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Apocynin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526682/aeroallergens-induce-reactive-oxygen-species-production-and-dna-damage-and-dampen-antioxidant-responses-in-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#1
Tze Khee Chan, W S Daniel Tan, Hong Yong Peh, W S Fred Wong
Exposure to environmental allergens is a major risk factor for asthma development. Allergens possess proteolytic activity that is capable of disrupting the airway epithelium. Although there is increasing evidence pointing to asthma as an epithelial disease, the underlying mechanism that drives asthma has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the direct DNA damage potential of aeroallergens on human bronchial epithelial cells and elucidated the mechanisms mediating the damage. Human bronchial epithelial cells, BEAS-2B, directly exposed to house dust mites (HDM) resulted in enhanced DNA damage, as measured by the CometChip and the staining of DNA double-strand break marker, γH2AX...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515175/role-for-reactive-oxygen-species-in-flow-stimulated-inner-medullary-collecting-duct-endothelin-1-production
#2
Will Wheatley, Donald E Kohan
Inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD)-derived endothelin-1 (ET-1) is stimulated by volume expansion, in part through augmented luminal flow, whereupon it can elicit natriuresis and diuresis. Since flow can alter nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), both of which can affect collecting duct salt transport, we asked whether NO and/or ROS mediate flow-stimulated IMCD ET-1. Mouse IMCD3 cells were exposed to flow and ET-1/GAPDH mRNA assessed. A shear stress of 10 dyne/cm2 for 1 hr increased ET-1 mRNA by 4-fold compared to no flow (ET-1 flow response)...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507586/neutrophil-elastase-stimulates-muc5ac-expression-in-human-biliary-epithelial-cells-a-possible-pathway-of-pkc-nox-ros
#3
Yu Tian, Min Li, Shuodong Wu, Duoliang Wang, Ben Sun, Junqing Xie, Hong Wang
INTRODUCTION: Bacterial infection and bile flow retardation form a vicious cycle which promotes stone formation and recurrence, and it seems that mucin overexpression plays an important role in this process. However, the mechanism of increased mucus secretion in the biliary tract by bacterial infection and its treatment remain unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Human biliary epithelial cells were induced by neutrophil elastase (NE), and H2O2 production in the cell supernatants was detected by a specific kit, and then cells were pretreated with a H2O2 inhibitor, and expression of MUC5AC was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Western blot, and immunohistochemistry...
April 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500760/the-opposite-effects-of-nitric-oxide-donor-s-nitrosoglutathione-on-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-diabetic-and-non-diabetic-mice
#4
Yi Liu, Chenhai Xia, Rutao Wang, Jinglong Zhang, Tao Yin, Yanzuo Ma, Ling Tao
Nitric oxide is a potent anti-apoptotic and cardioprotective molecule in healthy animals. However, Recent study demonstrates that overexpression of eNOS exacerbates the liver injury in diabetic animals. whether diabetes may also alter NO's biologic activity in ischemic/reperfused heart remains unknown. The present experiment was designed to determine whether the nitric oxide donor, S-nitrosoglutathione, may exert different effects on diabetic and non-diabetic myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Diabetic state was induced in mice by multiple intraperitoneal injections of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ)...
May 13, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499911/aging-associated-metabolic-disorder-induces-nox2-activation-and-oxidative-damage-of-endothelial-function
#5
Lampson M Fan, Sarah Cahill-Smith, Li Geng, Junjie Du, Gavin Brooks, Jian-Mei Li
Oxidative stress attributable to the activation of a Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase is involved in the development of vascular diseases and in aging. However, the mechanism of Nox2 activation in normal aging remains unclear. In this study, we used age-matched wild-type (WT) and Nox2 knockout (KO) mice at 3-4 months (young); 11-12 months (middle-aged) and 21-22 months (aging) to investigate age-related metabolic disorders, Nox2 activation and endothelial dysfunction. Compared to young mice, middle-aged and ageing WT mice had significantly hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, systemic oxidative stress and higher blood pressure...
