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Antibiotics in pediatrics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654543/extended-versus-narrow-spectrum-antibiotics-in-the-management-of-uncomplicated-appendicitis-in-children-a-propensity-matched-comparative-effectiveness-study
#1
Danielle B Cameron, Patrice Melvin, Dionne A Graham, Charity C Glass, Stephanie K Serres, Matthew P Kronman, Jacqueline M Saito, Shawn J Rangel
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of extended versus narrow spectrum antibiotics in preventing surgical site infections (SSIs) and hospital revisits in children with uncomplicated appendicitis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: There is a paucity of high-quality evidence in the pediatric literature comparing the effectiveness of extended versus narrow-spectrum antibiotics in the prevention of SSIs associated with uncomplicated appendicitis...
June 26, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647107/-justification-of-off-label-antibiotics-uses-in-hospitalized-children
#2
Christelle Berthod, Behrouz Kassaï, Remy Boussageon, Léopold Adelaide, Matthias Jacquet-Lagrèze, Audrey Lajoinie
Unlicensed and off-label (UL/OL) drugs are commonly used in pediatrics wards, especially the antibiotics. It remains unclear if this strategy is justified by randomized controlled trials of good quality? OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the level of evidence of UL/OL antibiotics prescription in hospitalized children. The initial hypothesis was that the UL/OL antibiotics prescriptions had a lower level of evidence than licensed antibiotics. METHOD: This observational study assessed the antibiotics prescription in the children mother and women hospital of Lyon...
May 26, 2017: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640809/development-of-elisas-for-diagnosis-of-acute-typhoid-fever-in-nigerian-children
#3
Jiin Felgner, Aarti Jain, Rie Nakajima, Li Liang, Algis Jasinskas, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Joseph M Vinetz, Fabio Miyajima, Munir Pirmohamed, Fatimah Hassan-Hanga, Dominic Umoru, Binta Wudil Jibir, Safiya Gambo, Kudirat Olateju, Philip L Felgner, Stephen Obaro, D Huw Davies
Improved serodiagnostic tests for typhoid fever (TF) are needed for surveillance, to facilitate patient management, curb antibiotic resistance, and inform public health programs. To address this need, IgA, IgM and IgG ELISAs using Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and hemolysin E (t1477) protein were conducted on 86 Nigerian pediatric TF and 29 non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) cases, 178 culture-negative febrile cases, 28 "other" (i.e., non-Salmonella) pediatric infections, and 48 healthy Nigerian children...
June 22, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640009/augmented-renal-clearance-using-population-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling-in-critically-ill-pediatric-patients
#4
Sean N Avedissian, Erin Bradley, Diana Zhang, John S Bradley, Lama H Nazer, Tri M Tran, Austin Nguyen, Jennifer Le
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to: 1) evaluate the prevalence of augmented renal clearance in critically ill pediatric patients using vancomycin clearance; 2) derive the pharmacokinetic model that best describes vancomycin clearance in critically ill pediatric patients; and 3) correlate vancomycin clearance with creatinine clearance estimated by modified Schwartz or Cockcroft-Gault. DESIGN: Retrospective, two-center, cohort study from 2003 to 2016...
June 20, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638305/predictors-of-adverse-outcomes-in-children-with-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia
#5
Ganesh Kumarachandran, Jennifer Kristie Johnson, Debbie-Ann Shirley, Eileen Graffunder, Emily L Heil
OBJECTIVES: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is a common infection, associated with significant morbidity and mortality in children. Factors associated with adverse treatment outcomes are poorly understood in the pediatric population. METHODS: Our study compared clinical and microbiologic characteristics of children admitted during a 5-year period (2007-2012) to a large university-based hospital and found to have S aureus bacteremia with outcome measures, in order to identify risk factors associated with treatment failure (defined as 30-day mortality, delayed microbiologic resolution, or recurrence of S aureus bacteremia within 60 days of completing effective antibiotic therapy)...
May 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638248/evaluation-of-microorganisms-causing-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-a-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#6
Ayse Betul Ergul, Serife Cetin, Yasemin Ay Altintop, Sefika Elmas Bozdemir, Alper Ozcan, Umit Altug, Hasan Samsa, Yasemin Altuner Torun
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify microorganisms causing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and also study the antibiotic resistance/susceptibility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively assessed microorganisms isolated from patients diagnosed with VAP in a pediatric intensive care unit between January 1, 2014, and June 30, 2016. RESULTS: We included 44 patients diagnosed with VAP. The prevalence thereof was 8.6 patients per 1,000 ventilator days...
June 2017: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632826/-pyogenic-liver-abscess-in-children-clinical-experience-in-a-pediatric-reference-center
#7
Carolina Carballo, Claudia Cazes, Mariana Matsuda, M Laura Praino, Noemí Rivas, Eduardo López
INTRODUCTION: Liver abscess is a serious and an uncommon pediatric disease. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: Description of 20 pediatric patients with liver abscess admitted in "Ricardo Gutierrez" Children's Hospital, a Tertiary Reference Center of Buenos Aires, between 2009 and 2015. RESULTS: The hospitalization rate was 35/100.000 admissions. Median age was 5 years old, male/female ratio 4/1. Five patients (25%) had predisposing factors. Median days at diagnosis were 12...
