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Apocynin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212823/cyp-epoxygenase-derived-h2o2-is-involved-in-the-endothelium-derived-hyperpolarization-edh-and-relaxation-of-intrarenal-arteries
#1
Mercedes Muñoz, Maria Elvira López-Oliva, Estéfano Pinilla, María Pilar Martínez, Ana Sánchez, Claudia Rodríguez, Albino García-Sacristán, Medardo Hernández, Luis Rivera, Dolores Prieto
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) like hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are involved in the in endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH)-type relaxant responses of coronary and mesenteric arterioles. The role of ROS in kidney vascular function has mainly been investigated in the context of harmful ROS generation associated to kidney disease. The present study was sought to investigate whether H2O2 is involved in the endothelium-dependent relaxations of intrarenal arteries as well the possible endothelial sources of ROS generation involved in these responses...
February 14, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202386/paraquat-and-maneb-co-exposure-induces-noradrenergic-locus-coeruleus-neurodegeneration-through-nadph-oxidase-mediated-microglial-activation
#2
Liyan Hou, Cong Zhang, Ke Wang, Xiaofang Liu, Hongwei Wang, Yuning Che, Fuqiang Sun, Xueying Zhou, Xiulan Zhao, Qingshan Wang
Co-exposure to paraquat (PQ) and maneb (Mb) has been shown to increase the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) and dopaminergic (DA) neurodegeneration in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) is observed in PQ and Mb-treated experimental animals. The loss of noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC/NE) neurons in brainstem is a common feature shared by multiple neurodegenerative diseases, including PD. However, whether PQ and Mb is able to damage LC/NE neurons remains undefined. In this study, mice treated with combined PQ and Mb displayed progressive LC/NE neurodegeneration...
February 12, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192231/hypotensive-and-vasorelaxant-effect-of-diapocynin-in-normotensive-rats
#3
Simone R Potje, Jéssica A Troiano, Murilo E Graton, Valdecir F Ximenes, Ana Claúdia M S Nakamune, Cristina Antoniali
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NAD(P)H-oxidase) is a multicomponent enzyme system that generates superoxide anion by one-electron reduction of molecular oxygen and represents the major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the vascular cells. Apocynin has been extensively used as an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (NOX) in phagocytic cells and as an antioxidant in non-phagocytic cells. In phagocytes cells, due to the presence of myeloperoxidase, apocynin can be the converted to diapocynin, which is supposed to be the active form of this phytochemical...
February 9, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132925/combined-nadph-and-the-nox-inhibitor-apocynin-provides-greater-anti-inflammatory-and-neuroprotective-effects-in-a-mouse-model-of-stroke
#4
Yuan-Yuan Qin, Mei Li, Xing Feng, Jian Wang, Lijuan Cao, Xi-Kui Shen, Jieyu Chen, Meiling Sun, Rui Sheng, Feng Han, Zheng-Hong Qin
Our previous study has reported that the pentose phosphate pathway product nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) protected neurons against ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury. NADPH can either act as a co-enzyme to produce GSH or a substrate of NADPH oxidase (NOX) to generate ROS. This study was designed to elucidate the effects of co-treatment with NADPH and NOX inhibitor apocynin on ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain inflammation and neuronal injury. The results showed that both NADPH and apocynin markedly attenuated ischemia/reperfusion-induced increases in the levels of NOX2, NOX4 and ROS...
January 26, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131839/myeloperoxidase-amplified-high-glucose-induced-endothelial-dysfunction-in-vasculature-role-of-nadph-oxidase-and-hypochlorous-acid
#5
Rong Tian, Yun Ding, Yi-Yuan Peng, Naihao Lu
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), have emerged as important molecules in the pathogenesis of diabetic endothelial dysfunction. Additionally, neutrophils-derived myeloperoxidase (MPO) and MPO-catalyzed hypochlorous acid (HOCl) play important roles in the vascular injury. However, it is unknown whether MPO can use vascular-derived ROS to induce diabetic endothelial dysfunction. In the present study, we demonstrated that NADPH oxidase was the main source of ROS formation in high glucose-cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and played a critical role in high glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction such as cell apoptosis, loss of cell viability and reduction of nitric oxide (NO)...
