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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935286/mercury-exposure-induces-proinflammatory-enzymes-in-vascular-fibroblasts
#1
Alberto Millán Longo, Óscar Montero Saiz, Claudia Sarró Fuente, Andrea Aguado Martínez, Mercedes Salaices Sánchez
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies show that mercury exposure increases cardiovascular risk, although the underlying cellular mechanisms have still not been fully studied. The aim of this project is to study, in vascular fibroblasts (VF), the effect of HgCl2 exposure on the expression of enzymes involved in the synthesis of prostanoids and reactive oxygen species (ROS). These molecules have been shown to participate in the inflammatory response associated with cardiovascular diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adventitial VF cultures of Sprague-Dawley rat aortas, shown to be α-actin negative by immunofluorescence, were exposed to HgCl2 (0...
September 18, 2017: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927288/a-new-sesquiterpene-from-kalimeris-integrifolia
#2
Guo-Kai Wang, Zheng Wang, Yang Yu, Nan Zhang, Zhong-Yu Zhou, Gang Wang, Jin-Song Liu
A new sesquiterpene kalinturoside A (1), and 17 known compounds friedelan-3-ol (2), 24-ethyl-5a-cholesta-7, 22(E)-dien-3-one (3), friedelin (4), syringaresinol (5), α-spinasterol (6), ciwujiatone (7), syringic acid (8), scopoletin (9), apocynin (10), 1-(3-hydroxy-4, 5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethan-1-one (11), apigenin (12), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (13), stigmasterol-3-O-β-d-glucopy-ranoside (14), bidenoside C (15), citrusin (16), irioresinol A (17) and syringaresinol-4-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (18) were isolated from the herbs of Kalimeris integrifolia...
September 19, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927129/deficiency-of-gap-junction-composed-of-connexin43-contributes-to-oxaliplatin-resistance-in-colon-cancer-cells
#3
Min Su, Qi Zhang
Although comprehensive strategies in the treatment of colorectal cancer have been developed for a number of years, the five-year survival rate of metastatic colon cancer remains less than 10%. Oxaliplatin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent for metastatic colon cancer, improves the response rate of patients and prolongs patients' progression-free survival. However, the generation of resistance limits the clinical application of oxaliplatin, and the mechanisms of this remain unclear. The present study mainly investigated the effect of the gap junction (GJ) composed of connexin43 (Cx43) on oxaliplatin cytotoxicity in colon cancer cells...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919853/p47phox-cdk5-drp1-mediated-mitochondrial-fission-evokes-pv-cell-degeneration-in-the-rat-dentate-gyrus-following-status-epilepticus
#4
Ji-Eun Kim, Tae-Cheon Kang
Parvalbumin (PV) is one of the calcium-binding proteins, which plays an important role in the responsiveness of inhibitory neurons to an adaptation to repetitive spikes. Furthermore, PV neurons are highly vulnerable to status epilepticus (SE, prolonged seizure activity), although the underlining mechanism remains to be clarified. In the present study, we found that p47Phox expression was transiently and selectively increased in PV neurons 6 h after SE. This up-regulated p47Phox expression was accompanied by excessive mitochondrial fission...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900851/tributyltin-chloride-disrupts-aortic-vascular-reactivity-and-increases-reactive-oxygen-species-production-in-female-rats
#5
Carolina Falcão Ximenes, Samya Mere Lima Rodrigues, Priscila Lang Podratz, Eduardo Merlo, Julia Fernandez Puñal de Araújo, Lívia Carla Melo Rodrigues, Juliana Barbosa Coitinho, Dalton Valentim Vassallo, Jones Bernardes Graceli, Ivanita Stefanon
Organotin compounds, such as tributyltin (TBT), are environment contaminants that induce bioaccumulation and have potential toxic effects on marine species and mammals. TBT have been banned by the International Maritime Organization in 2003. However, the assessment of butyltin and metal contents in marine sediments has demonstrated high residual levels of TBT in some cases exceeding 7000 ng Sn g(-1). The acceptable daily intake (ADI) level for TBT established by the World Health Organization is 0.5 μg/kg bw/day is based on genotoxicity, reproduction, teratogenicity, immunotoxicity, and mainly neurotoxicity...
