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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916987/weight-loss-induced-cellular-stress-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-and-the-risk-for-weight-regain-in-overweight-and-obese-adults
#1
N J T Roumans, R G Vink, F G Bouwman, P Fazelzadeh, M A van Baak, E C M Mariman
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Weight loss is often followed by weight regain after the dietary intervention (DI). Cellular stress is increased in adipose tissue of obese individuals. However, the relation between cellular stress and weight regain is unclear. Previously, we observed increased adipose tissue cellular stress of participants regaining weight compared to participants maintaining weight loss. In the current study, we further investigated the relation between weight regain and changes in the expression of stress-related genes and stress protein levels to determine possible predictors of weight regain...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882945/adiponectin-reduces-er-stress-induced-apoptosis-through-ppar%C3%AE-transcriptional-regulation-of-atf2-in-mouse-adipose
#2
Zhenjiang Liu, Lu Gan, Tianjiao Wu, Fei Feng, Dan Luo, Huihui Gu, Shimin Liu, Chao Sun
Adiponectin is a cytokine produced predominantly by adipose tissue and correlates with glucose and lipid homeostasis. However, the effects of adiponectin on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis of adipose tissue remain elusive. In this study, we found that tunicamycin-induced ER stress increased serum free fatty acid (FFA) and impaired glucose tolerance, elevated the mRNA levels of GRP78, Chop, ATF2 and caspase 3, but reduced adiponectin mRNA level in white adipose tissue. Moreover, ER stress-triggered adipocyte apoptosis by increasing cellular FFA level and Ca(2+) level...
November 24, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872496/inactivation-of-klf4-promotes-t-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-and-activates-the-map2k7-pathway
#3
Y Shen, C S Park, K Suppipat, T-A Mistretta, M Puppi, T Horton, K Rabin, N S Gray, J P P Meijerink, H D Lacorazza
T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive hematological malignancy with a high incidence of relapse in pediatric ALL. Although most T-ALL patients exhibit activating mutations in NOTCH1, the cooperating genetic events required to accelerate the onset of leukemia and worsen disease progression are largely unknown. Here, we show that the gene encoding the transcription factor KLF4 is inactivated by DNA methylation in children with T-ALL. In mice, loss of KLF4 accelerated the development of NOTCH1-induced T-ALL by enhancing the G1-to-S transition in leukemic cells and promoting the expansion of leukemia-initiating cells...
November 22, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821620/tnf-up-regulates-st3gal4-and-sialyl-lewisx-expression-in-lung-epithelial-cells-through-an-intronic-atf2-responsive-element
#4
Florent Colomb, Marie-Ange Krzewinski-Recchi, Agata Steenackers, Audrey Vincent, Anne Harduin-Lepers, Philippe Delannoy, Sophie Groux-Degroote
We have previously shown that TNF induced the up-regulation of the sialyltransferase gene ST3GAL4 BX transcript through mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1/2 (MSK1/2), extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. This up-regulation resulted in sialyl-Lewis(x) (sLe(x)) over-expression on high-molecular weight glycoproteins in inflamed airway epithelium and increased the adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and PAK strains to lung epithelial cells...
November 7, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818224/perfluorooctane-sulfonate-pfos-disrupts-blood-testis-barrier-by-down-regulating-junction-proteins-via-p38-mapk-atf2-mmp9-signaling-pathway
#5
Lianglin Qiu, Yingyun Qian, Zhenzhen Liu, Chao Wang, Jianhua Qu, Xiaoke Wang, Shoulin Wang
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), an ubiquitous environmental pollutant, has been associated with male reproductive disorders. However, the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. In this study, in vivo and in vitro models were used to explore the effects of PFOS on blood-testis barrier (BTB) and related molecular mechanisms. First, male ICR mice were orally administrated PFOS (0.5-10mg/kg/bw) for 4 weeks. Bodyweight, sperm count, BTB integrity and the expression of proteins including p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1(TIMP1) and BTB related junction proteins were evaluated...
