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Antibiotics in pediatrics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035302/oligoarticular-hemarthroses-and-osteomyelitis-complicating-pasteurella-meningitis-in-an-infant
#1
Charles Nathan Nessle, Allison K Black, Justin Farge, Victoria A Statler
A 5-month-old previously healthy female presented with a one-week history of fever and increased fussiness. Her presentation revealed an ill-appearing infant with an exam and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies concerning bacterial meningitis; CSF cultures grew Pasteurella multocida. Additionally, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated cervical osteomyelitis. Despite multiple days of antibiotic therapy, she remained febrile with continued pain; MRI showed oligoarticular effusions, and aspiration of these joints yielded bloody aspirates...
October 16, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034445/dental-prevention-and-disease-awareness-in-children-with-congenital-heart-disease
#2
Steffen Koerdt, Julia Hartz, Stefan Hollatz, Gesche Frohwitter, Marco R Kesting, Peter Ewert, Renate Oberhoffer, Herbert Deppe
OBJECTIVES: The importance of excellent oral health is known to be crucial in children with congenital heart diseases (CHD). Data about dental health and disease awareness is limited. This study aims to assess preventive measures taken to improve dental health in children with CHD and to gain insight into disease awareness and knowledge about the importance of oral health in children with CHD and to propose measures that could be taken. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Parents of 150 children with CHD were asked to complete a questionnaire containing specific questions about the preventive measures taken by the parents and dental and medical practitioners and their knowledge about underlying disease and the importance of oral health...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034128/antibiotic-sensitivity-pattern-of-klebsiella-species-in-burn-wounds-at-bai-jerbai-wadia-hospital-for-children-mumbai-india-a-21-year-study
#3
Shankar Srinivasan, Jovita Saldanha, Suhas Abhyankar, Nikunj Modi, Aakanksha Patil, Arvind M Vartak
In our study, we attempt to look at the sensitivity pattern of the most commonly found microorganism in the wound swab of pediatric burn patients at our hospital, 'Klebsiella', to a number of commonly used antibiotics and to determine whether there has been a change in the sensitivities in the 21 year period between 1994 to 2014. The sensitivity was tested in vitro and antibiotics were administered to patients based on laboratory findings. Klebsiella shows a significant change in sensitivity pattern over last 21 years...
2017: International Journal of Burns and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034106/epidemiology-and-antibiotic-resistance-phenotypes-of-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-responsible-for-infantile-gastroenteritis-in-ouagadougou-burkina-faso
#4
Ali Konaté, René Dembélé, Nathalie K Guessennd, Fernique Konan Kouadio, Innocent Kouamé Kouadio, Mohamed Baguy Ouattara, Wendpoulomdé A D Kaboré, Assèta Kagambèga, Haoua Cissé, Hadiza Bawa Ibrahim, Touwendsida Serge Bagré, Alfred S Traoré, Nicolas Barro
The emergence and persistence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) causing acute diarrhea is a major public health challenge in developing countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance phenotypes of DEC isolated from stool samples collected from children less than 5 years of age with acute diarrhea living in Ouagadougou/Burkina Faso. From August 2013 to October 2015, this study was carried out on 31 DEC strains of our study conducted in "Centre Médical avec Antenne Chirurgicale (CMA)" Paul VI and CMA of Schiphra...
September 2017: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030929/infection-prevention-in-pediatric-anesthesia-practice
#5
REVIEW
Lizabeth D Martin, Michael Kallile, Siri Kanmanthreddy, Danielle M Zerr
Healthcare-associated infections are an important source of morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients. Anesthesiologists have a unique role in infection prevention. Hand hygiene and anesthesia workspace decontamination decrease infection rates in surgical patients. Standard protocols exist for insertion and handling of central lines, arterial lines, and regional procedures, which should be strictly adhered to in order to prevent infectious complications. Temperature control and timely administration of antibiotics contribute to the prevention of surgical site infections...
November 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030700/pyloric-stenosis-an-enigma-more-than-a-century-after-the-first-successful-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Yousef El-Gohary, Abdelhafeez Abdelhafeez, Elizabeth Paton, Ankush Gosain, Andrew J Murphy
Despite hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) being one of the most frequently treated pediatric surgical conditions, its etiology remains incompletely understood. We review the diagnosis and treatment of this condition with an emphasis on the evolution of surgical techniques that led to laparoscopic pyloromyotomy, the most frequently performed technique for HPS today. In addition, we review key developments in the understanding of HPS etiology and treatment, including the postulated etiology of work-induced hypertrophy of the pylorus, its association with prokinetic macrolide antibiotics, and the emerging role of atropine sulfate as a medical treatment for HPS or a rescue treatment for incomplete myotomy...
