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Apocynin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909865/apocynin-alleviates-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-regulating-the-level-of-zinc-and-metallothionen
#1
Bo Hu, Yuhong Wu, Fei Tong, Jie Liu, Xiaohua Shen, Ruilin Shen, Guangtao Xu
The purpose of this research was to evaluate the protective effects of apocynin on renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury (RI/RI) in rats. Rats preconditioned with apocynin were subjected to renal I/R. Zinc levels in serum and renal tissues, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and serum creatinine (Scr) were detected. We further measured the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD); the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α; and the expression of metallothionein (MT) in the renal tissues. Results indicated that the levels of MDA, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and MT in the kidney tissue and serum BUN and Scr levels in RI/RI group were significantly higher than those in sham-operated group, while the levels of serum Zn and kidney Zn and SOD were reduced in RI/RI group...
December 1, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909228/divergent-outcomes-of-fructose-consumption-on-exercise-capacity-of-rats-friend-or-foe
#2
Angela Sun, An Huang, Elizabeth Kertowidjojo, Su Song, Thomas H Hintze, Dong Sun
To test the hypothesis that high fructose (HF) consumption divergently affects exercise capability, as a function of feeding duration, rats were fed a normal (as control) or a normal caloric diet with HF for 3, 6, 10 and 30 days respectively, and run on a treadmill. Results show that running distance and work were significantly increased, associated with greater exercise oxygen consumption in rats fed HF for 3 (HF-3D) and 6 days, but were decreased in rats fed HF for 30 days (HF-30D) compared to their respective control rats...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899860/leptin-attenuates-the-contractile-function-of-adult-rat-cardiomyocytes-involved-in-oxidative-stress-and-autophagy
#3
Liu-Jin Luo, Ying-Ping Liu, Xun Yuan, Gui-Ping Zhang, Ning Hou, Xiao-Qian Wu, Jian-Dong Luo, Gen-Shui Zhang
BACKGROUND: Leptin has been identified as an important protein involved in obesity. As a chronic metabolic disorder, obesity is associated with a high risk of developing cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, including heart failure. The aim of this paper was to investigate the effects and the mechanism of leptin on the contractile function of cardiomyocytes in the adult rat. METHODS: Isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes were exposed to leptin (1, 10, and 100 nmol/L) for 1 hour...
November 2016: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835878/apocynin-attenuates-angiotensin-ii-induced-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-osteogenic-switching-via-suppressing-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-1-2
#4
Weijing Feng, Kun Zhang, Yu Liu, Jie Chen, Qingqing Cai, Yinyin Zhang, Mongheng Wang, Jingfeng Wang, Hui Huang
Vascular calcification (VC) is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We recently reported that apocynin had benefits for preventing cardiovascular diseases. However, whether apocynin could attenuate VC is unknown. Here, we investigated the role of apocynin in VC and its underlying mechanisms. 163 participants with high or normal ankle-brachial index (ABI) were enrolled in this study for analyzing the demographic and biochemical data. In vitro, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were exposed to calcification medium containing b-glycerophosphate and angiotensin II (Ang II) for 24 hours...
