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Antibiotics in pediatrics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243536/variation-in-pediatric-organ-donor-management-practices-among-us-organ-procurement-organizations
#1
Robert S Ream, Eric S Armbrecht
INTRODUCTION: Reports of actual pediatric organ donor management practice among US organ procurement organizations are sparse, and the use of standardized management guidelines is unknown. A recent consensus statement from the Society of Critical Care Medicine, the American College of Chest Physicians, and the Association of Organ Procurement Organizations offers guidelines for the management of the pediatric organ donor. RESEARCH QUESTION: To describe the use of guidelines and routine practices in the management of the pediatric organ donor with respect to hemodynamics, lung and ventilator management, fluid and electrolytes, hormonal replacement therapy, the use of blood products, thermoregulation, and prophylactic antibiotics...
January 1, 2017: Progress in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242803/as-a-definitive-choice-of-treatment-joint-and-defect-spanning-multiplanar-tubular-external-fixation-in-the-management-of-pediatric-open-defective-supracondylar-humerus-fracture-a-case-report
#2
Mehmet Demirel, Onur Tunali, Ismail Turkmen, Yavuz Saglam
Introduction: Although supracondylar fractures of the humerus are common in children, open fractures of are extremely rare injuries. Gustilo- Anderson Type-III fractures in the upper extremity are primarily associated with considerable bone loss resulting from high energy trauma. In this study, a case of open pediatric supracondylar humerus fracture treated by a joint and defect spanning multiplanar tubular external fixation is presented. Case Report: A boy aged 3 years suffered from a Gustilo-Anderson Type-IIIA supracondylar humerus fractures...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241184/peritonitis-in-children-on-chronic-peritoneal-dialysis-the-experience-of-a-large-national-pediatric-cohort
#3
Daniela Ponce, Thyago Proença de Moraes, Roberto Pecoits-Filho, Ana Elizabeth Figueiredo, Pasqual Barretti
BACKGROUND: We performed this study to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, microbiology, treatment, and outcome of peritonitis in pediatric Peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients at a nationwide prospective study. METHODOLOGY: Patients younger than 18 years recruited in the BRAZPD II study from 2004 to 2011, who presented their first peritonitis episode, were included in the study. RESULTS: We found 125 first episodes of peritonitis in 491 children PD patients (0...
December 14, 2017: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241163/diagnosis-and-management-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-an-international-survey-of-neonatologists-and-pediatric-surgeons
#4
Mélanie Valpacos, Delphine Arni, Amy Keir, Ann Aspirot, James C H Wilde, Spencer Beasley, Daniele De Luca, Riccardo E Pfister, Oliver Karam
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious complication of prematurity. Currently, there is limited evidence to guide investigation and treatment strategies. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the parameters used to diagnose or exclude NEC, and to identify differences between neonatologists and pediatric surgeons. METHODS: A scenario-based survey was sent to neonatologists and pediatric surgeons. RESULTS: 173 physicians from 26 countries completed the survey (55% neonatologists and 45% pediatric surgeons)...
December 15, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235736/primary-and-secondary-antibiotic-resistance-of-helicobacter-pylori-in-israeli-children-and-adolescents
#5
Michal Kori, Jacob Yahav, Rita Berdinstein, Haim Shmuely
BACKGROUND: Empiric treatment for Helicobacter pylori is influenced by antibiotic susceptibility of infecting strains. A rise in the resistance rate to clarithromycin and metronidazole has been reported in pediatric populations. OBJECTIVES: To assess the primary and secondary antibiotic resistance of H. pylori isolates in Israeli children and adolescents. METHODS: A retrospective review of H. pylori isolates cultured from antral biopsies of consecutive children aged 1 to 18 years, who were referred to the Pediatric Gastroenterology Unit, Kaplan Medical Center, over a 2...
December 2017: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234355/treatment-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-are-all-countries-treating-children-in-the-same-way-a-literature-review
#6
REVIEW
Daniele Donà, Dora Luise, Liviana Da Dalt, Carlo Giaquinto
Background: Pneumonia represents an important threat to children's health in both developed and developing countries. In the last 10 years, many national and international guidelines on the treatment of pediatric CAP have been published, in order to optimize the prescription of antibiotics and limit their cost and side effects. However, the practical implementation of these guidelines is still limited. Main Text: We analyzed the current recommendations for the therapy of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) that all converge on the identification of aminopenicillins and beta-lactams as the optimal treatment for CAP...
2017: International Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233359/supra-annular-mitral-valve-replacement-in-an-infant-with-infective-endocarditis
#7
Sanae Yamauchi, Shigemitsu Iwai, Yuji Tominaga, Yosuke Kugo, Moyu Hasegawa, Futoshi Kayatani, Kunihiko Takahashi, Hisaaki Aoki, Hiroaki Kawata
We report the case of a female neonate born at 40 weeks' gestation with no known risk factors. On postnatal day 27, she was transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit and intubated for cardiorespiratory failure; she was diagnosed with group B streptococcus infective endocarditis. Mitral valve vegetations did not improve with antibiotic therapy. Mitral valve surgery was performed on postnatal day 36. A mechanical mitral valve with short-segment polytetrafluoroethylene skirt was inserted into the supra-annular position; gentian violet was applied to the sewing ring and skirt...