December 12, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768832/articular-cartilage-injury-rapidly-activates-tak1-in-chondrocytes-by-inducing-its-phosphorylation-and-k63-polyubiquitination
#6
Heba M Ismail, Athanasios Didangelos, Tonia L Vincent, Jeremy Saklatvala
Objectives Mechanical injury to cartilage predisposes to osteoarthritis (OA). Wounding the articular cartilage surface causes rapid activation of MAP kinases and NFκB mimicking the response to inflammatory cytokines. Here, we identify the upstream signalling mechanisms involved. Methods Cartilage was injured by dissecting it from the articular surface of porcine metacarpophalangeal joints (MCP) or by avulsing murine proximal femoral epiphyses. Protein phosphorylation was assayed by Western blotting of cartilage lysates...
October 21, 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729279/a-protective-mechanism-of-visible-red-light-in-normal-human-dermal-fibroblasts-enhancement-of-gadd45a-mediated-dna-repair-activity
#7
Yeo Jin Kim, Hyoung-June Kim, Hye Lim Kim, Hyo Jeong Kim, Hyun Soo Kim, Tae Ryong Lee, Dong Wook Shin, Young Rok Seo
The phototherapeutic effects of visible red light on skin have been extensively investigated, but the underlying biological mechanisms remain poorly understood. We aimed to elucidate the protective mechanism of visible red light in terms of DNA repair of UV-induced oxidative damage in normal human dermal fibroblasts. The protective effect of visible red light on UV-induced DNA damage was identified by several assays in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional cell culture systems. With regard to the protective mechanism of visible red light, our data showed alterations in base excision repair (BER) mediated by growth arrest and DNA damage inducible, alpha (GADD45A)...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709494/identification-of-noncanonical-wnt-receptors-required-for-wnt-3a-induced-early-differentiation-of-human-neural-stem-cells
#8
Nora Bengoa-Vergniory, Irantzu Gorroño-Etxebarria, Inmaculada López-Sánchez, Michele Marra, Pierluigi Di Chiaro, Robert Kypta
Wnt proteins preferentially activate either β-catenin-dependent or β-catenin-independent signals, but the activity of a particular Wnt also depends on cellular context and receptor availability. We previously reported that Wnt-3a induces neural differentiation of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cells (NSCs) in a β-catenin-independent manner by activating a signal involving JNK and the AP-1 family member ATF-2. Here, we report the results of a gene silencing approach to identify the Wnt receptors that mediate this response to Wnt-3a...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708346/role-of-areca-nut-induced-jnk-atf2-jun-axis-in-the-activation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-pathway-in-precancerous-oral-submucous-fibrosis
#9
Ila Pant, S Girish Rao, Paturu Kondaiah
Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is potentially premalignant with progressive and irreversible extracellular matrix deposition accompanied by epithelial atrophy and like other fibrotic disorders, is primarily a TGF-β driven disease. OSF is caused by prolonged chewing of areca nut. Our previous studies reported a pivotal role for TGF-β activation and its effects contributing to OSF. However, the mechanism for activation of TGF-β signaling in OSF is still unknown. In this study we demonstrate activation of TGF-β signaling with sub-cytotoxic dose of areca nut in epithelial cells and discovered a key role for pJNK in this process...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706758/jnk-pathway-and-relative-transcriptional-factor-were-involved-in-ginsenoside-rh2-mediated-g1-growth-arrest-and-apoptosis-in-human-lung-adenocarcinoma-a549-cells
#10
X Liu, Y Sun, L Yue, S Li, X Qi, H Zhao, Y Yang, C Zhang, H Yu
Ginsenoside Rh2 has been shown to have an anti-tumor effect on a wide range of cancers. A previous study has shown that ginsenoside Rh2 can inhibit the proliferation of the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line in a dose-dependent manner by activating caspase-8/3 activity to promote apoptosis. However, the association of the JNK signaling pathways and transcription factors with ginsenoside Rh2 in the suppression of non-small cell lung cancer has not yet been reported. In this study, we found that ginsenoside Rh2 can activate the JNK/MAPKs signaling pathway and increase the phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of the transcription factors AP-1 and ATF2...
