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Apocynin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154190/-epicatechin-protects-the-intestinal-barrier-from-high-fat-diet-induced-permeabilization-implications-for-steatosis-and-insulin-resistance
#1
Eleonora Cremonini, Ziwei Wang, Ahmed Bettaieb, Ana M Adamo, Elena Daveri, David A Mills, Karen M Kalanetra, Fawaz G Haj, Sidika Karakas, Patricia I Oteiza
Increased permeability of the intestinal barrier is proposed as an underlying factor for obesity-associated pathologies. Consumption of high fat diets (HFD) is associated with increased intestinal permeabilization and increased paracellular transport of endotoxins which can promote steatosis and insulin resistance. This study investigated whether dietary (-)-epicatechin (EC) supplementation can protect the intestinal barrier against HFD-induced permeabilization and endotoxemia, and mitigate liver damage and insulin resistance...
November 7, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106440/identification-of-pmn-released-mutagenic-factors-in-a-co-culture-model-for-colitis-associated-cancer
#2
Nicolas Granofszky, Michaela Lang, Vineeta Khare, Gerald Schmid, Theresa Scharl, Franziska Ferk, Kristine Jimenez, Siegfried Knasmüller, Christoph Campregher, Christoph Gasche
Microsatellite instability (MSI) is present in ulcerative colitis and colitis-associated colorectal cancers. Certain factors released by polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) may drive mucosal frameshift mutations resulting in MSI and cancer. Here, we applied a co-culture system with PMNs and colon epithelial cells to identify such culprit factors. Subjecting HCT116+chr3 and HCEC-1CT MSI-reporter cell lines harboring mono-, di- or tetranucleotide DNA repeats linked to EGFP to activated PMNs induced frameshift mutations within all repeats, as quantified by flow cytometry...
November 2, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106395/nadph-oxidase-4-promotes-cisplatin-induced-acute-kidney-injury-via-ros-mediated-programmed-cell-death-and-inflammation
#3
Xiao-Ming Meng, Gui-Ling Ren, Li Gao, Qin Yang, Hai-Di Li, Wei-Feng Wu, Cheng Huang, Lei Zhang, Xiong-Wen Lv, Jun Li
The goal of this study was to elucidate the functional role of Nox4 during acute kidney injury (AKI). NADPH oxidases are a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the kidney in normal and pathological conditions. Among NADPH oxidase isoforms, NADPH oxidase4 (Nox4) is highly expressed in the kidney and has an important role in kidney diseases, such as diabetic nephropathy and renal carcinoma. We previously found that Nox4 expression significantly increased in the toxic AKI model. However, its functional role and mechanism of action in AKI are still unknown...
November 6, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101185/advanced-oxidation-protein-products-aggravate-cardiac-remodeling-via-cardiomyocyte-apoptosis-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#4
Weijing Feng, Kun Zhang, Yu Liu, Jie Chen, Qingqing Cai, Wanbing He He, Yinyin Zhang, Mong-Heng Wang, Jingfeng Wang, Hui Huang
Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) are independent risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis has been implicated as an important mechanism in cardiac remodeling in chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, whether AOPPs affect cardiomyocyte apoptosis and subsequent cardiac remodeling in CKD is still not very clear. Here, we assessed the role of AOPPs in cardiomyocyte apoptosis in CKD. H9C2 rat cardiomyoblast cells were exposed to AOPPs. The apoptotic cells were determined by TUNEL assay...
November 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091896/effect-of-the-nadph-oxidase-inhibitor-apocynin-on-ischemia-reperfusion-hippocampus-injury-in-rat-brain
#5
Monika Kapoor, Neha Sharma, Rajat Sandhir, Bimla Nehru
Blockage along with sudden restoration of blood following ischemia, results in several cascading events, such as a massive ROS production which plays an important role in the pathophysiology of ischemia. NADPH oxidase complex in mitochondria complex is believed to be the major source for ROS production. The present study explores the therapeutic potential of apocynin, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor in attenuating the ROS production, and the resultant neuroinflammation and mitochondrial injury during cerebral ischemia in rats...