May 9, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499252/crosstalk-between-hdac6-and-nox2-based-nadph-oxidase-mediates-hiv-1-tat-induced-pro-inflammatory-responses-in-astrocytes
#6
Gi Soo Youn, Hyundong Cho, Donggyu Kim, Soo Young Choi, Jinseu Park
Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) likely is important in inflammatory diseases. However, how HDAC6 exerts its effect on inflammatory processes remains unclear. HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) activates NADPH oxidase resulting in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to extensive neuro-inflammation in the central nervous system. We investigated the correlation of HDAC6 and NADPH oxidase in HIV-1 Tat-stimulated astrocytes. HDAC6 knockdown attenuated HIV-1 Tat-induced ROS generation and NADPH oxidase activation...
May 4, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497199/arachidonic-acid-induces-are-nrf2-dependent-heme-oxygenase-1-transcription-in-rat-brain-astrocytes
#7
Chih-Chung Lin, Chien-Chung Yang, Yu-Wen Chen, Li-Der Hsiao, Chuen-Mao Yang
Arachidonic acid (AA) is a major product of phospholipid hydrolysis catalyzed by phospholipase A2 during neurodegenerative diseases. AA exerts as a second messenger to regulate various signaling components which may be involved in different pathophysiological processes. Astrocytes are the main types of CNS resident cells which maintain and support the physiological function of brain. AA has been shown to induce ROS generation through activation of NADPH oxidases (Noxs) which may play a key role in the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)...
May 11, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485605/-influence-of-dimerization-of-apocynin-on-its-effects-in-experimental-colitis
#8
Marta Marin, Clotilde Gimeno, Rosa M Giner, Jose Luis Rios, Salvador Mañez, M C Recio
Apocynin has been widely used as an inhibitor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphatase oxidase (NADPH-oxidase) system and shows promise as an anti-inflammatory drug. Diapocynin, the dimeric product generated by the oxidation of apocynin in presence of myeloperoxidase (MPO), is supposed to be its active form. In this study, diapocynin has been chemically synthesized and analyzed its activity on several inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and its anti-inflammatory effect on ulcerative colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in mice...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480509/oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-stimulates-epithelial-sodium-channels-in-endothelial-cells-of-mouse-thoracic-aorta
#9
Chen Liang, Qiu-Shi Wang, Xu Yang, Na Niu, Qing-Qing Hu, Bao-Long Zhang, Ming-Ming Wu, Chang-Jiang Yu, Xiao Chen, Bin-Lin Song, Zhi-Ren Zhang, He-Ping Ma
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is expressed in endothelial cells and acts as a negative modulator of vasodilation. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is a key pathological factor in endothelial dysfunction. The present study is to examine the role of ENaC in ox-LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction and its associated signal transduction pathway. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Patch-clamp techniques combined with pharmacological approaches were used to examine ENaC activity in the endothelial cells of split-open mouse thoracic aorta...
May 8, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458776/role-of-protein-kinase-c-and-nox2-derived-reactive-oxygen-species-formation-in-the-activation-and-maturation-of-dendritic-cells-by-phorbol-ester-and-lipopolysaccharide
#10
Judith Stein, Sebastian Steven, Matthias Bros, Stephan Sudowe, Michael Hausding, Matthias Oelze, Thomas Münzel, Stephan Grabbe, Angelika Reske-Kunz, Andreas Daiber
Aims. Activation/maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) plays a central role in adaptive immune responses by antigen processing and (cross-) activation of T cells. There is ongoing discussion on the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in these processes and with the present study we investigated this enigmatic pathway. Methods and Results. DCs were cultured from precursors in the bone marrow of mice (BM-DCs) and analyzed for ROS formation, maturation, and T cell stimulatory capacity upon stimulation with phorbol ester (PDBu) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455747/oxidative-stress-promotes-myocardial-fibrosis-by-upregulating-kca3-1-channel-expression-in-agt-ren-double-transgenic-hypertensive-mice
#11
Li-Ping Wang, Su-Jing Fan, Shu-Min Li, Xiao-Jun Wang, Jun-Ling Gao, Xiu-Hong Yang
The intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (KCa3.1) channels play a pivotal role in the cardiac fibroblast proliferation and inflammatory reaction during the progression of myocardial fibrosis. However, the relationship between KCa3.1 expression and oxidative stress, the important factor of promoting fibrosis, has not been clearly established. This study was designed to investigate whether the role of oxidative stress in promoting myocardial fibrosis is related to KCa3.1 channel by using biochemical approaches...
