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Ying Huang, Gui-Quan Cai, Jian-Ping Peng, Chao Shen
Based on the results from our previous study, dexamethasone (Dex) increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and subsequently induces cell death and matrix catabolism in chondrocytes. Nevertheless, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains unclear. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) (NADPH) oxidase 4 (NOX4) is one of the major enzymes responsible for intracellular ROS production during the inflammatory process. The objective of the current study was to investigate the role of NOX4 in Dex-induced ROS over-production...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Satvika Sharma, Ankush Parmar, Rishi Bhardwaj, Tanzeer Kaur
Apocynin has become a drug of choice in NADPH oxidase induced pathological conditions. Hyperoxaluria is one such pathological condition where NADPH oxidase is involved in eliciting renal injury. Recently apocynin has shown to reverse the transcriptome profile of the NADPH oxidase-associated genes and reduced oxidative burden in hyperoxaluric animals. The poor solubility of this drug creates certain apprehensions about its bioavailability. PLGA (Poly Lactic co-Glycolic Acid) encapsulation of drug nanoparticles have showed to induce sustain release and henceforth enhance the efficiency and bioavailability of drugs...
February 28, 2018: Current Drug Delivery
Ahmed M Hashad, Maria Sancho, Suzanne E Brett, Donald G Welsh
Vascular T-type Ca2+ channels (CaV 3.1 and CaV 3.2) play a key role in arterial tone development. This study investigated whether this conductance is a regulatory target of angiotensin II (Ang II), a vasoactive peptide that circulates and which is locally produced within the arterial wall. Patch clamp electrophysiology performed on rat cerebral arterial smooth muscle cells reveals that Ang II (100 nM) inhibited T-type currents through AT1 receptor activation. Blocking protein kinase C failed to eliminate channel suppression, a finding consistent with unique signaling proteins enabling this response...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jun-Xia Zhang, Xin-Liang Qu, Peng Chu, Du-Jiang Xie, Lin-Lin Zhu, Yue-Lin Chao, Li Li, Jun-Jie Zhang, Shao-Liang Chen
Uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) produces O2 - instead of nitric oxide (NO). Earlier, we reported rapamycin, an autophagy inducer and inhibitor of cellular proliferation, attenuated low shear stress (SS) induced O2 - production. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether autophagy plays a critical role in the regulation of eNOS uncoupling. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the modulation of autophagy on eNOS uncoupling induced by low SS exposure. We found that low SS induced endothelial O2 - burst, which was accompanied by reduced NO release...
February 18, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Eid Alabed Alibrahim, Ramaroson Andriansitohaina, Kévin Hardonnière, Raffaella Soleti, Sébastien Faure, Gilles Simard
AIM: Chlordecone is able to induce pro-angiogenic effect through an estrogen receptor (ERα) pathway involving NO release and VEGF. The present study aimed to determine the molecular mechanisms by which chlordecone promotes angiogenesis in human endothelial cells. RESULTS: High but not low concentration of chlordecone increased mitochondrial respiratory capacity and mitochondrial DNA content in endothelial cells. The ROS scavenger MnTMPyP was able to prevent the increase of both VEGF expression and capillary length induced by chlordecone...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Gina Sánchez, Felipe Araneda, Juan Pedro Peña, José Pablo Finkelstein, Jaime A Riquelme, Luis Montecinos, Genaro Barrientos, Paola Llanos, Zully Pedrozo, Matilde Said, Ricardo Bull, Paulina Donoso
Ventricular arrhythmias are a common cause of sudden cardiac death, and their occurrence is higher in obese subjects. Abnormal gating of ryanodine receptors (RyR2), the calcium release channels of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, can produce ventricular arrhythmias. Since obesity promotes oxidative stress and RyR2 are redox-sensitive channels, we investigated whether the RyR2 activity was altered in obese mice. Mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) became obese after eight weeks and exhibited a significant increase in the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias...
February 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Toshimitsu Okamura, Maki Okada, Tatsuya Kikuchi, Hidekatsu Wakizaka, Ming-Rong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Apocynin is a constituent of the medicinal herb Picrorhiza kurroa. It is an inhibitor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase. This compound shows potential anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and has been tested as a neuroprotectant in many animal models of brain disease. In such studies, understanding the brain kinetics of apocynin would be important for interpreting its in vivo efficacy; however, little has been reported on the kinetics of apocynin in the brain...
