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Yesol Bak, Hui-Joo Jang, Jong-Woon Shin, Soo-Jin Kim, Hyun Woo Chun, Ji-Hye Seo, Su-Hyun No, Jung-Il Chae, Dong Hee Son, Seung Yeoun Lee, Jintae Hong, Do-Young Yoon
The carcinogenicity of chemicalsin the environment is a major concern. Recently, numerous studies have attempted to develop methods for predicting carcinogenicity including rodent and cell-based approaches. However, rodent carcinogenicity tests for evaluating the carcinogenic potential of a chemical to humans are time-consuming and costly. This study focused on the development of an alternative method for predicting carcinogenicity using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and colon cancer stem cells.A toxicogenomic method,mRNA profiling, is useful for predicting carcinogenicity...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Pan Pan, Kiyoko Oshima, Yi-Wen Huang, Kimberle A Agle, William R Drobyski, Xiao Chen, Jianying Zhang, Martha M Yearsley, Jianhua Yu, Li-Shu Wang
Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2, also named GPR43), is activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, that are produced when gut bacteria ferment dietary fiber. FFAR2 has been suggested to regulate colonic inflammation, which is a major risk factor for the development of colon cancer and is also linked to epigenetic dysregulation in colon carcinogenesis. The current study assessed whether FFAR2, acting as an epigenetic regulator, protects against colon carcinogenesis. To mimic the mild inflammation that promotes human colon cancer, we treated mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) overnight, which avoids excessive inflammation but induces mild inflammation that promotes colon carcinogenesis in the ApcMin/+ and the azoxymethane (AOM)-treated mice...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Rei Nagahara, Nobuhiko Onda, Susumu Yamashita, Miho Kojima, Mari Inohana, Ayumi Eguchi, Misato Nakamura, Shinya Matsumoto, Toshinori Yoshida, Makoto Shibutani
Fluorescence tumor imaging using exogenous fluorescent tumor-targeting agents has potential to improve early tumor detection. The fluorescent contrast agent indocyanine green (ICG) is used in medical diagnostics. The aim of the present study is to investigate the tumor imaging capability and the imaging mechanism of i.v. administered ICG in a mouse model of colitis-associated colon cancer. To do this, an azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate-induced colon cancer mouse model was used. Ex vivo imaging experiments were performed 1 hour after i...
March 9, 2018: Cancer Science
Katherine Z Sanidad, Haixia Yang, Weicang Wang, E Ilker Ozay, Jun Yang, Min Gu, Emmet Karner, Jianan Zhang, Daeyoung Kim, Lisa M Minter, Hang Xiao, Guodong Zhang
Benzalkonium chloride (BAC), benzethonium chloride (BET), and chloroxylenol (PCMX) are antimicrobial ingredients used in many consumer products and are frequently detected in the environment. In 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) removed 19 antimicrobial ingredients from consumer antiseptic wash products, but deferred rulemaking for BAC, BET, and PCMX to allow additional time to develop new safety and efficacy data for these three antimicrobials. Therefore, it is important and timely to better understand the effects of these three compounds on human health...
March 5, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Javier Fernández, Lorena García, Joaquín Monte, Claudio J Villar, Felipe Lombó
Colorectal cancer is the fourth most common neoplasia in Europe, where it accounts for 28.2 new cases per 100,000 inhabitants. In an effort to decrease the incidence of this disease, various prevention measures are being studied, one of which are anthocyanin-rich foods. Anthocyanins are potent antioxidant flavonoids mainly found in flowers and colorful fruits and vegetables. These nutraceuticals have diverse biological functions once ingested, including immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antitumor functions...
March 1, 2018: Genes
Morgane Placet, Guillaume Arguin, Caroline M Molle, Jean-Philippe Babeu, Christine Jones, Julie C Carrier, Bernand Robaye, Sameh Geha, Francois Boudreau, Fernand-Pierre Gendron
Colorectal tumors are immersed in an array of tumor-promoting factors including extracellular nucleotides such as uridine 5'‑diphosphate (UDP). UDP is the endogenous agonist of the G protein-coupled P2Y 6 receptor (P2Y 6 R), which may contribute to the formation of a tumor-promoting microenvironment by coordinating resistance to apoptosis. Colorectal cancer (CRC) was chemically induced in P2ry6 knockout (P2ry6 -/- ) mice using azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium challenges. Mice were euthanatized and their tumor load determined...