October 28, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083257/a-combination-antioxidant-therapy-to-inhibit-nox2-and-activate-nrf2-decreases-secondary-brain-damage-and-improves-functional-recovery-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Raghavendar Chandran, TaeHee Kim, Suresh L Mehta, Eshwar Udho, Vishal Chanana, Pelin Cengiz, HwuiWon Kim, Chanul Kim, Raghu Vemuganti
Uncontrolled oxidative stress contributes to the secondary neuronal death that promotes long-term neurological dysfunction following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Surprisingly, both NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) that increases and transcription factor Nrf2 that decreases reactive oxygen species (ROS) are induced after TBI. As the post-injury functional outcome depends on the balance of these opposing molecular pathways, we evaluated the effect of TBI on the motor and cognitive deficits and cortical contusion volume in NOX2 and Nrf2 knockout mice...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079903/anti-oxidants-correct-disturbance-of-redox-enzymes-in-the-hearts-of-rat-fetuses-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#7
Rosa Aras-López, L Almeida, V Andreu-Fernández, J Tovar, L Martínez
AIM: To evaluate if the redox system is unbalanced in the hearts of nitrofen-induced congenital diaphragmatic hernia  (CDH) animals and to study the possible preventive effects of two anti-oxidant treatments, apocynin and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). METHODS: Adult rats were divided into four groups. Group 1: rats received only vehicle on day E9.5. Group 2: rats received 100 mg nitrofen on day E9.5. Group 3: 1 month before mating rats received apocynin 1...
October 27, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057315/mitochondrial-impairment-in-microglia-amplifies-nlrp3-inflammasome-proinflammatory-signaling-in-cell-culture-and-animal-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Souvarish Sarkar, Emir Malovic, Dilshan S Harishchandra, Shivani Ghaisas, Nikhil Panicker, Adhithiya Charli, Bharathi N Palanisamy, Dharmin Rokad, Huajun Jin, Vellareddy Anantharam, Arthi Kanthasamy, Anumantha G Kanthasamy
The NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway is a major contributor to the neuroinflammatory process in the central nervous system. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are key pathophysiological processes of many chronic neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the inter-relationship between mitochondrial defects and neuroinflammation is not well understood. In the present study, we show that impaired mitochondrial function can augment the NLRP3 inflammasome-driven proinflammatory cascade in microglia...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051045/angiotensin-ii-regulates-%C3%AE-enac-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#9
Charles A Downs, Nicholle M Johnson, Camila Coca, My N Helms
The amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) has been characterized in a variety of non-epithelial tissues. In the current study we sought to understand the effect of angiotensin II on δ ENaC function using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The δ ENaC subunit is found in humans, but notably absent in rat and most mouse epithelial tissues. In this study we report the presence of δ ENaC in HUVECS with a half-life of ~80min and a change in δ ENaC abundance when HUVECs were treated with angiotensin II...
October 16, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039574/tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-cell-migration-in-pancreatic-carcinoma-cells-is-rac1-and-nox4-dependent-and-requires-rac1-and-nox4-dependent-activation-of-p38%C3%A2-mapk
#10
David Witte, Tobias Bartscht, Roland Kaufmann, Ralph Pries, Utz Settmacher, Hendrik Lehnert, Hendrik Ungefroren
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cell invasion of cancer cells in part through the small GTPase RAC1. Since RAC1 can signal through reactive oxygen species (ROS), we probed the role of the ROS-producing NADPH oxidase (NOX) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in mediating TGF-β1/RAC1-driven random cell migration (chemokinesis). Although the NOX isoforms NOX2, 4, 5, 6, and RAC1 were readily detectable by RT-PCR in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC)-derived Panc1 and Colo357 cells, only NOX4 and RAC1 were expressed at higher levels comparable to those in peripheral blood monocytes...
October 12, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037473/ginsenoside-re-protects-against-phencyclidine-induced-behavioral-changes-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-via-interactive-modulation-of-glutathione-peroxidase-1-and-nadph-oxidase-in-the-dorsolateral-cortex-of-mice
#11
The-Vinh Tran, Eun-Joo Shin, Duy-Khanh Dang, Sung Kwon Ko, Ji Hoon Jeong, Seung-Yeol Nah, Choon-Gon Jang, Yu Jeung Lee, Kazuya Toriumi, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Hyoung-Chun Kim
We investigated whether ginsenoside Re (Re) modulates phencyclidine (PCP)-induced sociability deficits and recognition memory impairments to extend our recent finding. We examined the role of GPx-1 gene in the pharmacological activity of Re against mitochondrial dysfunction induced by PCP in the dorsolateral cortex of mice. Since mitochondrial oxidative stress activates NADPH oxidase (PHOX), we applied PHOX inhibitor apocynin for evaluating interactive modulation between GPx-1 and PHOX against PCP neurotoxicity...
