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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371394/principles-and-approach-to-developing-mammalian-cell-culture-media-for-high-cell-density-perfusion-process-leveraging-established-fed-batch-media
#1
Henry Lin, Robert Woodrow Leighty, Scott Godfrey, Samantha Boran Wang
Perfusion medium was successfully developed based on our fed-batch platform basal and feed media. A systematic development approach was undertaken by first optimizing the ratios of fed-batch basal and feed media followed by targeted removal of unnecessary and redundant components. With this reduction in components, the medium could then be further concentrated by 2× to increase medium depth. The medium osmolality was also optimized where we found ∼360 mOsm/kg was desirable resulting in a residual culture osmolality of ∼300 mOsm/kg for our cell lines...
April 3, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358847/alpha-1-antitrypsin-suppresses-oxidative-stress-in-preeclampsia-by-inhibiting-the-p38mapk-signaling-pathway-an-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-study
#2
Ya-Ling Feng, Yong-Xiang Yin, Jian Ding, Hua Yuan, Lan Yang, Jian-Juan Xu, Ling-Qin Hu
This present study was designed to investigate the effects of alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) on oxidative stress in preeclampsia (PE) by regulating p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) signaling pathway. HTR8/SVneo cells were randomly assigned into normal, hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R), HR + AAT and HR + siRNA-AAT groups. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expressions of p-p38MAPK, AAT, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and activating transcription factor2 (ATF2)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337266/long-non-coding-rna-uca1-promotes-cell-progression-by-acting-as-a-competing-endogenous-rna-of-atf2-in-prostate-cancer
#3
Shilong Zhang, Xinxin Dong, Tongyu Ji, Guoxiao Chen, Lei Shan
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in elder men. This disease has limited therapeutic options and poor prognosis as the underlying molecular mechanisms are not clearly understood. LncRNA UCA1 functions as an oncogene in many types of cancers. However, the role of UCA1 in PCa remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that UCA1 was significantly up-regulated in PCa cell lines and tissue samples. High UCA1 expression was positively associated with high gleason score, advanced TNM stage and shorter overall survival of PCa patients...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318081/silencing-of-atf2-inhibits-growth-of-pancreatic-cancer-cells-and-enhances-sensitivity-to-chemotherapy
#4
Mu Li, Xingda Wu, Ning Liu, Xiaoying Li, Fanbin Meng, Shaowei Song
Pancreatic cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) is a multifunctional transcription factor, and is implicated in tumor progress, yet its role in pancreatic cancer remains unclear. In the present study, the level of ATF2 in pancreatic cancer tissues and the adjacent non-tumorous tissues was detected by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. The roles of ATF2 in the proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells were investigated through ATF2 silencing, and the effect of ATF2 shRNA on the sensitivity of pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine, an anti-tumor drug, was explored...
March 20, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298358/identification-of-%C3%AE-catenin-interacting-proteins-in-nuclear-fractions-of-native-rat-collecting-duct-cells
#5
Jacqueline R Hwang, Chung-Lin Chou, Barbara Medvar, Mark A Knepper, Hyun Jun Jung
The gene encoding the aquaporin-2 water channel is regulated transcriptionally in response to vasopressin. In the renal collecting duct, vasopressin stimulates the nuclear translocation and phosphorylation (at Ser552) of β-catenin, a multifunctional protein that acts as a transcriptional co-regulator in the nucleus. The purpose of this study was to identify β-catenin interacting proteins that may be involved in transcriptional regulation in rat inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells using both experimental and computational approaches...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281638/mir-34a-5p-promotes-multi-chemoresistance-of-osteosarcoma-through-down-regulation-of-the-dll1-gene
#6
Youguang Pu, Fangfang Zhao, Haiyan Wang, Shanbao Cai
MiR-34a-5p has been implicated in the tumorigenesis and progression of several types of cancer. However, the role of miR-34a-5p in osteosarcoma (OS) remains largely unknown. This study was performed in two multi-chemosensitive (G-292 and MG63.2) and two resistant (SJSA-1 and MNNG/HOS) OS cell lines. MiR-34a-5p promotes OS multi-chemoresistance via its repression of the Delta-like ligand 1 (DLL1) gene, the ligand of the Notch pathway, and thus negatively correlates with OS chemoresistance. The siRNA-mediated repression of the DLL1 gene suppressed cell apoptosis and de-sensitized G-292 and MG63...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212892/atf2-a-paradigm-of-the-multifaceted-regulation-of-transcription-factors-in-biology-and-disease
#7
REVIEW
Gregory Watson, Ze'ev A Ronai, Eric Lau
Stringent transcriptional regulation is crucial for normal cellular biology and organismal development. Perturbations in the proper regulation of transcription factors can result in numerous pathologies, including cancer. Thus, understanding how transcription factors are regulated and how they are dysregulated in disease states is key to the therapeutic targeting of these factors and/or the pathways that they regulate. Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) has been studied in a number of developmental and pathological conditions...
