES: Broad-spectrum antibiotics are commonly used for the empiric treatment of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis and often target methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with medication-associated risk and unknown treatment benefit. We aimed to compare clinical outcomes among patients with osteomyelitis who did and did not receive initial antibiotics used to target MRSA. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 974 hospitalized children 2 to 18 years old using the Pediatric Health Information System database, augmented with clinical data...
April 6, 2018: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624147/risk-factors-for-surgical-site-infection-after-intracranial-electroencephalography-monitoring-for-epilepsy-in-the-pediatric-population
#6
Ying Meng, Mathew R Voisin, Suganth Suppiah, Zamir Merali, Ali Moghaddamjou, Naif M Alotaibi, Arbelle Manicat-Emo, Shelly Weiss, Cristina Go, Blathnaid McCoy, Elizabeth J Donner, James T Rutka
OBJECTIVE Intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) monitoring is an important method of identifying the seizure focus in patients with medically refractory epilepsy. While previous studies have demonstrated low rates of surgical complications, reported rates of surgical site infection (SSI) are highly variable. To date, no studies have specifically evaluated the patient or operative risk factors contributing to SSI. The goals of this study were to examine the rate of SSI after iEEG monitoring for epilepsy workup in pediatric patients and to determine the variables that might contribute to the development of SSI...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620721/pediatric-coccidioidomycosis-case-series-from-a-california-pediatric-infectious-diseases-clinic
#7
Lauren A Lee, Gail L Sondermeyer Cooksey, Janice J Kim, Amandeep Kahal, Debra Gilliss, Fouzia Naeem, James M McCarty, Duc J Vugia
BACKGROUND: Coccidioidomycosis is not as well described in the pediatric population as it is in the adult population. We describe clinical findings, diagnosis, and management of coccidioidomycosis in 108 pediatric patients seen in an outpatient clinic in the California Central Valley, an area endemic for coccidioidomycosis. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of a convenience sample of pediatric patients (≤17 years of age) diagnosed with coccidioidomycosis who visited an infectious diseases clinic in Madera, CA during January 1-October 1, 2012...
April 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615379/doxycycline-suppresses-chlamydia-pneumoniae-induced-interferon-gamma-responses-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-in-children-with-allergic-asthma
#8
Tamar A Smith-Norowitz, Diana Weaver, Yitzchok M Norowitz, Margaret R Hammerschlag, Rauno Joks, Helen G Durkin, Stephan Kohlhoff
Persistent respiratory infections caused by Chlamydia pneumoniae have been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases (e.g. asthma). Antibiotics are used to treat C. pneumoniae respiratory infections; however, the use of antibiotics as anti-inflammatory agents in treatment of asthma remains controversial. The current study investigated whether ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, or doxycycline can suppress C. pneumoniae-induced production of immunoglobulin (Ig) E or cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from asthmatic children...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614568/-serotype-distribution-and-drug-resistance-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-haemophilus-influenzae-and-moraxella-catarrhalis-isolated-from-nasopharynx-of-uygur-children
#9
H L Tian, W Shi, H F Zhou, L Yuan, K H Yao, Dawuti Rexiati, A M Xu
Objective: To investigate the serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Streptococcus pneumoniae ( S. pneumoniae ), Haemophilus influenzae ( H. influenzae ) and Moraxella catarrhalis ( M. catarrhalis ) isolates collected from nasopharyngeal swabs from Uygur children in Kashi. Methods: Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from inpatient Uygur children aged from 1 month to 5 years with respiratory infections from the pediatric department, the First People's Hospital of Kashi, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region...
April 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613971/the-impact-of-pediatric-outpatient-parenteral-antibiotic-therapy-implementation-at-a-tertiary-children-s-hospital-in-the-united-kingdom
#10
Sanjay Patel, Valentina Burzio, Helen Green, Sara Rees, Marc Tebruegge, Christine Jones, Saul N Faust
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) have largely focused on adult practice, and there are few published data on the safety and effectiveness of pediatric OPAT (p-OPAT). METHODS: During a 3-year-period (2012 to 2015), data were prospectively collected on patients managed within the p-OPAT service at Southampton Children's Hospital, a tertiary pediatric hospital in the South of England. RESULTS: A total of 130 p-OPAT episodes were managed during this period...
April 2, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605354/trends-in-the-management-of-secondary-post-tonsillectomy-hemorrhage-in-children
#11
Christine M Clark, Jane R Schubart, Michele M Carr
OBJECTIVE: To define current practices in management of secondary post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) in children by pediatric and general otolaryngologists. INTRODUCTION: Bleeding after tonsillectomy is common. Our goal was to describe management methods across the U.S. METHODS: Questions regarding perioperative management and treatment in response to three hypothetical cases featuring secondary post-tonsillectomy bleeding were posed via REDCap survey...
May 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605347/diagnosis-and-management-of-pediatric-sinusitis-a-survey-of-primary-care-otolaryngology-and-urgent-care-providers
#12
Laurie Newton, Amanda Kotowski, Melissa Grinker, Robert Chun
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this project were two-fold: 1) To assess pediatric primary care (PCP), pediatric otolaryngology (ENT) and pediatric urgent care (UC) providers' perception of their adherence to the 2013 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) established guidelines for the diagnosis and management of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) in children 1-18 years old and 2) to assess the same providers' practice patterns in the diagnosis and management of pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis (PCRS)...