February 14, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Li-Qiao Liu, Hai-Shan Li, Shao-Ping Nie, Ming-Yue Shen, Jie-Lun Hu, Ming-Yong Xie
The imbalance between cell proliferation and apoptosis can lead to tumor progression, causing oncogenic transformation, abnormal cell proliferation and cell apoptosis suppression. Tea polysaccharide (TPS) is the major bioactive component in green tea, it has showed antioxidant, antitumor and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. In this study, the chemoprophylaxis effects of TPS on colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis, especially the cell apoptosis activation and inhibition effects on cell proliferation and invasion were analyzed...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yandong Guo, Jing Xiong, Jing Wang, Jing Wen, Fachao Zhi
The prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has increased worldwide and IBD has been demonstrated to promote the development of colorectal cancer. The Rac family of proteins are involved in key mitogenic pathways. However, to the best of our knowledge, no prior studies have investigated the expression and role of Rac on colitis and colitis-associated cancer (CAC). In the current study, Rac expression in patients with colitis was analyzed according to the expression value from NCBI GEO database (GDS3268)...
2018: American Journal of Cancer Research
Joo-Young Kim, Young-Mi Kim, Jong-Min Park, Young Min Han, Kang Choon Lee, Ki Baik Hahm, Suntaek Hong
The potential of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in inducing apoptosis is a hallmark in cancer therapeutics, after which its selective ability to achieve cell death pathways against cancer cells led to hope for recombinant TRAIL in cancer therapeutics. The present data from azoxymethane-initiated, dextran sulfate sodium-promoted colitis associated cancer (CAC) model strongly indicate the potential of rTRAIL in cancer prevention rather than in cancer therapeutics. Early treatment of rTRAIL significantly reduced colitis and CAC by inhibiting the recruitment of macrophages into the damaged mucosa and activating the scavenger activity with efferocytosis and the production of several growth factors...
January 5, 2018: Oncotarget
Ritesh Kumar, Jennifer L Herold, John Taylor, Juan Xu, Yi Xu
Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (Sg) has long been reported to display a strong association with colorectal cancer (CRC). It was recently demonstrated to actively promote the development of CRC, underscoring the importance of Sg in both clinical correlation and functional relevance in CRC. Here we investigated several clinical isolates of Sg in their interactions with human colon cancer cells and in mouse models. Some Sg strains were able to stimulate host cell proliferation (proliferation-promoting Sg, PP-Sg) whereas others were not (non-proliferation-promoting Sg, NP-Sg)...
January 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jonadab E Olguín, Itzel Medina-Andrade, Emmanuel Molina, Armando Vázquez, Thalia Pacheco-Fernández, Rafael Saavedra, Carlos Pérez-Plasencia, Yolanda I Chirino, Felipe Vaca-Paniagua, Luis E Arias-Romero, Emma B Gutierrez-Cirlos, Sonia A León-Cabrera, Miriam Rodriguez-Sosa, Luis I Terrazas
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in women and the third in men in North America and Europe. CRC is associated with inflammatory responses in which intestinal pathology is caused by different cell populations including a T cell dysregulation that concludes in an imbalance between activated T (Tact) and regulatory T (Treg) cells. Treg cells are CD4+Foxp3+ cells that actively suppress pathological and physiological immune responses, contributing to the maintenance of immune homeostasis...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Yong Zhang, Chao Kang, Xiao-Lan Wang, Min Zhou, Meng-Ting Chen, Xiao-Hui Zhu, Kai Liu, Bin Wang, Qian-Yong Zhang, Jun-Dong Zhu, Man-Tian Mi
SCOPE: In recent decades, the association between diet, gut microbiota and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been established. Gut microbiota and associated metabolites, such as bile acids and butyrate, are now known to play a key role in CRC development. The aim of this study was to identify the progression to CRC is influenced by cholic acid, sodium butyrate, a high-fat diet or different dose of dihydromyricetin (DMY) interacted with gut microbiota. METHODS AND RESULTS: An AOM/DSS (azoxymethan/dextran sodium sulfate) model was established to study the gut microbiota compsition before and after tumor formation during colitis-induced tumorigenesis...
January 13, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Xin Wang, Tao Ye, Wen-Jie Chen, You Lv, Zong Hao, Jun Chen, Jia-Ying Zhao, Hui-Peng Wang, Yuan-Kun Cai
AIM: To investigate the effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on structural changes of gut microbiota in colorectal carcinogenesis. METHODS: An azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model was established. Forty-two female FVB/N mice were randomly divided into the following three groups: group 1 (10 mice, negative control) was treated with vehicle, group 2 (16 mice, positive control) was treated with AOM plus vehicle, and group 3 (16 mice, EG) was treated with AOM plus EGCG...
December 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Huan Song, Weiyi Wang, Bo Shen, Hao Jia, Zhaoyuan Hou, Ping Chen, Yunwei Sun
Individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at a high risk for developing colitis-associated cancer (CAC). Strategies to block the process from IBD to CAC should be considered. In the experiment, we aim to explore the chemopreventive efficacy of the probiotic cocktail Bifico and its potential mechanism in azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) induced colitis-associated cancer in mice. Oral pretreatment of Bifico was adopted to evaluate its protective effect. The colorectums of thirty-five C57BL/6 mice were collected and examined for degree of inflammation and tumorigenesis...