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630017/vesicoureteral-reflux-is-a-phenotype-not-a-disease-a-population-centered-approach-to-pediatric-urinary-tract-infection
#8
REVIEW
Jathin Bandari, Steven G Docimo
We performed a review of the recent literature concerning urinary tract infection (UTI) evaluation and management. In modeling options for management, one overriding conclusion became apparent: in most affected children, the presence of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is inconsequential since it has no bearing on optimal management or outcome. In fact, knowing that a child does not have reflux might bias the provider to withhold potentially helpful therapeutic modalities to decrease UTI morbidity, such as antibiotic prophylaxis...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629795/epidemiological-features-and-antibiotic-resistance-patterns-of-haemophilus-influenzae-originating-from-respiratory-tract-and-vaginal-specimens-in-pediatric-patients
#9
Jian-Ping Li, Chun-Zhen Hua, Li-Ying Sun, Hong-Jiao Wang, Zhi-Min Chen, Shi-Qiang Shang
BACKGROUND: Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) is a common pathogen of respiratory tract infections in children, however, as a possible cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls, its epidemiological features,antibiotic-resistance patterns, and treatment are seldom noted. METHODS: Specimens obtained from patients were inoculated on Haemophilus selective medium; and drug-sensitivities tests were determined with disc diffusion method. Cefinase disc was used to detect β-lactamase...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629687/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-empiric-treatment-for-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-a-pediatric-emergency-department
#10
Kristen Breslin, Lisa Tuchman, Katie L Hayes, Gia Badolato, Monika K Goyal
OBJECTIVE: To determine test characteristics of provider judgment for empiric antibiotic provision to patients undergoing testing for a sexually transmitted infection. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional electronic health record review of all patients aged 13-19 years who had Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) testing sent from an urban, academic pediatric emergency department in 2012. We abstracted data, including patient demographics, chief complaint, sexually transmitted infection test results, and treatment...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625810/evaluating-the-ototoxicity-of-a-anti-mrsa-peptide-kr-12-a2
#11
Chung Man Sung, Hong Chan Kim, Yong Beom Cho, Song Yub Shin, Chul Ho Jang
INTRODUCTION: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an emerging problem for the treatment of chronic suppurative otitis media, and also for pediatric tympanostomy tube otorrhea. To date, there are no effective topical antibiotic drugs to treat MRSA otorrhea. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we evaluated the ototoxicity of topical KR-12-a2 solution on the cochlea when it applied topically in the middle ear of guinea pigs. METHODS: The antimicrobial activity of KR-12-a2 against MRSA strains was examined by using the inhibition zone test...
May 31, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616818/fosfomycin-for-the-treatment-of-drug-resistant-urinary-tract-infections-potential-of-an-old-drug-not-explored-fully
#12
Vrushali Patwardhan, Sarman Singh
INTRODUCTION: Increased emergence of bacterial resistance and the limited options of novel antimicrobial agents have necessitated the reintroduction of some old antimicrobial agents. One such drug is fosfomycin, but its potential has not been explored fully, especially in India. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To analyze the in vitro activity of fosfomycin, against the urinary isolates and to compare it with in vitro activity of other orally administered antimicrobial agents...
June 14, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614439/residual-volume-in-vials-of-antibiotics-used-in-pediatrics
#13
Caroline Magna Pessoa Chaves, Carolina Martins Bezerra, Francisca Elisângela Teixeira Lima, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão Cardoso, Said Gonçalves da Cruz Fonseca, Viviane Martins da Silva
OBJECTIVE: Quantifying residual volume contained in vials of antibiotics used in pediatrics. METHOD: This is an experiment involving samples from vials of antibiotics used in a pediatric hospital. Residual volume was identified by calculating the difference in weight measurement before and after the vials were washed. Evaluation of the residual volume difference in the vials was determined by the Wilcoxon non-parametric test for a sample and established at a significance level of 5%...
June 12, 2017: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612674/difficulty-in-the-diagnosis-of-bone-and-joint-pain-associated-with-pediatric-acute-leukemia-comparison-with-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#14
Takao Tsujioka, Minako Sugiyama, Masahiro Ueki, Yusuke Tozawa, Shunichiro Takezaki, Junjiro Ohshima, Yuko Cho, Masafumi Yamada, Akihiro Iguchi, Ichiro Kobayashi, Tadashi Ariga
OBJECTIVES: Acute leukemia often causes osteoarthralgia. The aim of this study is characterization of leukemia-associated osteoarthralgia in comparison with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed clinical records of 31 patients with acute leukemia and 13 patients with articular JIA diagnosed between January 2008 and March 2013. Clinical and laboratory findings at the initial examination were compared among the three groups; 10 leukemia with and 21 leukemia without osteoarthralgia and 13 JIA groups...