May 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605342/safety-and-postoperative-adverse-events-in-management-of-acute-mastoiditis-in-children-30-day-nsqip-outcomes
#13
Matthew G Crowson, Jeffrey Cheng
OBJECTIVE: To examine preoperative risk factors, postoperative 30-day outcomes and adverse events of acute mastoiditis using a national pediatric surgical database. METHODS: We explored our objectives using a cross-sectional analysis of a hospital-based reporting system database. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) pediatric database was used to identify surgical encounters for the treatment of acute mastoiditis from 2012 to 2015...
May 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605191/a-quality-improvement-intervention-to-reduce-emergency-department-radiography-for-bronchiolitis
#14
Joel Reiter, Adin Breuer, Oded Breuer, Saar Hashavya, David Rekhtman, Eitan Kerem, Malena Cohen-Cymberknoh
INTRODUCTION: Bronchiolitis is one of the most common infectious diseases in children and the most frequent cause of hospitalization in infants. Clinical practice guidelines recommend that a chest X-ray (CXR) should not be routinely obtained in the diagnosis of bronchiolitis, as studies have shown that they do not affect clinical outcomes, but rather lead to overuse of pharmacological agents and a longer length of hospital stay. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether active institution of bronchiolitis practice guidelines as part of a quality improvement project decreased the use of CXRs in the Pediatric Emergency Department (ED)...
April 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601460/national-incidence-of-pediatric-mastoiditis-in-the-united-states-2000-2012-creating-a-baseline-for-public-health-surveillance
#15
Laura M King, Monina Bartoces, Adam L Hersh, Lauri A Hicks, Katherine E Fleming-Dutra
Between 2000-2012, the national estimated incidence rate of pediatric mastoiditis, a rare but serious complication of acute otitis media (AOM), was highest in 2006 (2.7 per 100,000 population) and lowest in 2012 (1.8 per 100,000 population). This measure provides a baseline for public health surveillance in the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era as stewardship efforts target antibiotic use in AOM.
March 27, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599424/epidemiology-and-seasonality-of-respiratory-viruses-detected-from-children-with-respiratory-tract-infections-in-wuxi-east-china
#16
Xiaoli Ge, Yi Guo, JuanJuan Chen, Renjing Hu, Xing Feng
BACKGROUND Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are the major causes of mortality and morbidity in children and lead to hospitalization in developing countries. However, little is known about the epidemiology and seasonality of respiratory viruses in the pediatric population in Wuxi, East China. MATERIAL AND METHODS We included all patients 14 years of age and below who presented with signs and symptoms of RTIs between January 2010 and December 2016. During this period, a total of 2160 children treated in Wuxi No...
March 30, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598957/pharmacovigilance-in-pediatrics
#17
Émilie Bouquet, Kristina Star, Annie Pierre Jonville-Béra, Geneviève Durrieu
The characteristics of pharmacology and drug evaluation in the pediatric age group highlight the necessity for the pharmacovigilance community to adjust to the specific features of children. At the time of marketing a medicinal product intended for children, the product's safety profile is sometimes less well known than for adults due to fewer or small sample clinical trials. Furthermore, the frequent off-labeled drug use, the use of unsuitable dosage forms and the need for continuous dose adjustments increase the risk of medication errors and thus lead to avoidable adverse drug reactions (ADRs)...
February 16, 2018: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595537/chronic-osteomyelitis-caused-by-haemophilus-parainfluenzae-a-case-report
#18
Vignesh Ramachandran, Lee S Haruno, Theodora S Browne, Laila E Woc-Colburn, Scott B Rosenfeld, Vinitha R Shenava
CASE: A 14-year-old boy presented with a pathologic fracture of the distal aspect of the tibia and a remote history of a dog bite near the injury site. Imaging studies, biopsy, and presentation corroborated the diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis. Multiple diagnostic methods were negative until an open biopsy identified Haemophilus parainfluenzae, a fastidious oropharyngeal bacterium, with polymerase chain reaction analysis. The patient underwent extensive debridement, placement of external fixation, and a year-long antibiotic therapy regimen...
January 2018: JBJS Case Connector
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590376/incidence-of-nephrotoxicity-among-pediatric-patients-receiving-vancomycin-with-either-piperacillin-tazobactam-or-cefepime-a-cohort-study
#19
Kathryn M Cook, Jessica Gillon, Alison G Grisso, Ritu Banerjee, Natalia Jimenez-Truque, Elizabeth J Phillips, Sara L Van Driest
Background: Recent studies in adults have found an incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients treated with a combination of vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) that is greater than that expected with either medication alone. The purpose of this study was to determine whether combination therapy with vancomycin and TZP is associated with an incidence of AKI in pediatric patients higher than that in those on combination therapy with vancomycin and cefepime. Methods: We performed a retrospective single-center matched-cohort study of pediatric patients who received vancomycin in combination with TZP or cefepime between January 2015 and June 2016...
March 26, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589993/incidence-of-multidrug-resistant-organism-among-children-admitted-to-pediatric-intensive-care-unit-in-a-developing-country
#20
Ahmed El-Nawawy, Galal A Ashraf, Manal A M Antonios, Marwa A Meheissen, Marwa M R El-Alfy
AIM: Multidrug-resistant infections are an increasingly common condition particularly in critical care units. This study aimed to determine the incidence and types of resistant bacteria acquired in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a university hospital. SUBJECT AND METHODS: A prospective study was conducted during the year 2016. All children aged below 16 years were studied for infection development and pattern of susceptibility to various groups of antibiotics...
March 28, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
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