September 19, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637516/dna-methylation-detection-at-single-base-resolution-using-targeted-next-generation-bisulfite-sequencing-and-cross-validation-using-capillary-sequencing
#11
Smitha Bhat, Sandeep Mallya, Vinay Koshy Varghese, Pradyumna Jayaram, Sanjiban Chakrabarty, Kalpana S Joshi, Tanuja M Nesari, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy
With a purpose of accurate and simultaneous determination of DNA methylation from multiple loci in multiple samples, here, we are demonstrating a method to aid rapid DNA methylation detection of genomic sequences. Using genomic DNA of peripheral blood from 14 healthy individuals, DNA methylation in 465 CpG sites from 12 loci of genes (ADAM22, ATF2, BCR, CD83, CREBBP, IL12B, IL17RA, MAP2K2, RBM38, TGFBR2, TGFBR3, and WNT5A) was analysed by targeted next generation bisulfite sequencing. Analysed region for three genes, BCR, IL17RA and RBM38 showed an absolute mean DNA methylation of 25...
December 15, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592113/clinicopathological-and-prognostic-significance-of-mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-mapk-in-breast-cancers
#12
Dena A J Ahmad, Ola H Negm, M Layth Alabdullah, Sameer Mirza, Mohamed R Hamed, Vimla Band, Andrew R Green, Ian O Ellis, Emad A Rakha
BACKGROUND: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are signalling transduction molecules that have different functions and diverse behaviour in cancer. In breast cancer, MAPK is related to oestrogen receptor (ER) and HER2. METHODS: Protein expression of a large panel of MAPKs (JNK1/2, ERK, p38, C-JUN and ATF2 including phosphorylated forms) were assessed immunohistochemically in a large (n = 1400) and well-characterised breast cancer series prepared as tissue microarray...
October 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588402/mir-204-suppresses-the-development-and-progression-of-human-glioblastoma-by-targeting-atf2
#13
Shiwei Song, Abul Fajol, Xiankun Tu, Baogang Ren, Songsheng Shi
In human cancers, miRNAs are important regulators of multiple cellular processes, and aberrant miRNA expression has been observed, and their alterations contribute to multiple cancer development and progression. Till now, little has been known about the role of miR-204 in human glioblastoma (GBM). In the present study, we used in-vitro assays to investigate the mechanisms of miR-204 in GBM cell lines and 60 cases of GBM tissues. Here, we found that miR-204 expression is downregulated in both GBM cell lines A172, U87 and U251 cells and GBM tissues as compared with NHA cells and normal tissues (all p<0...
August 31, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582466/long-noncoding-rna-32-contributes-to-antiviral-responses-by-controlling-interferon-stimulated-gene-expression
#14
Hironori Nishitsuji, Saneyuki Ujino, Sachiyo Yoshio, Masaya Sugiyama, Masashi Mizokami, Tatsuya Kanto, Kunitada Shimotohno
Despite the breadth of knowledge that exists regarding the function of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in biological phenomena, the role of lncRNAs in host antiviral responses is poorly understood. Here, we report that lncRNA#32 is associated with type I IFN signaling. The silencing of lncRNA#32 dramatically reduced the level of IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression, resulting in sensitivity to encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infection. In contrast, the ectopic expression of lncRNA#32 significantly suppressed EMCV replication, suggesting that lncRNA#32 positively regulates the host antiviral response...
September 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573019/activated-transcription-factor-3-in-association-with-histone-deacetylase-6-negatively-regulates-microrna-199a2-transcription-by-chromatin-remodeling-and-reduces-endothelin-1-expression
#15
Chen Li, Yu Zhou, Anastacia Loberg, Stanley M Tahara, Punam Malik, Vijay K Kalra
Previous studies showed that high levels of placenta growth factor (PlGF) correlated with increased plasma levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor, in sickle cell disease (SCD). PlGF-mediated transcription of the ET-1 gene occurs by activation of hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and posttranscriptionally by microRNA 199a2 (miR-199a2), which targets the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of HIF-1α mRNA. However, relatively less is known about how PlGF represses the expression of miR-199a2 located in the DNM3 opposite strand (DNM3os) transcription unit...