March 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129433/celastrol-ameliorates-cd-induced-neuronal-apoptosis-by-targeting-nox2-derived-ros-dependent-pp5-jnk-signaling-pathway
#6
Chong Xu, Xiaoxue Wang, Chenjian Gu, Hai Zhang, Ruijie Zhang, Xiaoqing Dong, Chunxiao Liu, Xiaoyu Hu, Xiang Ji, Shile Huang, Long Chen
Celastrol, a plant-derived triterpene, has neuroprotective benefit in the models of neurodegenerative disorders that are characterized by overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, we have reported that cadmium (Cd) activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway leading to neuronal cell death by inducing ROS inactivation of protein phosphatase 5 (PP5), and celastrol prevents Cd-activated JNK pathway against neuronal apoptosis. Therefore, we hypothesized that celastrol could hinder Cd induction of ROS-dependent PP5-JNK signaling pathway from apoptosis in neuronal cells...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126350/peptostreptococcus-anaerobius-induces-intracellular-cholesterol-biosynthesis-in-colon-cells-to-induce-proliferation-and-causes-dysplasia-in-mice
#7
Ho Tsoi, Eagle Sh Chu, Xiang Zhang, Jianqiu Sheng, Daniel Nakatsu, Siew C Ng, Anthony Wh Chan, Francis Kl Chan, Joseph Jy Sung, Jun Yu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Stool samples from patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) have a higher abundance of Peptostreptococcus anaerobius than stool from individuals without CRC, based on metagenome sequencing. We investigated whether P anaerobius contributes to colon tumor formation in mice and its possible mechanisms of carcinogenesis. METHODS: We performed quantitative PCR analyses to measure P anaerobius in 112 stool samples and 255 colon biopsies from patients with CRC or advanced adenoma and from healthy individuals (controls) undergoing colonoscopy examination at hospitals in Hong Kong and Beijing...
January 23, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116922/protective-effect-of-apocynin-against-gentamicin-induced-nephrotoxicity-in-rats
#8
R S Abdelrahman
Gentamicin (GNT) is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used for treatment of serious infections, and the nephrotoxic adverse effect is one of the main therapeutic limitations. This study aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of apocynin (APO) on nephrotoxicity induced by GNT in rats. Twenty-four rats were allocated into three groups: control, GNT (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)), and GNT plus APO (10 mg/kg, i.p.). All rats were killed at the end of the experiment, and then the blood, urine, and kidneys samples were taken...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097492/activation-of-trpm2-and-trpv1-channels-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-by-nadph-oxidase-and-protein-kinase-c-molecular-pathways-a-patch-clamp-study
#9
Mustafa Nazıroğlu
Despite considerable research, the mechanisms of neuropathic pain induced by excessive oxidative stress production and overload calcium ion (Ca(2+)) entry in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) remain substantially unidentified. The transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) and vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels are activated with different stimuli including oxidative stress. TRPM2 and TRPV1 have been shown to be involved in induction of neuropathic pain. However, the activation mechanisms of TRPM2 and TRPV1 via NADPH oxidase and protein kinase C (PKC) pathways are poorly understood...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038445/ochratoxin-a-induces-er-stress-and-apoptosis-in-mesangial-cells-via-a-nadph-oxidase-derived-reactive-oxygen-species-mediated-calpain-activation-pathway
#10
Meei-Ling Sheu, Chin-Chang Shen, Yuan-Siao Chen, Chih-Kang Chiang
Ochratoxin A (OTA) contaminated food increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in glomerulus and causes glomerulopathy. The molecular mechanisms still remain uncertain. In this study, we used mouse and rat glomerular mesangial cells and delineate the signaling pathway behind the OTA-triggered cell apoptosis. OTA dose-dependently induced expression of ER stress markers including phospho-PERK, phospho-eIF2α, GRP78, GRP94, and CHOP. Apoptosis events including cleavage of caspase-12, caspase-7, and PARP are also observed...