January 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Juliana Kovalczuk de Oliveira, Débora Fernanda Veres Ronik, Jociani Ascari, Rubiana Mara Mainardes, Najeh Maissar Khalil
In this study, we developed and validated a fast, specific, sensitive, precise and stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to determine the drug apocynin in bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles. Chromatographic analyses were performed on an RP C18 column and using a photodiode array detector at a wavelength of 276 nm. Mobile phase consisted of a mixture of acetonitrile and 1% acetic acid (60:40, v/v), and it was eluted isocratically at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The retention time of apocynin chromatographic peak was 1...
April 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis
Xue Liang, Qitong Zhang, Xinghua Wang, Meng Yuan, Yue Zhang, Zhao Xu, Guangping Li, Tong Liu
Diabetes is an independent risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF); however, the underlying mechanism linking diabetes and AF remains to be clarified. The present study aimed to explore the molecular mechanism of increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in AF and the ROS‑mediated downstream events in diabetes. Firstly, the atrial fibroblasts were isolated from the left atrium of rabbits using enzyme digestion and differential adhesion. Then, the isolated cells were identified by morphology analysis under a microscope, collagen distribution using Masson trichrome staining and vimentin by immunofluorescence...
January 24, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Sánchez-Santos A, Martínez-Hernández Mg, Contreras-Ramos A, Ortega-Camarillo C, Baiza-Gutman LA
During embryo implantation, the outer layer of the blastocyst interacts with the endometrium giving rise to the development of the trophoblast cell lineage. The cells in this lineage participate in the penetration of endometrium due to their motility and invasive properties. The mechanisms that regulate the differentiation and invasive ability of these cells are essential for the establishment and maintenance of an efficient exchange between maternal and fetal tissues during pregnancy. In this context, hyperglycemia can induce oxidative stress causing alterations in the placenta...
February 2, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Lili Zhang, Xiaoyan Wang, Yan Wu, Xiangru Lu, Peter Chidiac, Guoping Wang, Qingping Feng
Offspring of diabetic mothers are at risk of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not clear. We hypothesize that prenatal exposure to maternal diabetes up-regulates myocardial NOX2 expression and enhances ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in the adult offspring. Maternal diabetes was induced in C57BL/6 mice by streptozotocin. Glucose-tolerant adult offspring of diabetic mothers and normal controls were subjected to myocardial I/R injury. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, ROS generation, myocardial apoptosis and infarct size were assessed...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Robert M Starke, John W Thompson, Muhammad S Ali, Crissey L Pascale, Alejandra Martinez Lege, Dale Ding, Nohra Chalouhi, David M Hasan, Pascal Jabbour, Gary K Owens, Michal Toborek, Joshua M Hare, Aaron S Dumont
OBJECTIVE: Cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) is a risk factor for cerebral aneurysm (CA) formation, but the molecular mechanisms are unclear. Although CSE is known to contribute to excess reactive oxygen species generation, the role of oxidative stress on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotypic modulation and pathogenesis of CAs is unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate whether CSE activates a NOX (NAPDH oxidase)-dependent pathway leading to VSMC phenotypic modulation and CA formation and rupture...
January 18, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
R Gimenes, C Gimenes, C M Rosa, N P Xavier, D H S Campos, A A H Fernandes, M D M Cezar, G N Guirado, L U Pagan, I D Chaer, D C Fernandes, F R Laurindo, A C Cicogna, M P Okoshi, K Okoshi
BACKGROUND: Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in diabetes mellitus (DM) is an important mechanism leading to diabetic cardiomyopathy. Apocynin, a drug isolated from the herb Picrorhiza kurroa, is considered an antioxidant agent by inhibiting NADPH oxidase activity and improving ROS scavenging. This study analyzed the influence of apocynin on cardiac remodeling in diabetic rats. METHODS: Six-month-old male Wistar rats were assigned into 4 groups: control (CTL, n = 15), control + apocynin (CTL + APO, n = 20), diabetes (DM, n = 20), and diabetes + apocynin (DM + APO, n = 20)...