September 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884828/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-acrolein-promoted-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-therapeutic-potential-of-nox2-and-p38mapk-inhibitors
#6
Arumugam Suyavaran, Kesthuru Subbiah Girish, K Kemparaju, Chinnasamy Thirunavukkarasu
Neutrophil is a significant contributor to ischemia reperfusion (IR) induced liver tissue damage. However, the underlying mechanisms of IR induced innate immune activation and liver damage is not quite clear. Our study sheds light on the role of chronic oxidative stress end products in worsening the IR inflammatory process by neutrophil recruitment and activation following liver surgery. We employed specific inhibitors for molecular targets - NOX2 (NADPH oxidase 2) and P38 MAPK (Mitogen activated protein kinase) signal to counteract neutrophil activation and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) release induced liver damage in IR injury...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875417/chlorogenic-acid-regulates-apoptosis-and-stem-cell-marker-related-gene-expression-in-a549-human-lung-cancer-cells
#7
Kazuo Yamagata, Yuri Izawa, Daiki Onodera, Motoki Tagami
Previous studies indicated that chlorogenic acid, a compound present in many fruits and vegetables, has anti-cancer activities. We report that chlorogenic acid regulates the expression of apoptosis-related genes and self-renewal-related stem cell markers in cancer cells. The lung cancer cell line A549 was cultured with or without chlorogenic acid. The presence of chlorogenic acid decreased cell proliferation as measured by MTT activity. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed that treatment of cells with chlorogenic acid reduced the expression of BCL2 but increased that of both BAX and CASP3...
September 5, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844957/adiponectin-attenuates-nadph-oxidase-mediated-oxidative-stress-and-neuronal-damage-induced-by-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#8
Xia Li, Hao Guo, Lei Zhao, Bodong Wang, Haixiao Liu, Liang Yue, Hao Bai, Haiyang Jiang, Li Gao, Dayun Feng, Yan Qu
Adiponectin (APN), which is a major adipokine that regulated glucose and lipid metabolism, plays an important role in the protection of the cerebral nervous system. It also has been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects and ameliorate oxidative stress. Stroke is a universal cause of death and permanent disability. Ischemic stroke accounts for most cases of stroke, and is characterized by cerebral ischemia and neurological deficits. We aimed to investigate the effects of APN-peptide (APN-P) in neurons following ischemia reperfusion (I/R) in C57BL/6J mice, and to study the potential mechanisms underlying its effects...
August 24, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840777/in-utero-exposure-to-alcohol-alters-reactivity-of-cerebral-arterioles
#9
Sergio G Cananzi, William G Mayhan
Our goal was to examine whether in utero exposure to alcohol impaired reactivity of cerebral arterioles during development. We fed Sprague-Dawley dams a liquid diet with or without alcohol (3% ethanol) for the duration of pregnancy (21-23 days). Around 4-6 weeks after birth, we examined reactivity of cerebral arterioles to eNOS- (ADP) and nNOS-dependent (NMDA) agonists in the offspring. We found that in utero exposure to alcohol attenuated responses of cerebral arterioles to ADP and NMDA, but not to nitroglycerin in rats exposed to alcohol in utero...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836001/the-reduced-myofilament-responsiveness-to-calcium-contributes-to-the-negative-force-frequency-relationship-in-rat-cardiomyocytes-role-of-reactive-oxygen-species-and-p-38-map-kinase
#10
María Sofía Espejo, Ignacio Aiello, Marisa Sepúlveda, Martín G Vila Petroff, Ernesto A Aiello, Verónica C De Giusti
The force-frequency relationship (FFR) is an important intrinsic regulatory mechanism of cardiac contractility. However, a decrease (negative FFR) or no effect (flat FFR) on contractile force in response to an elevation of heart rate is present in the normal rat or in human heart failure. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can act as intracellular signaling molecules activating diverse kinases as calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and p-38 MAP kinase (p-38K). Our aim was to elucidate the intracellular molecules implicated in the FFR of isolated rat ventricular myocytes...
August 23, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833480/aromatic-regions-govern-the-recognition-of-nadph-oxidase-inhibitors-as-diapocynin-and-its-analogues
#11
Martha E Macías Pérez, Maricarmen Hernández Rodríguez, Laura C Cabrera Pérez, M Jonathan Fragoso-Vázquez, José Correa-Basurto, Itzia I Padilla-Martínez, David Méndez Luna, Elvia Mera Jiménez, César Flores Sandoval, Feliciano Tamay Cach, Martha C Rosales-Hernández
Oxidative stress is related to the pathogenesis and progress of several human diseases. NADPH oxidase (NOX), and mainly the NOX2 isoform, produces superoxide anions (O2(•)(-) ). To date, it is known that NOX2 can be inhibited by preventing the assembly of its subunits, p47phox and p22phox. In this work, we analyzed the binding to NOX2 of the apocynin dimer, diapocynin (C1), a known NOX2 inhibitor, and of 18 designed compounds (C2-C19) which have chemical relationships to C1, by in silico methods employing a p47phox structure from the Protein Data Bank (PDB code: 1WLP)...