May 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205618/ald5-pad1-atf1-and-atf2-facilitate-the-catabolism-of-coniferyl-aldehyde-ferulic-acid-and-p-coumaric-acid-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#8
Peter Temitope Adeboye, Maurizio Bettiga, Lisbeth Olsson
The ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to catabolize phenolic compounds remains to be fully elucidated. Conversion of coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid by S. cerevisiae under aerobic conditions was previously reported. A conversion pathway was also proposed. In the present study, possible enzymes involved in the reported conversion were investigated. Aldehyde dehydrogenase Ald5, phenylacrylic acid decarboxylase Pad1, and alcohol acetyltransferases Atf1 and Atf2, were hypothesised to be involved...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198054/regulation-of-atf1-and-atf2-transcripts-by-sequences-in-their-3-untranslated-region-in-cleavage-stage-cattle-embryos
#9
Ernesto Orozco-Lucero, Isabelle Dufort, Marc-André Sirard
The sequence of a 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of mRNA governs the timing of its polyadenylation and translation in mammalian oocytes and early embryos. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of cis-elements in the 3'UTR of the developmentally important ATF1 and ATF2 transcripts on their timely translation during first cleavages in bovine embryos. Eight different reporter mRNAs (coding sequence of green fluorescent protein [GFP] fused to the 3'UTR of short or long isoforms of cattle ATF1 or -2, with or without polyadenylation) or a control GFP mRNA were microinjected separately into presumptive bovine zygotes at 18 hr post-insemination (hpi), followed by epifluorescence assessment for GFP translation between 24 and 80 hpi (expressed as percentage of GFP-positive embryos calculated from the total number of individuals)...
February 15, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120035/the-role-of-nrf2-and-atf2-in-resistance-to-platinum-based-chemotherapy
#10
Jianli Chen, Charalambos Solomides, Fiona Simpkins, Henry Simpkins
PURPOSE: Nrf2 and its role in controlling levels of the AKR family of aldo-keto reductases which have been implicated in resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy was studied in ovarian, cervical and lung cell lines. METHODS: Nrf2 shRNA knockdowns of cells from different tumor origins were prepared to determine the role of this factor in producing resistance to platinum chemotherapy. RESULTS: Nrf2 knockdowns resulted in marked decreases in AKR1C1, AKR1C2 and to a lesser extent AKR1C3...
January 24, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105187/atf2-translation-is-induced-under-chemotherapeutic-drug-mediated-cellular-stress-via-an-ires-dependent-mechanism-in-human-hepatic-cancer-bel7402-cells
#11
Qi Li, Wen-Qing Gao, Wen-Yan Dai, Chuang Yu, Rui-Yu Zhu, Jian Jin
Activating transcription factor (ATF) 2 is a member of the ATF/cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein family, which exhibits both oncogenic and tumor-suppressor functions. In our preliminary experiments, it was observed that the expression of the ATF2 protein was induced following treatment with adriamycin (ADR) and paclitaxel (PTX), which may be regulated by internal ribosome entry segment (IRES)-mediated translation. By constructing a bicistronic vector containing the ATF2 5'-untranslated region (UTR), it was demonstrated that the ATF2 5'-UTR contains an IRES and maps a 30-nucleotide (nt) sequence (from nt 299 to nt ~269), which was essential for the IRES activity...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013342/the-tlr4-nos1-ap1-signaling-axis-regulates-macrophage-polarization
#12
Mansi Srivastava, Uzma Saqib, Adnan Naim, Anjali Roy, Dongfang Liu, Deepak Bhatnagar, Ravinder Ravinder, Mirza Saqib Baig
OBJECTIVE: Macrophages polarize to proinflammatory M1 or anti-inflammatory M2 states with distinct physiological functions. This transition within the M1-M2 phenotypes decides the nature, duration and severity of an inflammatory response. Although there is a substantial understanding of the fate of these phenotypes, the underlying molecular mechanism of transition within the M1-M2 phenotypes is not well understood. We have investigated the role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1)-mediated regulation of activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factor in macrophages as a critical effector of macrophage phenotypic change...
December 24, 2016: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974798/mechanism-of-early-dissemination-and-metastasis-in-her2-mammary-cancer
#13
Kathryn L Harper, Maria Soledad Sosa, David Entenberg, Hedayatollah Hosseini, Julie F Cheung, Rita Nobre, Alvaro Avivar-Valderas, Chandandaneep Nagi, Nomeda Girnius, Roger J Davis, Eduardo F Farias, John Condeelis, Christoph A Klein, Julio A Aguirre-Ghiso
Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths; metastatic lesions develop from disseminated cancer cells (DCCs) that can remain dormant. Metastasis-initiating cells are thought to originate from a subpopulation present in progressed, invasive tumours. However, DCCs detected in patients before the manifestation of breast-cancer metastasis contain fewer genetic abnormalities than primary tumours or than DCCs from patients with metastases. These findings, and those in pancreatic cancer and melanoma models, indicate that dissemination might occur during the early stages of tumour evolution...