January 17, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Jorge Osvaldo Montes-Rivera, Feliciano Tamay-Cach, Julio César Quintana-Pérez, Juan Alberto Guevara-Salazar, José Guadalupe Trujillo-Ferrara, Leonardo Del Valle-Mondragón, Mónica Griselda Arellano-Mendoza
A worldwide public health problem is chronic kidney disease (CKD) presenting alarming epidemiological data. It currently affects about 10% of the adult population worldwide and has a high mortality rate. It is now known that oxidative stress represents one of the most important mechanisms in its pathophysiology, from the early stages to the terminal phase. Oxidation increases inflammation and reduces the capacity of NO• to relax vascular smooth muscle, in part by decreasing bioavailability of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4 ), leading to endothelial dysfunction and high blood pressure, and due to the limited effectiveness of existing treatments, new drugs are needed to prevent and/or treat these mechanisms...
November 2018: Renal Failure
Yuan-Yuan Qin, Mei Li, Xing Feng, Jian Wang, Lijuan Cao, Xi-Kui Shen, Jieyu Chen, Meiling Sun, Rui Sheng, Feng Han, Zheng-Hong Qin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 27, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Jian-An Xian, Xiu-Xia Zhang, An-Li Wang, Jun-Tao Li, Pei-Hua Zheng, Yao-Peng Lu, Dong-Mei Wang, Jian-Min Ye
Oxidative burst, release of reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) contributed to microorganisms killing, is a vital immune response of crustacean haemocyte. Three morphologic haemocyte types (hyaline cells, HC; semigranular cells, SGC; granular cells, GC) have been defined in crustaceans, and found to play different roles in immune defense. However, oxidative burst activities of different haemocyte subpopulations in crustaceans are currently not documented. In the present study, we investigated the oxidative burst activities of the three haemocyte types in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii using the common ROS fluorescent probe dichlorofluorescin-diacetate (DCFH-DA)...
December 22, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Kenneth H K Wong, Yin Cai, Fan Ying, Xinyi Chen, Paul M Vanhoutte, Eva H C Tang
AIMS: Repressor activator protein 1 (Rap1) is conventionally known as a static structural component of the telomere, but recent evidence indicates that it exerts functions within and outside the nucleus taking part in metabolic regulation and promoting inflammatory responses. The present study investigated whether or not Rap1 deletion affects oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability in the vascular wall, thus modulating endothelial function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Vascular responsiveness was studied in wire myographs in aortae from Rap1 wildtype and knockout mice...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Qiaohong Lai, Wenpei Xiang, Qing Li, Hanwang Zhang, Yufeng Li, Guijin Zhu, Chengliang Xiong, Lei Jin
The increased levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in granulosa cells (GCs) may affect the pregnancy results in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In this study, we compared the in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) results of 22 patients with PCOS and 25 patients with tubal factor infertility and detected the ROS levels in the GCs of these two groups. Results showed that the PCOS group had significantly larger follicles on the administration day for human chorionic gonadotropin than the tubal factor group (P < 0...
December 19, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
Ker Woon Choy, Yeh Siang Lau, Dharmani Murugan, Paul M Vanhoutte, Mohd Rais Mustafa
Inflammatory injury of the endothelium leads to apoptosis and endothelial dysfunction. The current study explored the effect and mechanisms of paeonol in inflammation-induced apoptosis and endothelial dysfunction induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The effects of paeonol on LPS-induced inflammatory injury were assessed by Western blotting, flow cytometry and reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and C57BL/6J mice. Vascular reactivity of isolated mouse aortae was examined using wire myographs...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Xue-Rui Wang, Jing-Wen Yang, Cai-Shuo Ji, Xiang-Hong Zeng, Guang-Xia Shi, Marc Fisher, Cun-Zhi Liu
Oxidative stress in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), where the sympathetic nervous control center is located, contributes to neural mechanisms of hypertension. Acupuncture was previously reported to favorably affect high blood pressure. However, little is known about the effect of acupuncture on oxidative stress-modulated mechanisms in hypertension. This study was designed to evaluate the hypothesis that acupuncture exerts an antihypertensive effect via ameliorating oxidative stress and the redox-sensitive pathway in the RVLM of spontaneously hypertensive rats...
February 2018: Hypertension
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