October 14, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026707/nadph-oxidase-mediates-%C3%AE-amyloid-peptide-induced-neuronal-death-in-mouse-cortical-cultures
#12
Kee-Oh Chay, Kyoung Young Nam Koong, Shinae Hwang, Jong-Keun Kim, Choon Sang Bae
β-Amyloid peptide (Aβ) is the main component of senile plaques in patients with Alzheimer's disease, and is known to be a main pathogenic factor of the disease. Recent evidence indicates that activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX) in microglia or astrocytes may be a source of Aβ-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). We investigated the role of neuronal NOX in Aβ-induced neuronal death in mouse mixed cortical cultures. Cell death was assessed by measuring lactate dehydrogenase efflux to bathing media 24 or 48 hr after exposure to Aβ25-35, a fragment of Aβ with an equivalent neurotoxic effect...
September 2017: Chonnam Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969461/inhibition-of-nadph-oxidase-by-apocynin-promotes-myocardial-antioxidant-response-and-prevents-isoproterenol-induced-myocardial-oxidative-stress-in-rats
#13
Lokman H Tanriverdi, Hakan Parlakpinar, Onural Ozhan, Necip Ermis, Alaadin Polat, Nigar Vardi, Kevser Tanbek, Azibe Yildiz, Ahmet Acet
Preventive and/or therapeutic interventions for ischemic heart disease have gained considerable attention worldwide. We investigated the mechanism(s) underlying cardioprotection of apocynin (APO) and whether it attenuates isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial damage in vivo. Thirty-two male Wistar Albino rats were randomised into four groups (n = 8 for each group): Group I (Control); Group II (ISO), ISO was given intraperitoneally (ip) (150 mg/kg/d) daily for 2 consecutive days; Group III (APO + ISO), APO was applied ip 20 mg/kg 30 min before the first ISO administration and continued for the next 2 d after the second ISO administration; Group IV (ISO + APO), after the ISO treatment on days 1 and 2, 20 mg/kg APO was given ip on days 3 and 4...
October 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966053/proteome-analysis-in-dystrophic-mdx-mouse-muscle-reveals-a-drastic-alteration-of-key-metabolic-and-contractile-proteins-after-chronic-exercise-and-the-potential-modulation-by-anti-oxidant-compounds
#14
Tania Gamberi, Tania Fiaschi, Elisa Valocchia, Alessandra Modesti, Paola Mantuano, Jean-Francois Rolland, Francesca Sanarica, Annamaria De Luca, Francesca Magherini
Weakness and fatigability are typical features of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients and are aggravated in dystrophic mdx mice by chronic treadmill exercise. In the present study, we describe, the pattern of differentially abundant spots that is associated to the worsening of dystrophy phenotype induced by chronic exercise. Our proteomic analysis pointed out 34 protein spots with different abundance between sedentary and exercised mdx mice. These proteins belong mostly to glucose metabolism, energy production and sarcomere structure categories...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935286/mercury-exposure-induces-proinflammatory-enzymes-in-vascular-fibroblasts
#15
Alberto Millán Longo, Óscar Montero Saiz, Claudia Sarró Fuente, Andrea Aguado Martínez, Mercedes Salaices Sánchez
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies show that mercury exposure increases cardiovascular risk, although the underlying cellular mechanisms have still not been fully studied. The aim of this project is to study, in vascular fibroblasts (VF), the effect of HgCl2 exposure on the expression of enzymes involved in the synthesis of prostanoids and reactive oxygen species (ROS). These molecules have been shown to participate in the inflammatory response associated with cardiovascular diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adventitial VF cultures of Sprague-Dawley rat aortas, shown to be α-actin negative by immunofluorescence, were exposed to HgCl2 (0...