August 21, 2017: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830073/platelet-activating-factor-increases-reactive-oxygen-species-mediated-microbicidal-activity-of-human-macrophages-infected-with-leishmania-viannia-braziliensis
#12
Arissa Felipe Borges, Camila Imai Morato, Rodrigo Saar Gomes, Miriam Leandro Dorta, Milton Adriano Pelli de Oliveira, Fátima Ribeiro-Dias
Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is produced by macrophages during inflammation and infections. We evaluated whether PAF is able to modulate the infection of human macrophages by Leishmania braziliensis, the main Leishmania sp. in Brazil. Monocyte-derived macrophages were incubated with promastigote forms in absence or presence of exogenous PAF. We observed that the treatment of macrophages with low concentrations of PAF prior to infection increased the phagocytosis of L. braziliensis. More importantly, exogenous PAF reduced the parasitism when it was added before, during or after infection...
September 29, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826906/aluminum-exposure-at-human-dietary-levels-promotes-vascular-dysfunction-and-increases-blood-pressure-in-rats-a-concerted-action-of-nad-p-h-oxidase-and-cox-2
#13
Caroline Silveira Martinez, Janaina Trindade Piagette, Alyne Gourlart Escobar, Ángela Martín, Roberto Palacios, Franck Maciel Peçanha, Dalton Valentim Vassallo, Christopher Exley, María Jesús Alonso, Marta Miguel, Mercedes Salaices, Giulia Alessandra Wiggers
Aluminum (Al) is a non-essential metal and a significant environmental contaminant and is associated with a number of human diseases including cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of Al exposure at doses similar to human dietary levels on the cardiovascular system over a 60day period. Wistar male rats were divided into two major groups and received orally: 1) Low aluminum level - rats were subdivided and treated for 60days as follows: a) Untreated - ultrapure water; b) AlCl3 at a dose of 8.3mg/kg bw for 60days, representing human Al exposure by diet; and 2) High aluminum level - rats were subdivided and treated for 42days as follows: C) Untreated - ultrapure water; d) AlCl3 at 100mg/kg bw for 42days, representing a high level of human exposure to Al...
August 19, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822840/role-of-adp-ribosylation-factor6-cytohesin1-phospholipased-signaling-axis-in-u46619-induced-activation-of-nadph-oxidase-in-pulmonary-artery-smooth-muscle-cell-membrane
#14
Sajal Chakraborti, Jaganmay Sarkar, Animesh Chowdhury, Tapati Chakraborti
Treatment of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs) with the thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist, SQ29548 inhibited U46619 stimulation of phospholipase D (PLD) and NADPH oxidase activities in the cell membrane. Pretreatment with apocynin inhibited U46619 induced increase in NADPH oxidase activity. The cell membrane contains predominantly PLD2 along with PLD1 isoforms of PLD. Pretreatment with pharmacological and genetic inhibitors of PLD2, but not PLD1, attenuated U46619 stimulation of NADPH oxidase activity...
August 16, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793197/glycosylation-with-o-linked-%C3%AE-n-acetylglucosamine-o-glcnac-induces-vascular-dysfunction-via-production-of-superoxide-anion-reactive-oxygen-species
#15
Leonardo Souza-Silva, Rhéure Alves-Lopes, Jéssica Silva Miguez, Vanessa Dela Justina, Karla Bianca Neves, Fabíola Leslie Mestriner, Rita C Tostes, Fernanda Regina Giachini, Victor V Lima
Overproduction of superoxide anion (•O2-) and O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc)-modification in the vascular system are contributors to endothelial dysfunction. This study tested the hypothesis that increased levels of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins contribute to •O2- production via activation of NADPH oxidase, resulting in impaired vasodilation. Rat aortic segments and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMCs) were incubated with vehicle (methanol) or PUGNAc (100 µM). PUGNAc produced a time-dependent increase in O-GlcNAc levels in VSMC and decreased endothelium-dependent relaxation, which was prevented by apocynin and Tiron, suggesting that •O2- contributes to endothelial dysfunction under augmented O-GlcNAc levels...