December 30, 2017: Cancer Science
Young-Sook Son, H M Arif Ullah, Ahmed K Elfadl, Soong-Gu Ghim, Myung-Jin Chung, Yong Deuk Kim, Eun-Joo Lee, Kyung-Ku Kang, Kyu-Shik Jeong
Capsosiphon fulvescens (green seaweed) and Hizikia fusiforme (brown seaweed) are marine algae consumed as food supplements, especially in Japan, China and Korea, and are considered traditional medicinal tonics for certain ailments. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible inhibitory effects of dietary C. fulvescens and H. fusiforme on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colorectal cancer (CRC) in rats. F344 male rats (5 weeks, 150 g) were divided into six groups as follows. Group 1: Injected with normal saline solution and fed control diet (untreated control)...
January 2018: In Vivo
Tomohiro Aoki, Shuh Narumiya
Background: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer. Involvement of prostaglandin (PG) system in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer has been suggested from clinical studies demonstrating therapeutic effect of NSAIDs including aspirin or selective COX-2 inhibitors. However, mechanisms on how PG regulates inflammatory responses leading to colorectal cancer development remain obscure. Further, careful attention is needed to use these drugs for a long time because of adverse effects due to non-specific inhibition of physiological PG production in addition to pathological one, making the development of alternatives to aspirin important...
2017: Inflammation and Regeneration
Tomokatsu Omoto, Joo-Ri Kim-Kaneyama, Xiao-Feng Lei, Akira Orimo, Koji Ohnishi, Kosuke Yoshihara, Aya Miyauchi, Shuo Li, Lin Gao, Takahiro Umemoto, Junichi Tanaka, Kenta Nakahara, Motohiro Takeya, Fumio Ishida, Shin-Ei Kudo, Shogo Haraguchi, Takuro Miyazaki, Akira Miyazaki
Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) influence tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis within the tumor-associated stroma. This suggests that CAFs would be a potential target for tumor therapy. Here we found that Hydrogen peroxide-inducible clone-5 (Hic-5), also named transforming growth factor beta-1-induced transcript 1 protein (Tgfb1i1), was strongly induced in CAFs found in human colorectal cancer. To investigate the role of Hic-5 in CAFs, we isolated CAFs and the control counterpart normal fibroblasts (NFs) from human colorectal cancer and non-cancerous regions, respectively...
December 15, 2017: Oncogene
Chien-Liang Lin, Jiiang-Huei Jeng, Chih-Chung Wu, Shu-Ling Hsieh, Guan-Cheng Huang, Wan Leung, Chining-Ting Lee, Chung-Yi Chen, Chien-Hsing Lee
2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (THSG) has been shown to have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Oxidative and inflammatory reactions are related to the development of colorectal carcinoma (CRC). In the present study, we characterized the preventive activities of THSG on colon carcinogenesis using the azoxymethane- (AOM-) mediated rat colon carcinogenesis model. F344 male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (untreated and AOM model rats treated with or without THSG at 30, 150, or 250 mg/kg) after which the numbers of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were assessed in the colon tissues of all rats...
2017: BioMed Research International
Laura Ochoa-Callejero, Josune García-Sanmartín, Sonia Martínez-Herrero, Susana Rubio-Mediavilla, Judit Narro-Íñiguez, Alfredo Martínez
To investigate the contribution of adrenomedullin (AM) and its gene-related peptide, proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP), to the progression and potential treatment of colon cancer we studied the effects of four small molecules (SM) related to AM and PAMP on a mouse model of colon cancer. For each SM, four experimental groups of male mice were used: (i) Control group; (ii) SM group; (iii) DSS group (injected with azoxymethane [AOM] and drank dextran sulfate sodium [DSS]); and (iv) DSS + SM group (treated with AOM, DSS, and the SM)...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Fumiaki Ishibashi, Hiromichi Shimizu, Toru Nakata, Satoru Fujii, Kohei Suzuki, Ami Kawamoto, Sho Anzai, Reiko Kuno, Sayaka Nagata, Go Ito, Tatsuro Murano, Tomohiro Mizutani, Shigeru Oshima, Kiichiro Tsuchiya, Tetsuya Nakamura, Mamoru Watanabe, Ryuichi Okamoto
ATOH1 is a master transcription factor for the secretory lineage differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). However, the comprehensive contribution of ATOH1+ secretory lineage IECs to the homeostasis, repair, and tumorigenesis of the intestinal epithelium remains uncertain. Through our ATOH1+ cell-lineage tracing, we show here that a definite number of ATOH1+ IECs retain stem cell properties and can form ATOH1+IEC-derived clonal ribbons (ATOH1+ICRs) under completely homeostatic conditions. Interestingly, colonic ATOH1+ IECs appeared to exhibit their stem cell function more frequently compared with those of the small intestine...
December 1, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
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