October 13, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029802/early-life-environmental-exposures-interact-with-genetic-susceptibility-variants-in-pediatric-patients-with-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#7
Elizabeth T Jensen, Jonathan T Kuhl, Lisa J Martin, Carl D Langefeld, Evan S Dellon, Marc E Rothenberg
BACKGROUND: Although eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is associated with certain gene variants, the rapidly increasing incidence of EoE suggests that environmental factors contribute to disease development. OBJECTIVE: We tested for gene-environment interaction between EoE-predisposing polymorphisms (within TSLP, LOC283710/KLF13, CAPN14, CCL26, and TGFB) and implicated early-life factors (antibiotic use in infancy, cesarean delivery, breast-feeding, neonatal intensive care unit [NICU] admission, and absence of pets in the home)...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027495/monitoring-and-managing-antibiotic-resistance-in-refugee-children
#8
Helena C Maltezou, Dana Elhadad, Daniel Glikman
The past decade the Middle East and Southeastern Europe have witnessed an enormous movement of refugees due to the Syrian war and conflicts in Asia and Africa. Although carriage of and infections with multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens in refugees have been reported, pediatric data are scarce. Areas covered: MDR bacterial carriage and infections, and MDR-tuberculosis (TB) in refugee children from 2010. Expert commentary: High MDR carriage rates in refugee children are attributed to high pre-civil war MDR rates, war-damaged infrastructure and healthcare systems, and poor hygiene conditions...
October 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025281/understanding-treatment-adherence-with-the-health-belief-model-in-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#9
Nicole R Dempster, Beth G Wildman, Tracy L Masterson, Gregory J Omlor
OBJECTIVE: Children's health beliefs are significantly related to their adherence; however, pediatric literature has rarely tested health-related theories as a whole. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the use of the health belief model (HBM) in understanding children's adherence, both globally and to individual treatment components. METHOD: Thirty-three patient-parent dyads completed questionnaires regarding health beliefs and adherence to medical regimens...
October 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022826/inflammatory-myofibroblastic-lung-tumor-with-dysphagia-in-a-4-year-old-child
#10
Vinitha V Nair, Kunal Krishna Singh, Joseph Thomas Kathayanat, Ratish Radhakrishnan, Akash Babu, Jayakumar Thanathu Krishnan Nair
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors of the lung are rare in adults but common among pediatric lung tumors. A 4-year-old girl was evaluated for respiratory symptoms, dysphagia, and weight loss. Radiology revealed a right hilar mass that persisted despite antibiotic treatment. On exploration, a hilar mass involving the pulmonary vasculature, diaphragm and gastroesophageal junction was found. Aggressive surgical excision including a right pneumonectomy was performed. Histopathology confirmed an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor with no features of malignancy...
January 1, 2017: Asian Cardiovascular & Thoracic Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020310/levofloxacin-prophylaxis-during-induction-therapy-for-pediatric-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#11
Joshua Wolf, Li Tang, Patricia M Flynn, Ching-Hon Pui, Aditya H Gaur, Yilun Sun, Hiroto Inaba, Tracy Stewart, Randall T Hayden, Hana Hakim, Sima Jeha
Background: Infection is the most important cause of treatment-related morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Although routine in adults with leukemia, antibacterial prophylaxis is controversial in pediatrics because of insufficient evidence for its efficacy or antibiotic choice and concerns about promoting antibiotic resistance and Clostridium difficile infection. Methods: This was a single-center, observational cohort study of patients with newly diagnosed ALL, comparing prospectively collected infection-related outcomes in patients who received no prophylaxis, levofloxacin prophylaxis, or other prophylaxis during induction therapy on the total XVI study...
September 14, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020171/comparison-of-the-impact-of-pcv10-or-pcv13-on-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-equivalent-populations
#12
Pontus Naucler, Ilias Galanis, Eva Morfeldt, Jessica Darenberg, Åke Örtqvist, Birgitta Henriques-Normark
Background: Conjugated pneumococcal vaccines, PCV10 or PCV13, are used in childhood immunization programs worldwide, but direct comparisons of impacts against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in equivalent populations have not been performed. We used the unique opportunity in Sweden, where the 21 counties use either PCV10 or PCV13 (introduced 2009-2010), to compare the vaccines (pre-vaccination 2007-2009 versus post-vaccination 2013-2016). Methods: All IPD episodes (n=16992) were recorded in Sweden during 2005-2016...
August 3, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016242/early-predictors-of-abscess-development-after-perforated-pediatric-appendicitis
#13
Catherine M Dickinson, Nathan A Coppersmith, Francois I Luks
BACKGROUND: Approximately one-third of children with appendicitis present with advanced disease or perforation. Whereas this increases the risk for post-operative complications and re-admission, it is not yet possible to predict early on who will develop an abdominal abscess. We sought to identify specific risk factors for this complication, in an attempt to streamline post-operative care. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed the records of all cases of perforated appendicitis over a 12-month period at a tertiary children's hospital...