August 9, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791341/apocynin-protects-mesangial-cells-from-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammation-by-exerting-heme-oxygenase%C3%A2-1-mediated-monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1-suppression
#16
Nirmal Prasad Bhatt, Jin-Young Park, Hee Jae Lee, Sung-Soo Kim, Yong-Soo Kwon, Wanjoo Chun
Renal failure is observed in the pathological progression of sepsis and septic shock. Renal mesangial cells (RMCs) have been implicated in renal failure as a result of producing mediators, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have been demonstrated to mediate the LPS-induced inflammatory response in RMCs. Although previous studies indicated a promising effect of apocynin in various inflammatory conditions, its antiseptic efficacy in mesangial cells remains to be clearly determined...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776450/pharmacological-modulation-of-reactive-oxygen-species-ros-improves-the-airway-hyperresponsiveness-by-shifting-the-th1-response-in-allergic-inflammation-induced-by-ovalbumin
#17
Renata Tiscoski Nesi, Marina Valente Barroso, Valdirene de Souza Muniz, Ana Carolina de Arantes, Marco Aurélio Martins, Lycia de Brito Gitirana, Josiane Sabbadini Neves, Cláudia Farias Benjamim, Manuella Lanzetti, Samuel Santos Valenca
Asthma is an allergic inflammation driven by the Th2 immune response with release of cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-13, which contribute to the airflow limitations and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). The involvement of oxidative stress in this process is well-established, but the specific role of the superoxide anion and nitric oxide in asthma are poorly understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying the superoxide anion/nitric oxide production and detoxification in a murine asthma model...
August 24, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763253/alda-1-protects-against-acrolein-induced-acute-lung-injury-and-endothelial-barrier-dysfunction
#18
Qing Lu, Miles Mundy, Eboni Chambers, Thilo Lange, Julie Newton, Diana Borgas, Hongwei Yao, Gaurav Choudhary, Rajshekhar Basak, Mahogany Oldham, Sharon Rounds
Inhalation of acrolein, a highly reactive aldehyde, causes lung edema. The underlying mechanism is poorly understood and there is no effective treatment. In this study, we demonstrated that acrolein not only dose-dependently induced lung edema, but also promoted lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Importantly, acrolein-induced lung injury were prevented and rescued by Alda-1, an activator of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 2. Acrolein also dose-dependently increased monolayer permeability, disrupted adherens junctions and focal adhesion complexes, and caused intercellular gap formation in primary cultured lung microvascular endothelial cells (LMVEC); effects that were attenuated by Alda-1 and the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine, but not by the NADPH inhibitor, apocynin...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753257/caffeic-acid-attenuates-the-inflammatory-stress-induced-by-glycated-ldl-in-human-endothelial-cells-by-mechanisms-involving-inhibition-of-age-receptor-oxidative-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#19
Laura Toma, Gabriela M Sanda, Loredan S Niculescu, Mariana Deleanu, Camelia S Stancu, Anca V Sima
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a worldwide epidemic and its atherosclerotic complications determine the high morbidity and mortality of diabetic patients. Caffeic acid (CAF), a phenolic acid present in normal diets, is known for its antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to investigate CAF's anti-inflammatory properties and its mechanism of action, using cultured human endothelial cells (HEC) incubated with glycated low-density lipoproteins (gLDL). Levels of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), inflammatory stress markers (C reactive protein, CRP; vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, VCAM-1; monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, MCP-1), and oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) markers were evaluated in gLDL-exposed HEC, in the presence/absence of CAF...
July 28, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751937/myricitrin-modulates-nadph-oxidase-dependent-ros-production-to-inhibit-endotoxin-mediated-inflammation-by-blocking-the-jak-stat1-and-nox2-p47-phox-pathways
#20
Shimei Qi, Zunyong Feng, Qiang Li, Zhilin Qi, Yao Zhang
Myricitrin, a naturally occurring polyphenol hydroxy flavonoid, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties. However, the precise molecular mechanism of myricitrin's effects on LPS-induced inflammation is unclear. In the present study, myricitrin significantly alleviated acute lung injury in mice. Myricitrin also markedly suppressed the production of NO, TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1 in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. The inhibition of NO was concomitant with a decrease in the protein and mRNA levels of iNOS...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
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