January 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232194/persistent-ventricular-bigeminy-during-anesthesia-in-pediatric-patients-a-case-report-of-an-11-year-old-child
#8
Sheetal Dalal, Vikas Chaudhari
An 11-year-old male child with fractures in both bones in his left forearm presented for open reduction and internal fixation. The pre-anesthetic check-up and investigations did not reveal any pre-existing underlying cardio-respiratory disease. The patient had an uneventful peri-operative period during the operation and was comfortable without any anxiety or restlessness. After an uneventful induction and intubation as per routine protocol, the patient received 600 mg of amoxicillin+clavunate intravenously as an antibiotic...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229640/adverse-effects-of-intravenous-vancomycin-based-prophylaxis-during-therapy-for-pediatric-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#9
Yilun Sun, Rachael L Huskey, Li Tang, Hiroto Inaba, Aditya H Gaur, Raul Ribeiro, Jeffrey E Rubnitz, Joshua Wolf
Background Children and adolescents with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are at risk of life-threatening bacterial infection, especially with viridans group streptococci. Primary antibacterial prophylaxis with vancomycin-based regimens reduces this risk, but might increase risk of renal or liver toxicity, or Clostridium difficile infection (CDI).Methods A retrospective review was conducted of patients treated for newly diagnosed AML at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital from 2002 to 2008. Nephrotoxicity was classified according to pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End Stage Renal Disease (RIFLE) criteria, and hepatotoxicity according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events criteria...
December 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224752/incidence-and-factors-associated-with-revision-adenoidectomy-a-retrospective-study
#10
James Johnston, Murali Mahadevan, Richard G Douglas
INTRODUCTION: Adenoidectomy is one of the most commonly performed pediatric operations worldwide. There are a proportion of children who require revision adenoidectomy. Yet there is little in the literature about the incidence, associated factors and etiology of adenoidal regrowth. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to determine incidence and factors associated with revision adenoidectomy. METHODS: An extraction of all hospital morbidity records belonging to patients under the age of 18 years who underwent one or more adenoidectomy procedures (with or without tonsillectomy) between January 1, 2000 and June 2016 at a tertiary care children's hospital was performed...
December 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223673/risk-stratification-in-pediatric-perforated-appendicitis-prospective-correlation-with-outcomes-and-resource-utilization
#11
Yasmine Yousef, Fouad Youssef, Trish Dinh, Kartikey Pandya, Hayden Stagg, Michael Homsy, Robert Baird, Jean-Martin Laberge, Dan Poenaru, Pramod Puligandla, Kenneth Shaw, Sherif Emil
PURPOSE: Despite a wide spectrum of severity, perforated appendicitis in children is typically considered a single entity in outcomes studies. We performed a prospective cohort study to define a risk stratification system that correlates with outcomes and resource utilization. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted of all children operated for perforated appendicitis between May 2015 and December 2016 at a tertiary free-standing university children's hospital...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221216/probiotics-in-14-day-triple-therapy-for-asian-pediatric-patients-with-helicobacter-pylori-infection-a-network-meta-analysis
#12
Juanjuan Wen, Pailan Peng, Pengfei Chen, Lirong Zeng, Qinghua Pan, Wenbin Wei, Jianhua He
Although 14-day triple therapy has been widely administrated for eradicating Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in Asia, its antibiotic-associated side effects restrict the effectivity of eradication therapy in pediatric patients. Therefore, a network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of probiotics supplemented in 14-day triple therapy in Asian pediatric patients. Materials and Methods: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were retrieved comprehensively in electronic databases (such as PubMed, Cochrane library, Embase, CNKI, Wan fang database, VIP database and CBM) until April 2017...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220199/risk-factors-for-gaps-in-care-during-transfer-from-pediatric-to-adult-cystic-fibrosis-programs-in-the-united-states
#13
Gregory S Sawicki, Joshua Ostrenga, Kristofer Petren, Aliza K Fink, Emma D'Agostino, Camila Strassle, Michael S Schechter, Margaret Rosenfeld
RATIONALE: With improved survival into adulthood, the number of dedicated adult cystic fibrosis (CF) care programs has expanded in the US over the past decade. Transfer from pediatric to adult CF programs represents a potential time for lapses in recommended healthcare. OBJECTIVES: To describe variability in transfer between pediatric and adult CF care programs and to identify factors associated with prolonged gaps in care. METHODS: Using the US CF Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR), we identified individuals with CF who transferred care from a pediatric to adult CF care program during 2007-2013...