November 15, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498002/atf7-ablation-prevents-diet-induced-obesity-and-insulin-resistance
#16
Yang Liu, Toshio Maekawa, Keisuke Yoshida, Tamio Furuse, Hideki Kaneda, Shigeharu Wakana, Shunsuke Ishii
The activating transcription factor (ATF)2 family of transcription factors regulates a variety of metabolic processes, including adipogenesis and adaptive thermogenesis. ATF7 is a member of the ATF2 family, and mediates epigenetic changes induced by environmental stresses, such as social isolation and pathogen infection. However, the metabolic role of ATF7 remains unknown. The aim of the present study is to examine the role of ATF7 in metabolism using ATF7-dificeint mice. Atf7(-/-) mice exhibited lower body weight and resisted diet-induced obesity...
September 16, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27401248/dysregulation-of-egfr-pathway-in-epha2-cell-subpopulation-significantly-associates-with-poor-prognosis-in-colorectal-cancer
#17
Mariangela De Robertis, Luisa Loiacono, Caterina Fusilli, Maria Luana Poeta, Tommaso Mazza, Massimo Sanchez, Luigi Marchionni, Emanuela Signori, Giuseppe Lamorte, Angelo Luigi Vescovi, Jesus Garcia-Foncillas, Vito Michele Fazio
PURPOSE: EphA2 receptor is involved in multiple cross-talks with other cellular networks, including EGFR, FAK, and VEGF pathways, with which it collaborates to stimulate cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. Colorectal cancer (CRC) EphA2 overexpression has also been correlated to stem-like properties of cells and tumor malignancy. We investigated the molecular cross-talk and miRNAs modulation of the EphA2 and EGFR pathways. We also explored the role of EphA2/EGFR pathway mediators as prognostic factors or predictors of cetuximab benefit in patients with CRC...
July 11, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377902/atf2-predicts-poor-prognosis-and-promotes-malignant-phenotypes-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#18
Deng-Shuang Wu, Cheng Chen, Zhen-Jie Wu, Bing Liu, Li Gao, Qing Yang, Wei Chen, Jun-Ming Chen, Yi Bao, Le Qu, Lin-Hui Wang
BACKGROUND: Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, which has been shown to participate in the pathobiology of numerous cancers. However, the role of ATF2 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains unclear. METHODS: ATF2 knockdown and overexpression studies were performed in RCC cells to evaluate changes in cell viability, cell cycle, apoptosis, migration and invasion. Xenograft models were used to examine the tumorigenic and metastatic capability of RCC cells upon ATF2 suppression...
2016: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375606/differences-in-enzymatic-properties-of-the-saccharomyces-kudriavzevii-and-saccharomyces-uvarum-alcohol-acetyltransferases-and-their-impact-on-aroma-active-compounds-production
#19
Jiri Stribny, Amparo Querol, Roberto Pérez-Torrado
Higher alcohols and acetate esters belong to the most important yeast secondary metabolites that significantly contribute to the overall flavor and aroma profile of fermented products. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, esterification of higher alcohols is catalyzed mainly by the alcohol acetyltransferases encoded by genes ATF1 and ATF2. Previous investigation has shown other Saccharomyces species, e.g., S. kudriavzevii and S. uvarum, to vary in aroma-active higher alcohols and acetate esters formation when compared to S...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27351882/c3-exoenzyme-impairs-cell-proliferation-and-apoptosis-by-altering-the-activity-of-transcription-factors
#20
Leonie von Elsner, Sandra Hagemann, Ingo Just, Astrid Rohrbeck
C3 exoenzyme from C. botulinum is an ADP-ribosyltransferase that inactivates selectively RhoA, B, and C by coupling an ADP-ribose moiety. Rho-GTPases are involved in various cellular processes, such as regulation of actin cytoskeleton, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Previous studies of our group with the murine hippocampal cell line HT22 revealed a C3-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation after 48 h and a prevention of serum-starved cells from apoptosis. For both effects, alterations of various signaling pathways are already known, including also changes on the transcriptional level...
September 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
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