September 18, 2017: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927288/a-new-sesquiterpene-from-kalimeris-integrifolia
#16
Guo-Kai Wang, Zheng Wang, Yang Yu, Nan Zhang, Zhong-Yu Zhou, Gang Wang, Jin-Song Liu
A new sesquiterpene kalinturoside A (1), and 17 known compounds friedelan-3-ol (2), 24-ethyl-5a-cholesta-7, 22(E)-dien-3-one (3), friedelin (4), syringaresinol (5), α-spinasterol (6), ciwujiatone (7), syringic acid (8), scopoletin (9), apocynin (10), 1-(3-hydroxy-4, 5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethan-1-one (11), apigenin (12), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (13), stigmasterol-3-O-β-d-glucopy-ranoside (14), bidenoside C (15), citrusin (16), irioresinol A (17) and syringaresinol-4-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (18) were isolated from the herbs of Kalimeris integrifolia...
September 19, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927129/deficiency-of-gap-junction-composed-of-connexin43-contributes-to-oxaliplatin-resistance-in-colon-cancer-cells
#17
Min Su, Qi Zhang
Although comprehensive strategies in the treatment of colorectal cancer have been developed for a number of years, the five-year survival rate of metastatic colon cancer remains less than 10%. Oxaliplatin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent for metastatic colon cancer, improves the response rate of patients and prolongs patients' progression-free survival. However, the generation of resistance limits the clinical application of oxaliplatin, and the mechanisms of this remain unclear. The present study mainly investigated the effect of the gap junction (GJ) composed of connexin43 (Cx43) on oxaliplatin cytotoxicity in colon cancer cells...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919853/p47phox-cdk5-drp1-mediated-mitochondrial-fission-evokes-pv-cell-degeneration-in-the-rat-dentate-gyrus-following-status-epilepticus
#18
Ji-Eun Kim, Tae-Cheon Kang
Parvalbumin (PV) is one of the calcium-binding proteins, which plays an important role in the responsiveness of inhibitory neurons to an adaptation to repetitive spikes. Furthermore, PV neurons are highly vulnerable to status epilepticus (SE, prolonged seizure activity), although the underlining mechanism remains to be clarified. In the present study, we found that p47Phox expression was transiently and selectively increased in PV neurons 6 h after SE. This up-regulated p47Phox expression was accompanied by excessive mitochondrial fission...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900851/tributyltin-chloride-disrupts-aortic-vascular-reactivity-and-increases-reactive-oxygen-species-production-in-female-rats
#19
Carolina Falcão Ximenes, Samya Mere Lima Rodrigues, Priscila Lang Podratz, Eduardo Merlo, Julia Fernandez Puñal de Araújo, Lívia Carla Melo Rodrigues, Juliana Barbosa Coitinho, Dalton Valentim Vassallo, Jones Bernardes Graceli, Ivanita Stefanon
Organotin compounds, such as tributyltin (TBT), are environment contaminants that induce bioaccumulation and have potential toxic effects on marine species and mammals. TBT have been banned by the International Maritime Organization in 2003. However, the assessment of butyltin and metal contents in marine sediments has demonstrated high residual levels of TBT in some cases exceeding 7000 ng Sn g(-1). The acceptable daily intake (ADI) level for TBT established by the World Health Organization is 0.5 μg/kg bw/day is based on genotoxicity, reproduction, teratogenicity, immunotoxicity, and mainly neurotoxicity...
November 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884828/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-acrolein-promoted-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-therapeutic-potential-of-nox2-and-p38mapk-inhibitors
#20
Arumugam Suyavaran, Kesthuru Subbiah Girish, K Kemparaju, Chinnasamy Thirunavukkarasu
Neutrophil is a significant contributor to ischemia reperfusion (IR) induced liver tissue damage. However, the underlying mechanisms of IR induced innate immune activation and liver damage is not quite clear. Our study sheds light on the role of chronic oxidative stress end products in worsening the IR inflammatory process by neutrophil recruitment and activation following liver surgery. We employed specific inhibitors for molecular targets - NOX2 (NADPH oxidase 2) and P38 MAPK (Mitogen activated protein kinase) signal to counteract neutrophil activation and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) release induced liver damage in IR injury...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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