June 14, 2017: Modern Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604577/pain-after-cochlear-implantation-an-unusual-complication
#15
Charlotte Celerier, Isabelle Rouillon, Marion Blanchard, Marine Parodi, Françoise Denoyelle, Natalie Loundon
OBJECTIVE: To analyze clinical signs and better define the underestimated long-term pain after implantation, to discuss etiological hypothesis, and to propose our department treatment algorithm and results. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective review of children implanted with complaints of atypical pain in the area of device implantation, not in the immediate postoperative period, more than or equal to 4 on the Visual Analog Pain Scale (VAPS: 0-10) in the ENT pediatric department of Trousseau and Necker Enfants Malades Hospitals between 1998 and 2015...
June 9, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602381/variability-of-care-in-infants-with-severe-bronchiolitis-less-invasive-respiratory-management-leads-to-similar-outcomes
#16
Sandrine Essouri, Florent Baudin, Laurent Chevret, Mélanie Vincent, Guillaume Emeriaud, Philippe Jouvet
OBJECTIVE: To compare the management of children with severe bronchiolitis requiring intensive care (based on duration of ventilatory support and duration of pediatric intensive care unit [PICU] stay) in 2 countries with differing pediatric transport and PICU organizations. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective observational care study in 2 PICUs of tertiary care university hospitals, 1 in France and 1 in Canada. All children with bronchiolitis who required admission to the PICU between November 1, 2013, and March 31, 2014, were included...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602009/update-on-intranasal-medications-in-rhinosinusitis
#17
REVIEW
Kornkiat Snidvongs, Sanguansak Thanaviratananich
This review describes beneficial effects and adverse events of various intranasal medications in treating rhinosinusitis. Application of intranasal steroids has been described in treating all subtypes of adult rhinosinusitis, but reports are limited in pediatrics and mostly in acute pediatric subgroups resulted in benefits While saline irrigation is effective for patients with chronic rhinosinusitis without polyps and in pediatric acute rhinosinusitis, there is no evidence yet for saline drips and sprays. Application of intranasal antifungals and nasal irrigation with surfactant brings more harm than benefits...
July 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601683/prenatal-intrapartum-and-postnatal-factors-are-associated-with-pediatric-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#18
Elizabeth T Jensen, Jonathan T Kuhl, Lisa J Martin, Marc E Rothenberg, Evan S Dellon
BACKGROUND: Multiple lines of evidence point to the potential importance of early-life environmental factors in the rapid rise in incidence of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), but potential exposures have not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between prenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal factors and the development of pediatric EoE using a case-control study. METHODS: Cases of EoE were recruited from an existing registry at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (CCHMC)...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600447/the-epidemiology-management-and-outcomes-of-bacterial-meningitis-in-infants
#19
Lynda Ouchenir, Christian Renaud, Sarah Khan, Ari Bitnun, Andree-Anne Boisvert, Jane McDonald, Jennifer Bowes, Jason Brophy, Michelle Barton, Joseph Ting, Ashley Roberts, Michael Hawkes, Joan L Robinson
OBJECTIVES: The pathogens that cause bacterial meningitis in infants and their antimicrobial susceptibilities may have changed in this era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, use of conjugated vaccines, and maternal antibiotic prophylaxis for group B Streptococcus (GBS). The objective was to determine the optimal empirical antibiotics for bacterial meningitis in early infancy. METHODS: This was a cohort study of infants <90 days of age with bacterial meningitis at 7 pediatric tertiary care hospitals across Canada in 2013 and 2014...
June 9, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599967/challenging-surgical-dogma-in-the-management-of-proximal-esophageal-atresia-with-distal-tracheoesophageal-fistula-outcomes-from-the-midwest-pediatric-surgery-consortium
#20
Dave R Lal, Samir K Gadepalli, Cynthia D Downard, Daniel J Ostlie, Peter C Minneci, Ruth M Swedler, Thomas H Chelius, Laura Cassidy, Cooper T Rapp, Deborah Billmire, Steven Bruch, R Carland Burns, Katherine J Deans, Mary E Fallat, Jason D Fraser, Julia Grabowski, Ferdynand Hebel, Michael A Helmrath, Ronald B Hirschl, Rashmi Kabre, Jonathan Kohler, Matthew P Landman, Charles M Leys, Grace Z Mak, Jessica Raque, Beth Rymeski, Jacqueline M Saito, Shawn D St Peter, Daniel von Allmen, Brad W Warner, Thomas T Sato
PURPOSE: Perioperative management of infants with esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF) is frequently based on surgeon experience and dogma rather than evidence-based guidelines. This study examines whether commonly perceived important aspects of practice affect outcome in a contemporary multi-institutional cohort of patients undergoing primary repair for the most common type of esophageal atresia anomaly, proximal EA with distal TEF. METHODS: The Midwest Pediatric Surgery Consortium conducted a multicenter, retrospective study examining selected outcomes on infants diagnosed with proximal EA with distal TEF who underwent primary repair over a 5-year period (2009-2014), with a minimum 1-year follow up, across 11 centers...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
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