December 27, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030501/apocynin-suppressed-the-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-and-attenuated-lung-injury-in-a-rat-hemorrhagic-shock-model
#11
Seok Ho Choi, Gil Joon Suh, Woon Yong Kwon, Kyung Su Kim, Min Ji Park, Taegyun Kim, Jeong In Ko
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate whether a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox) inhibitor, apocynin, reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, suppresses the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway, attenuates lung injury, and improves survival in rat hemorrhagic shock (HS) model. METHODS: Blood was drawn from male Sprague-Dawley rats (290 - 340 g) to maintain a mean arterial pressure of 20 - 25 mmHg for 40 minutes...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011583/association-of-serum-hmgb2-level-with-mace-at-1-month-of-myocardial-infarction-aggravation-of-myocardial-ischemic-injury-in-rat-by-hmgb2-via-ros
#12
Zhu Hui Liu, Dao Peng Dai, Feng Hua Ding, Wen Qi Pan, Yue Hua Fang, Qi Zhang, Man Li, Ping Yang, Xiao Qun Wang, Ying Shen, Ling Jie Wang, Xiao Xiang Yan, Yu Hu He, Ke Yang, Rui Yan Zhang, Wei Feng Shen, Ying Chen, Lin Lu
BACKGROUND: High-mobility group box (HMGB) family is related to inflammatory diseases. We investigated whether serum HMGB2 levels are related to myocardial infarction (MI) severity and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) during MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 432 consecutive patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and 312 controls. Serum HMGB2 levels were significantly higher in MI patients than in controls. Increased HMGB2 levels were associated with MACE and negatively with ejection fraction in MI patients...
December 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011270/h2s-inhibits-angiotensin-ii-induced-atrial-kv1-5-upregulation-by-attenuating-nox4-mediated-ros-generation-during-atrial-fibrillation
#13
Guihua Lu, Chenggui Xu, Kaiyu Tang, Juhong Zhang, Qinglang Li, Longyun Peng, Yesong Wang, Zhibin Huang, Xiuren Gao
Our previous study demonstrated that angiotensin II (Ang II) upregulates the expression of Kv1.5, a promising target for atrial fibrillation (AF) therapy, by activating ROS-dependent P-Smad2/3 and P-ERK 1/2. A recent study showed that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) may modulate the effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) by inhibiting the NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4)-ROS signaling in the heart. The present study aimed to determine whether H2S is involved in the regulation of atrial Kv1.5 via ROS-related mechanisms in AF. Cultured neonatal rat atrial myocytes and a beagle model of AF were used for this study...
January 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010769/the-effect-of-pelargonium-endlicherianum-fenzl-root-extracts-on-formation-of-nanoparticles-and-their-antimicrobial-activities
#14
Gökçe Şeker Karatoprak, Gamze Aydin, Berrak Altinsoy, Cevahir Altinkaynak, Müberra Koşar, Ismail Ocsoy
Herein, we report the biosynthesis of Ag NPs, for the first time, using identified antimicrobial molecules (gallic acid+apocynin) and (gallic acid+apocynin+quercetin) from the medicinal plant Pelargonium endlicherianum Fenzl. and dramatically enhanced antimicrobial activity. We also investigate the role of each molecule on formation Ag NPs and explain the increase in the antimicrobial activity of identified molecules mediated Ag NPs. The extraction protocols, 11% ethanol and 70% methanol, resulted in identification of different constituents of gallic acid+apocynin (M1) and gallic acid+apocynin+quercetin (M2) with respective concentrations...
February 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010122/lysyl-oxidase-induces-vascular-oxidative-stress-and-contributes-to-arterial-stiffness-and-abnormal-elastin-structure-in-hypertension-role-of-p38mapk
#15
Sonia Martínez-Revelles, Ana B García-Redondo, María S Avendaño, Saray Varona, Teresa Palao, Mar Orriols, Fernanda R Roque, Ana Fortuño, Rhian M Touyz, Jose Martínez-González, Mercedes Salaices, Cristina Rodríguez, Ana M Briones
AIMS: Vascular stiffness, structural elastin abnormalities, and increased oxidative stress are hallmarks of hypertension. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an elastin crosslinking enzyme that produces H2O2 as a by-product. We addressed the interplay between LOX, oxidative stress, vessel stiffness, and elastin. RESULTS: Angiotensin II (Ang II)-infused hypertensive mice and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) showed increased vascular LOX expression and stiffness and an abnormal elastin structure...