April 28, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453964/degradation-of-sulfadimethoxine-catalyzed-by-laccase-with-soybean-meal-extract-as-natural-mediator-mechanism-and-reaction-pathway
#12
Shangtao Liang, Qi Luo, Qingguo Huang
Natural laccase-mediator systems have been well recognized as an eco-friendly and energy-saving approach in environmental remediation, whose further application is however limited by the high cost of natural mediators and relatively long treatment time span. This study evaluated the water extract of soybean meal, a low-cost compound system, in mediating the laccase catalyzed degradation of a model contaminant of emerging concern, sulfadimethoxine (SDM), and demonstrated it as a promising alternative mediator for soil and water remediation...
April 23, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450925/therapeutic-effect-of-apocynin-through-antioxidant-activity-and-suppression-of-apoptosis-and-inflammation-after-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Yijun Sun, Futai Gong, Jichao Yin, Xiaoyan Wang, Xiangyang Wang, Qing Sun, Zhiqiang Zhu, Xiaoqiang Su, Jie Zheng, Li Liu, Yang Li, Xinglv Hu, Jia Li
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition affecting hundreds of thousands of people worldwide annually. SCI results in activation of the inflammatory response and apoptosis, and generates oxidative stress, which has deleterious effects on the recovery of motor function. Apocynin, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, has been demonstrated to improve neuronal functional recovery in rat models of SCI. However, the efficacy of apocynin treatment post-SCI has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to observe the effects of apocynin on the repair of acute spinal cord damage in rats and to examine the potential beneficial effects...
March 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433943/acute-lung-injury-leads-to-depression-like-symptoms-through-upregulation-of-neutrophilic-and-neuronal-nadph-oxidase-signaling-in-a-murine-model
#14
Ahmed Nadeem, Nahid Siddiqui, Naif O Al-Harbi, Sabry M Attia, Shakir D AlSharari, Sheikh F Ahmad
There is an increased prevalence of comorbid major depressive disorders with a number of inflammatory conditions which is thought to result from activation of the immune system. Acute lung injury (ALI) in humans has been also shown to be associated with depression previously. However, no study has explored the mechanism behind ALI-induced depression. NADPH oxidase (NOX-2) derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) are associated with neuropsychiatric disorders including depression. ROS generation via NOX-2 is also shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of ALI...
April 20, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430866/maternal-high-sucrose-diets-altered-vascular-large-conductance-ca2-activated-k-channels-via-reactive-oxygen-species-in-offspring-rats%C3%A2
#15
Xueqin Feng, Xiuwen Zhou, Wenna Zhang, Xiang Li, Axin He, Bailin Liu, Ruixiu Shi, Lei Wu, Jue Wu, Di Zhu, Na Li, Miao Sun, Zhice Xu
Overnutrition during pregnancy could increase risks of cardiovascular diseases in late life. This study investigated whether and how reactive oxygen species (ROS) may influence functions of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (BKCa) in the offspring exposed to prenatal high-sucrose (HS). We found that prenatal high-sucrose diets significantly increased phenylephrine (PE)-induced vessel contractions in mesenteric arteries of the adult offspring. Pretreatment with iberiotoxin (BKCa blocker, IBTX) significantly increased PE-mediated vascular contractions in the control, not in the HS group...