December 14, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941998/voltage-dependent-anion-channel-1-vdac1-participates-the-apoptosis-of-the-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-desminopathy
#14
Huanyin Li, Lan Zheng, Yanqing Mo, Qi Gong, Aihua Jiang, Jing Zhao
Desminopathies caused by the mutation in the gene coding for desmin are genetically protein aggregation myopathies. Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of pathological changes in the desminopathies at the earliest stage. The molecular mechanisms of mitochondria dysfunction in desminopathies remain exclusive. VDAC1 regulates mitochondrial uptake across the outer membrane and mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). Relationships between desminopathies and Voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) remain unclear...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916987/weight-loss-induced-cellular-stress-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-and-the-risk-for-weight-regain-in-overweight-and-obese-adults
#15
N J T Roumans, R G Vink, F G Bouwman, P Fazelzadeh, M A van Baak, E C M Mariman
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Weight loss is often followed by weight regain after the dietary intervention (DI). Cellular stress is increased in adipose tissue of obese individuals. However, the relation between cellular stress and weight regain is unclear. Previously, we observed increased adipose tissue cellular stress of participants regaining weight compared to participants maintaining weight loss. In the current study, we further investigated the relation between weight regain and changes in the expression of stress-related genes and stress protein levels to determine possible predictors of weight regain...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882945/adiponectin-reduces-er-stress-induced-apoptosis-through-ppar%C3%AE-transcriptional-regulation-of-atf2-in-mouse-adipose
#16
Zhenjiang Liu, Lu Gan, Tianjiao Wu, Fei Feng, Dan Luo, Huihui Gu, Shimin Liu, Chao Sun
Adiponectin is a cytokine produced predominantly by adipose tissue and correlates with glucose and lipid homeostasis. However, the effects of adiponectin on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis of adipose tissue remain elusive. In this study, we found that tunicamycin-induced ER stress increased serum free fatty acid (FFA) and impaired glucose tolerance, elevated the mRNA levels of GRP78, Chop, ATF2 and caspase 3, but reduced adiponectin mRNA level in white adipose tissue. Moreover, ER stress-triggered adipocyte apoptosis by increasing cellular FFA level and Ca(2+) level...
November 24, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872496/inactivation-of-klf4-promotes-t-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-and-activates-the-map2k7-pathway
#17
Y Shen, C S Park, K Suppipat, T-A Mistretta, M Puppi, T M Horton, K Rabin, N S Gray, J P P Meijerink, H D Lacorazza
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive hematological malignancy with a high incidence of relapse in pediatric ALL. Although most T-ALL patients exhibit activating mutations in NOTCH1, the cooperating genetic events required to accelerate the onset of leukemia and worsen disease progression are largely unknown. Here, we show that the gene encoding the transcription factor KLF4 is inactivated by DNA methylation in children with T-ALL. In mice, loss of KLF4 accelerated the development of NOTCH1-induced T-ALL by enhancing the G1-to-S transition in leukemic cells and promoting the expansion of leukemia-initiating cells...
January 3, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821620/tnf-up-regulates-st3gal4-and-sialyl-lewisx-expression-in-lung-epithelial-cells-through-an-intronic-atf2-responsive-element
#18
Florent Colomb, Marie-Ange Krzewinski-Recchi, Agata Steenackers, Audrey Vincent, Anne Harduin-Lepers, Philippe Delannoy, Sophie Groux-Degroote
We have previously shown that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) induced the up-regulation of the sialyltransferase gene ST3GAL4 (α2,3-sialyltransferase gene) BX transcript through mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1/2 (MSK1/2), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. This up-regulation resulted in sialyl-Lewis(x) (sLe(x)) overexpression on high-molecular-weight glycoproteins in inflamed airway epithelium and increased the adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and PAK strains to lung epithelial cells...
January 1, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818224/perfluorooctane-sulfonate-pfos-disrupts-blood-testis-barrier-by-down-regulating-junction-proteins-via-p38-mapk-atf2-mmp9-signaling-pathway
#19
Lianglin Qiu, Yingyun Qian, Zhenzhen Liu, Chao Wang, Jianhua Qu, Xiaoke Wang, Shoulin Wang
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), an ubiquitous environmental pollutant, has been associated with male reproductive disorders. However, the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. In this study, in vivo and in vitro models were used to explore the effects of PFOS on blood-testis barrier (BTB) and related molecular mechanisms. First, male ICR mice were orally administrated PFOS (0.5-10mg/kg/bw) for 4 weeks. Bodyweight, sperm count, BTB integrity and the expression of proteins including p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1(TIMP1) and BTB related junction proteins were evaluated...
December 12, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768832/rapid-activation-of-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-activated-kinase-1-in-chondrocytes-by-phosphorylation-and-k-63-linked-polyubiquitination-upon-injury-to-animal-articular-cartilage
#20
Heba M Ismail, Athanasios Didangelos, Tonia L Vincent, Jeremy Saklatvala
OBJECTIVE: Mechanical injury to cartilage predisposes to osteoarthritis (OA). Wounding of the articular cartilage surface causes rapid activation of MAP kinases and NF-κB, mimicking the response to inflammatory cytokines. This study was undertaken to identify the upstream signaling mechanisms involved. METHODS: Cartilage was injured by dissecting it from the articular surface of porcine metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints or by avulsing murine proximal femoral epiphyses...
March 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
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