January 30, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994808/effects-of-benzo-e-pyrene-on-reactive-oxygen-nitrogen-species-and-inflammatory-cytokines-induction-in-human-rpe-cells-and-attenuation-by-mitochondrial-involved-mechanism
#16
M Fernanda Estrago-Franco, M Tarek Moustafa, Mohammad Riazi-Esfahani, Ashish U Sapkal, Rhina Piche-Lopez, A Jayaprakash Patil, Ashish Sharma, Payam Falatoonzadeh, Marilyn Chwa, Georgia Luczy-Bachman, Baruch D Kuppermann, M Cristina Kenney
PURPOSE: To identify inhibitors that could effectively lower reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), complement and inflammatory cytokine levels induced by Benzo(e)pyrene [B(e)p], an element of cigarette smoke, in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) in vitro. METHODS: ARPE-19 cells were treated for 24 hours with 200 μM, 100 μM, and 50 μM B(e)p or DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide)-equivalent concentrations. Some cultures were pre-treated with ROS/RNS inhibitors (NG nitro-L-arginine, inhibits nitric oxide synthase; Apocynin, inhibits NADPH oxidase; Rotenone, inhibits mitochondrial complex I; Antimycin A, inhibits mitochondria complex III) and ROS/RNS levels were measured with a fluorescent H2 DCFDA assay...
October 2016: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989546/superoxide-anion-generation-and-oxidative-stress-in-methylmercury-induced-endothelial-toxicity-in-vitro
#17
Heloisa Ghizoni, Viviane de Souza, Marcos Raniel Straliotto, Andreza Fabro de Bem, Marcelo Farina, Mariana Appel Hort
Emerging evidence has pointed to mercury exposure as a risk factor for hypertension, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. This study investigated potential toxic effects of low concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg) in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) and the possible involvement of reactive species, particularly superoxide anion, in mediating such toxicity. MeHg treatment increased the oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (a general probe for reactive species) and dihydroethidium, a specific probe for superoxide anion...
October 27, 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988353/the-effects-of-urotensin-ii-on-migration-and-invasion-are-mediated-by-nadph-oxidase-derived-reactive-oxygen-species-through-the-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-pathway-in-human-hepatoma-cells
#18
Ying-Ying Li, Zheng-Ming Shi, Xiao-Tong Yu, Ping Feng, Xue-Jiang Wang
AIMS: Urotensin II (UII) is a vasoactive neuropeptide involved in migration and invasion in various cell types. However, the effects of UII on human hepatoma cells still remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role and mechanism of UII on migration and invasion in human hepatoma cells. METHODS: Migration was measured by wound healing assays and a Transwell(®) methodology, and invasion was analyzed using Matrigel(®) invasion chambers. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were detected using a 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe, and flow cytometry, and protein expression levels were evaluated by western blotting...
February 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984129/aluminum-exposure-for-one-hour-decreases-vascular-reactivity-in-conductance-and-resistance-arteries-in-rats
#19
Patrícia Medeiros Schmidt, Alyne Goulart Escobar, João Guilherme Dini Torres, Caroline Silveira Martinez, Danize Aparecida Rizzetti, Simone Noremberg Kunz, Dalton Valentim Vassallo, María Jesús Alonso, Franck Maciel Peçanha, Giulia Alessandra Wiggers
AIMS: Aluminum (Al) is an important environmental contaminant; however, there are not enough evidences of Al-induced cardiovascular dysfunction. We investigated the effects of acute exposure to aluminum chloride (AlCl3) on blood pressure, vascular reactivity and oxidative stress. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: Untreated: vehicle (ultrapure water, ip) and AlCl3: single dose of AlCl3 (100mg/kg,ip). Concentration-response curves to phenylephrine in the absence and presence of endothelium, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME, the potassium channels blocker tetraethylammonium, and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin were performed in segments from aortic and mesenteric resistance arteries...
October 27, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932980/tnf-%C3%AE-induced-cpla2-expression-via-nadph-oxidase-reactive-oxygen-species-dependent-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-cascade-on-human-pulmonary-alveolar-epithelial-cells
#20
Chih-Chung Lin, Wei-Ning Lin, Rou-Ling Cho, Chen-Yu Wang, Li-Der Hsiao, Chuen-Mao Yang
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) triggers activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and then enhancing the synthesis of prostaglandin (PG) in inflammatory diseases. However, the detailed mechanisms of TNF-α induced cPLA2 expression were not fully defined in human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (HPAEpiCs). We found that TNF-α-stimulated increases in cPLA2 mRNA (5.2 folds) and protein (3.9 folds) expression, promoter activity (4.3 folds), and PGE2 secretion (4.7 folds) in HPAEpiCs, determined by Western blot, real-time PCR, promoter activity assay and PGE2 ELISA kit...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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