April 18, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423703/artocarpin-an-isoprenyl-flavonoid-induces-p53-dependent-or-independent-apoptosis-via-ros-mediated-mapks-and-akt-activation-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells
#16
Ming-Horng Tsai, Ju-Fang Liu, Yao-Chang Chiang, Stephen Chu-Sung Hu, Lee-Fen Hsu, Yu-Ching Lin, Zih-Chan Lin, Hui-Chun Lee, Mei-Chuan Chen, Chieh-Liang Huang, Chiang-Wen Lee
Artocarpin has been shown to exhibit cytotoxic effects on different cancer cells, including non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC, A549). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we explore both p53-dependent and independent apoptosis pathways in artocarpin-treated NSCLC cells. Our results showed that artocarpin rapidly induced activation of cellular protein kinases including Erk1/2, p38 and AktS473. Inhibition of these protein kinases prevented artocarpin-induced cell death. Moreover, artocarpin-induced phosphorylation of these protein kinases and apoptosis were mediated by induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as pretreatment with NAC (a ROS scavenger) and Apocynin (a Nox-2 inhibitor) blocked these events...
April 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408372/effects-of-sugar-sweetened-beverage-consumption-on-microvascular-and-macrovascular-function-in-a-healthy-population
#17
Jordan Loader, Cindy Meziat, Rani Watts, Christian Lorenzen, Dominique Sigaudo-Roussel, Simon Stewart, Cyril Reboul, Gregory Meyer, Guillaume Walther
OBJECTIVE: To assess vascular function during acute hyperglycemia induced by commercial sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and its effect on underlying mechanisms of the nitric oxide pathway. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In a randomized, single-blind, crossover trial, 12 healthy male participants consumed 600 mL (20 oz.) of water or a commercial SSB across 2 visits. Endothelial and vascular smooth muscle functions were assessed in the microcirculation using laser speckle contrast imaging coupled with iontophoresis and in the macrocirculation using brachial artery ultrasound with flow- and nitrate-mediated dilation...
April 13, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407721/chemical-composition-and-biological-investigation-of-pelargonium-endlicherianum-root-extracts
#18
Gökçe Şeker Karatoprak, Fatih Göger, Mükerrem Betül Yerer, Müberra Koşar
CONTEXT: Pelargonium endlicherianum Fenzl. (Geraniaceae) roots and flowers are traditionally used in Turkey as a decoction treatment against intestinal parasites. Neither the chemical composition nor the potential bioactivity of the plant roots has been studied before. OBJECTIVES: The phenolic content and effects of P. endlicherianum root extracts on antioxidant enzyme levels on A549 cells were studied for the first time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The chemical composition was analyzed via spectrophotometric and chromatographic (HPLC MS/MS and HPLC) techniques...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388570/apocynin-attenuates-left-ventricular-remodeling-in-diabetic-rabbits
#19
Jiuchun Qiu, Jianping Zhao, Jian Li, Xue Liang, Yajuan Yang, Zhiwei Zhang, Xiaowei Zhang, Huaying Fu, Panagiotis Korantzopoulos, Gary Tse, Tong Liu, Guangping Li
INTRODUCTION: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases are responsible for the generation of reactive oxygen species, producing vascular and myocardial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. However, the potential benefits of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin, on left ventricular (LV) remodeling remain unknown. RESULTS: In the diabetic group, interventricular septal thickness and left ventricular posterior wall thickness were markedly increased compared to control...
March 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379212/effects-of-epidural-compression-on-stellate-neurons-and-thalamocortical-afferent-fibers-in-the-rat-primary-somatosensory-cortex
#20
Tzu-Yin Yeh, Guo-Fang Tseng, Chi-Yu Tseng, Yung-Hsin Huang, Pei-Hsin Liu
A number of neurological disorders such as epidural hematoma can cause compression of cerebral cortex. We here tested the hypothesis that sustained compression of primary somatosensory cortex may affect stellate neurons and thalamocortical afferent (TCA) fibers. A rat model with barrel cortex subjected to bead epidural compression was used. Golgi-Cox staining analyses showed the shrinkage of dendritic arbors and the stripping of dendritic spines of stellate neurons for at least 3 months post-lesion. Anterograde tracing analyses exhibited a progressive decline of TCA fiber density in barrel field for 6 months post-lesion...
2017: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
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