November 8, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824157/effect-of-p22phox-depletion-on-sympathetic-regulation-of-blood-pressure-in-shrsp-evaluation-in-a-new-congenic-strain
#5
Hasan M Zahid, Mohammed Zubaerul Ferdaus, Hiroki Ohara, Minoru Isomura, Toru Nabika
Oxidative stress in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), a sympathetic center in the brainstem, was implicated in the regulation of sympathetic activity in various hypertensive models including stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). In this study, we evaluated the role of the NADPH oxidases (NOX) in the blood pressure (BP) regulation in RVLM in SHRSP. The P22PHOX-depleted congenic SHRSP (called SP.MES) was constructed by introducing the mutated p22phox gene of Matsumoto Eosinophilic Shinshu rat...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790135/nox-2-mediated-phenotype-loss-of-hippocampal-parvalbumin-interneurons-might-contribute-to-postoperative-cognitive-decline-in-aging-mice
#6
Li-Li Qiu, Dan Luo, Hui Zhang, Yun S Shi, Yan-Jun Li, Dan Wu, Jiang Chen, Mu-Huo Ji, Jian-Jun Yang
Postoperative cognitive decline (POCD) is a common complication following anesthesia and surgery, especially in elderly patients; however, the precise mechanisms of POCD remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase mediated-abnormalities in parvalbumin (PV) interneurons play an important role in the pathophysiology of POCD. The animal model was established using isoflurane anesthesia and exploratory laparotomy in 16-month-old male C57BL/6 mice. For interventional experiments, mice were chronically treated with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin (APO)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789131/apocynin-and-enzymatically-modified-isoquercitrin-suppress-the-expression-of-a-nadph-oxidase-subunit-p22phox-in-steatosis-related-preneoplastic-liver-foci-of-rats
#7
Toshinori Yoshida, Hirotada Murayama, Masahi Kawashima, Rei Nagahara, Yumi Kangawa, Sayaka Mizukami, Masayoshi Kimura, Hajime Abe, Shim-Mo Hayashi, Makoto Shibutani
We determined effects of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor apocynin (APO) or the antioxidant enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ) on an early stage of hepatocarcinogenesis in the liver with steatosis. Male rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and fed a high-fat diet (HFD) to subject to a two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model. Two weeks later, rats were fed a HFD containing the lipogenic substance malachite green (MG), which were co-administered with EMIQ or APO in drinking water for 6 weeks...
October 24, 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782741/apocynin-ameliorates-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-remodeling-by-inhibiting-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis
#8
J-J Liu, Y Lu, N-N Ping, X Li, Y-X Lin, C F Li
Oxidative stress plays an important role in pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling. The purpose of this study was to determine whether apocynin, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitor, attenuates pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling in rats. After abdominal aorta constriction, the surviving rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham group, abdominal aorta constriction group, apocynin group, captopril group. Left ventricular pathological changes were studied using Masson's trichrome staining...
October 26, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771430/neuronal-protection-against-oxidative-insult-by-polyanhydride-nanoparticle-based-mitochondria-targeted-antioxidant-therapy
#9
Timothy M Brenza, Shivani Ghaisas, Julia E Vela Ramirez, Dilshan Harischandra, Vellareddy Anantharam, Balaraman Kalyanaraman, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Balaji Narasimhan
A progressive loss of neuronal structure and function is a signature of many neurodegenerative conditions including chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Parkinson's, Huntington's and Alzheimer's diseases. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative and nitrative stress have been implicated as key pathological mechanisms underlying the neurodegenerative processes. However, current therapeutic approaches targeting oxidative damage are ineffective in preventing the progression of neurodegeneration. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants were recently shown to alleviate oxidative damage...
October 19, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765769/microvascular-endothelial-dysfunction-in-sedentary-obese-humans-is-mediated-by-nadph-oxidase-influence-of-exercise-training
#10
Justin D La Favor, Gabriel S Dubis, Huimin Yan, Joseph D White, Margaret A M Nelson, Ethan J Anderson, Robert C Hickner
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of in vivo reactive oxygen species (ROS) on microvascular endothelial function in obese human subjects and the efficacy of an aerobic exercise intervention on alleviating obesity-associated dysfunctionality. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Young, sedentary men and women were divided into lean (body mass index 18-25; n=14), intermediate (body mass index 28-32.5; n=13), and obese (body mass index 33-40; n=15) groups...
December 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744119/impaired-vascular-function-in-sepsis-surviving-rats-mediated-by-oxidative-stress-and-rho-kinase-pathway
#11
Priscila de Souza, Karla Lorena Guarido, Karin Scheschowitsch, Luísa Mota da Silva, Maria Fernanda Werner, Jamil Assreuy, José Eduardo da Silva-Santos
We investigated long-lasting changes in endothelial and vascular function in adult rat survivors of severe sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model. For this, male Wistar rats (200-350g) had their cecum punctured once (non-transfixing hole) with a 14-gauge needle. Performed in this way, a mortality rate around 30% was achieved in the first 72h. The survivors, together with age-matched control rats (not subjected to CLP), were maintained in our holding room for 60 days (S60 group) and had the descending thoracic aorta processed for functional, histological, biochemical or molecular analyses...