December 8, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216902/improved-drug-safety-through-intensive-pharmacovigilance-in-hospitalized-pediatric-patients
#14
Alan O Vázquez-Alvarez, Lorena Michele Brennan-Bourdon, Ana Rosa Rincón-Sánchez, María Cristina Islas-Carbajal, Selene G Huerta-Olvera
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to detect and analyze Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) through Intensive Pharmacovigilance (IPV) in hospitalized pediatric patients to improve drug safety. METHODS: A prospective 6-month cross-sectional study was performed in the pediatric service of a regional hospital in Mexico in order to assess hospitalized children from 1 day to 18 years old. The inclusion criteria were: both genders, all hospitalization causes, and at least one prescribed medication (indistinct drug group)...
December 8, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216848/anterior-sacral-meningocele-infected-with-fusobacterium-in-a-patient-with-recently-diagnosed-colorectal-carcinoma-a-case-report
#15
Anne K Braczynski, Marc A Brockmann, Torben Scholz, Jan-Philipp Bach, Jörg B Schulz, Simone C Tauber
BACKGROUND: Anterior sacral meningoceles are rare, and usually occur with other malformations of the posterior lower spine. While these are more frequently reported in pediatric cohorts, we report a case in an elderly woman. CASE PRESENTATION: We report on a 71 year-old woman with a recently diagnosed colorectal adenocarcinoma who presented with a severe bacterial meningitis. The cerebrospinal fluid cell count revealed a pleocytosis of 80,000 cells/μl and a severe disturbance of the blood-brain-barrier...
December 8, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211821/elizabethkingia-in-children-a-comprehensive-review-of-symptomatic-cases-reported-from-1944-2017
#16
Eric J Dziuban, Jessica Franks, Marvin So, Georgina Peacock, David D Blaney
Elizabethkingia species often exhibit extensive antibiotic resistance and result in high morbidity and mortality, yet no systematic reviews exist that thoroughly characterize and quantify concerns for infected infants and children. We performed a review of literature and identified an initial 902 articles; 96 articles reporting 283 pediatric cases met our inclusion criteria and were subsequently reviewed. Case reports spanned 28 countries and ranged from 1944 to 2017. Neonatal meningitis remains the most common presentation of this organism in children, along with a range of other clinical manifestations...
December 2, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211141/hospitalizations-due-to-drug-poisoning-in-under-five-year-old-children-in-brazil-2003-2012
#17
Marta da Cunha Lobo Souto Maior, Claudia Garcia Serpa Osorio-de-Castro, Carla Lourenço Tavares de Andrade
OBJECTIVE: to describe hospitalizations due to drug poisonings in children under five years old, in Brazil, from 2003 to 2012. METHODS: descriptive study, with data from the National Hospital Information System (SIH/SUS); the drugs involved were divided into therapeutic classes, according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification (ATC). RESULTS: 17,725 hospitalizations were identified, from which 22,395 poisonings were identified, and 75 deaths; the most common therapeutic classes were unspecified drugs (38...
October 2017: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210159/safety-of-mtor-inhibitor-continuation-in-pediatric-heart-transplant-recipients-undergoing-surgical-procedures
#18
Ann Heble, Melanie D Everitt, Jane Gralla, Shelley D Miyamoto, Michael Lahart, Jennifer Eshelman
mTOR inhibitors have been associated with SWC when used in the perioperative period. Limited literature is available to guide providers in managing chronic mTOR inhibitor use in the perioperative period, especially in the pediatric setting. The primary aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of SWC with mTOR inhibitor continuation during the perioperative period for major surgeries. Heart transplant recipients ≤25 years old at the time of primary heart transplant receiving sirolimus maintenance therapy during a surgical procedure and within the study period were included...
December 6, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208694/variation-in-care-and-clinical-outcomes-in-children-hospitalized-with-orbital-cellulitis
#19
Jessica L Markham, Matthew Hall, Jessica L Bettenhausen, Angela L Myers, Henry T Puls, Russell J McCulloh
OBJECTIVES: To describe variation in the care of children hospitalized with orbital cellulitis and to determine associations with length of stay (LOS), emergency department (ED) revisits, and hospital readmissions. METHODS: By using the Pediatric Health Information System, we performed a multicenter, retrospective study of children aged 2 months to 18 years with a primary International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification discharge diagnosis code for orbital cellulitis from 2007 to 2014...
December 5, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208342/pediatric-stroke-related-to-lyme-neuroborreliosis-data-from-the-swiss-neuropaediatric-stroke-registry-and-literature-review
#20
O Monteventi, M Steinlin, M Regényi, E Roulet-Perez, P Weber, J Fluss
BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular complications of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) are poorly documented in the paediatric population. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis from prospectively registered cases of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) from the Swiss NeuroPaediatric Stroke Registry (SNPSR) from 2000 to 2015. Only cases with serologically confirmed LNB were included. In addition, a literature review on paediatric stroke cases secondary to Lyme neuroborreliosis in the same time frame was performed...
November 24, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
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