October 10, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992328/what-parents-think-about-the-risks-and-benefits-of-antibiotics-for-their-child-s-acute-respiratory-tract-infection
#14
Julia E Szymczak, Sarah B Klieger, Matthew Miller, Alexander G Fiks, Jeffrey S Gerber
Background: Parental pressure is often cited as a reason for why pediatricians overuse antibiotics for children with acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI). We sought to capture parent perceptions of antibiotics at the time of their child's presentation with an ARTI. Methods: We conducted semistructured interviews with parents of children who presented with ARTI symptoms to 1 of 4 diverse practices in a large hospital-affiliated network of pediatric primary care practices...
September 14, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991343/endophthalmitis-following-pediatric-cataract-surgery-an-international-pediatric-ophthalmology-and-strabismus-council-global-perspective
#15
Almutez M Gharaibeh, Eedy Mezer, Luis H Ospina, Tamara Wygnanski-Jaffe
PURPOSE: To compile international data on the risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment of endophthalmitis following pediatric cataract surgery. METHODS: An e-mail containing a link to an online survey was sent to all members of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. The questionnaire examined the incidence, risk factors, treatment, outcomes, and prophylaxis of endophthalmitis following pediatric cataract surgery around the world. RESULTS: Two hundred thirty-seven ophthalmologists answered the questionnaire...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990430/utilization-of-antipyretics-for-nonurgent-fever-in-a-pediatric-emergency-department
#16
Courtney E Nelson, Svetlana Ostapenko, Joseph J Zorc, Fran Balamuth
This retrospective cohort study aimed to describe antipyretic use among healthy patients in a pediatric emergency department (ED) with nonurgent fever defined as: triage level 4 or 5, chief complaint fever or temperature 38°C to 39°C, and otherwise normal vital signs, and determine if antipyretic administration is associated with increased ED length of stay (LOS). We compared continuous variables using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon rank sum testing. We adjusted confounding variables using logistic regression modeling...
October 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988637/-value-of-procalcitonin-for-infants-with-bronchiolitis-in-an-emergency-department
#17
M Desmarest, C Aupiais, J Le Gal, L Tourteau, J Le Coz, E de Paepe, L Titomanlio, A Faye
CONTEXT: Very few studies have evaluated the role of procalcitonin (PCT) in infants with bronchiolitis. AIMS: To describe infants who had both a diagnosis of bronchiolitis at the emergency department and a blood test including PCT, and to compare the characteristics of children according to the PCT value. METHODS: Infants admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Department between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2014 who had a diagnosis of bronchiolitis and a blood test including PCT were included...
October 4, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980166/population-pharmacokinetic-model-to-optimize-cefotaxime-dosing-regimen-in-critically-ill-children
#18
Agathe Béranger, Mehdi Oualha, Saïk Urien, Mathieu Genuini, Sylvain Renolleau, Radia Aboura, Déborah Hirt, Claire Heilbronner, Julie Toubiana, Jean-Marc Tréluyer, Sihem Benaboud
BACKGROUND: During sepsis, optimal plasma antibiotic concentrations are mandatory. Modifications of pharmacokinetic parameters could lead to low drug concentrations and therefore, insufficient therapeutic levels. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to build a population pharmacokinetic model for cefotaxime and its metabolite desacetylcefotaxime in order to optimize individual dosing regimens for critically ill children. METHODS: All children aged < 18 years, weighing more than 2...
October 4, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977299/saccharomyces-cerevisiae-fungemia-in-a-pediatric-patient-after-treatment-with-probiotics
#19
Mariá Ribas Romanio, Ligia Augusto Coraine, Vinicius Pignoti Maielo, Marcelo Luiz Abramczyc, Renato Lopes de Souza, Nilton Ferraro Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: To report the case of a one-year-old patient with a bloodstream infection associated with probiotics, and to discuss the indications and precautions concerning the therapeutic use of probiotics. CASE DESCRIPTION: A one-year-old male patient with Down syndrome in a late postoperative period of congenital cardiac disease correction. The patient was severely malnourished and had been hospitalized since he was two months old in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit...
July 2017: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974929/cost-effectiveness-of-pediatric-central-venous-catheters-in-the-uk-a-secondary-publication-from-the-catch-clinical-trial
#20
Colin H Ridyard, Catrin O Plumpton, Ruth E Gilbert, Dyfrig A Hughes
Background: Antibiotic-impregnated central venous catheters (CVCs) reduce the risk of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in patients treated in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). However, it is unclear if they are cost-effective from the perspective of the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK. Methods: Economic evaluation alongside the CATCH trial (ISRCTN34884569) to estimate the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of antibiotic-impregnated (rifampicin and minocycline), heparin-bonded and standard polyurethane CVCs...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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