September 30, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725840/effects-of-huang-qi-decoction-on-endothelial-dysfunction-induced-by-homocysteine
#12
Shuang Chu, Xiao-Dong Mao, Li Wang, Wen Peng
Vascular endothelial dysfunction can be induced by homocysteine (Hcy) through promoted oxidative stress. Huang Qi decoction (HQD) is a traditional Chinese medical formula and its components possess antioxidant effect. The study herein was therefore designed to investigate the effects of HQD at different dosage on endothelial dysfunction induced by Hcy. Tempol and apocynin were used to investigate whether antioxidant mechanisms were involved. Endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat aortas was investigated by isometric tension recordings...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722988/reactive-oxygen-species-derived-from-nad-p-h-oxidase-play-a-role-on-ethanol-induced-hypertension-and-endothelial-dysfunction-in-rat-resistance-arteries
#13
Janaina A Simplicio, Gabriel T do Vale, Natália A Gonzaga, Letícia N Leite, Ulisses V Hipólito, Camila A Pereira, Rita C Tostes, Carlos R Tirapelli
Chronic ethanol consumption is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We studied whether NAD(P)H oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in ethanol-induced hypertension, vascular dysfunction, and protein expression in resistance arteries. Male Wistar rats were treated with ethanol (20 % v/v) for 6 weeks. Ethanol treatment increased blood pressure and decreased acetylcholine-induced relaxation in the rat mesenteric arterial bed (MAB). These responses were attenuated by apocynin (30 mg/kg/day; p...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714634/zinc-oxide-nanoparticle-induces-microglial-death-by-nadph-oxidase-independent-reactive-oxygen-species-as-well-as-energy-depletion
#14
Anuj Kumar Sharma, Vikas Singh, Ruchi Gera, Mahaveer Prasad Purohit, Debabrata Ghosh
Zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZnO-NP) is one of the most widely used engineered nanoparticles. Upon exposure, nanoparticle can eventually reach the brain through various routes, interact with different brain cells, and alter their activity. Microglia is the fastest glial cell to respond to any toxic insult. Nanoparticle exposure can activate microglia and induce neuroinflammation. Simultaneous to activation, microglial death can exacerbate the scenario. Therefore, we focused on studying the effect of ZnO-NP on microglia and finding out the pathway involved in the microglial death...
October 6, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698473/apocynin-and-nox2-regulate-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-by-modifying-thioredoxin-1-redox-state
#15
Silvia Cellone Trevelin, Célio Xavier Dos Santos, Raphael Gomes Ferreira, Larissa de Sá Lima, Rangel Leal Silva, Cristoforo Scavone, Rui Curi, José Carlos Alves-Filho, Thiago Mattar Cunha, Pérsio Roxo-Júnior, Maria-Célia Cervi, Francisco Rafael Martins Laurindo, John Stephen Hothersall, Andrew M Cobb, Min Zhang, Aleksandar Ivetic, Ajay M Shah, Lucia Rossetti Lopes, Fernando Queiroz Cunha
The reactive-oxygen-species-(ROS)-generating-enzyme Nox2 is essential for leukocyte anti-microbial activity. However its role in cellular redox homeostasis and, consequently, in modulating intracellular signaling pathways remains unclear. Herein, we show Nox2 activation favors thioredoxin-1 (TRX-1)/p40phox interaction, which leads to exclusion of TRX-1 from the nucleus. In contrast, the genetic deficiency of Nox2 or its pharmacological inhibition with apocynin (APO) results in reductive stress after lipopolysaccharide-(LPS)-cell stimulation, which causes nuclear accumulation of TRX-1 and enhanced transcription of inflammatory mediators through nuclear-factor-(NF)-κB...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693243/benzyl-isothiocyanate-promotes-apoptosis-of-oral-cancer-cells-via-an-acute-redox-stress-mediated-dna-damage-response
#16
Yao-Tsung Yeh, Yen-Nien Hsu, Sheng-Yun Huang, Jian-Sheng Lin, Zi-Feng Chen, Nan-Haw Chow, Shu-Hui Su, Huey-Wen Shyu, Ching-Chiang Lin, Wu-Tein Huang, Hua Yeh, Yu-Chia Chih, Yu-Hsuan Huang, Shu-Jem Su
Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is a cruciferous vegetable-derived compound with anticancer properties in human cancer cells. However, its anticancer potential and underlying mechanisms remain absent in human oral cancer cells. Results indicate that BITC inhibits growth, promotes G2/M phase arrest and triggers apoptosis of OC2 cells with a minimal toxicity to normal cells. BITC-induced cell death was completely prevented by pretreatment with thiol-containing redox compounds including N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), glutathione (GSH), dithiothreitol, and 2-mercaptoethanol, but not free radical scavengers mito-TEMPO, catalase, apocynin, l-NAME and mannitol...
September 28, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27656261/hyperglycemia-aggravates-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-inducing-chronic-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation
#17
Yihan Zhang, Dongdong Yuan, Weifeng Yao, Qianqian Zhu, Yue Liu, Fei Huang, Jiayu Feng, Xi Chen, Yong Huang, Xinjin Chi, Ziqing Hei
Aim. To investigate whether hyperglycemia will aggravate hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury (HIRI) and the underlying mechanisms. Methods. Control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to partial hepatic ischemia reperfusion. Liver histology, transferase, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress were assessed accordingly. Similarly, BRL-3A hepatocytes were subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) after high (25 mM) or low (5.5 mM) glucose culture. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and activation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells (NF-κB) were determined...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27655834/prevention-of-dna-damage-in-barrett-s-esophageal-cells-exposed-to-acidic-bile-salts
#18
Vikas Bhardwaj, Andela Horvat, Olga Korolkova, Mary K Washington, Wael El-Rifai, Sergey I Dikalov, Alexander I Zaika
Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) is one of the fastest rising tumors in the USA. The major risk factor for EA is gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). During GERD, esophageal cells are exposed to refluxate which contains gastric acid frequently mixed with duodenal bile. This may lead to mucosal injury and Barrett's metaplasia (BE) that are important factors contributing to development of EA. In this study, we investigated DNA damage in BE cells exposed to acidic bile salts and explored for potential protective strategies...
December 2016: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616142/induction-of-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stresses-in-human-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-by-all-trans-retinal
#19
Xue Zhu, Ke Wang, Kai Zhang, Fanfan Zhou, Ling Zhu
Delayed clearance of free form all-trans-retinal (atRAL) is estimated be the key cause of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells injury during the pathogenesis of retinopathies such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are far from clear. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity effect and underlying molecular mechanism of atRAL on human retinal pigment epithelium ARPE-19 cells. The results indicated that atRAL could cause cell dysfunction by inducing oxidative and nitrosative stresses in ARPE-19 cells...
October 15, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601184/neuronal-nos-activates-spinal-nadph-oxidase-2-contributing-to-central-sigma-1-receptor-induced-pain-hypersensitivity-in-mice
#20
Sheu-Ran Choi, Soon-Gu Kwon, Hoon-Seong Choi, Ho-Jae Han, Alvin James Beitz, Jang-Hern Lee
We recently demonstrated that activation of spinal sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1Rs) induces pain hypersensitivity via the activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 2 (Nox2). However, the potential direct interaction between nNOS-derived nitric oxide (NO) and Nox2-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) is poorly understood, particularly with respect to the potentiation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activity in the spinal cord associated with the development of central sensitization...
December 1, 2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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