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Apocynin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615626/neuronal-p2x7-receptor-induced-reactive-oxygen-species-production-contributes-to-nociceptive-behavior-in-mice
#1
Frances M Munoz, Ruby Gao, Yuzhen Tian, Brian A Henstenburg, James E Barrett, Huijuan Hu
ATP can activate a variety of pathways through P2 purinoreceptors, leading to neuroprotection and pathology in the CNS. Among all P2X receptors, the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is a well-defined therapeutic target for inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Activation of P2X7R can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in macrophages and microglia. However, the role of ROS in P2X7R-induced pain remains unexplored. Here, we investigated the downstream effects of neuronal P2X7R activation in the spinal cord. We found that ATP induces ROS production in spinal cord dorsal horn neurons, an effect eliminated by ROS scavenger N-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone (PBN) and P2X7R antagonist A438079...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603016/rapid-repeatable-in%C3%A2-vivo-detection-of-retinal-reactive-oxygen-species
#2
Ning Fan, Sean M Silverman, Yang Liu, Xizhen Wang, Byung-Jin Kim, Liping Tang, Abbot F Clark, Xuyang Liu, Iok-Hou Pang
Oxidative injuries, such as those related to reactive oxygen species (ROS), have been implicated in various retinal and optic nerve disorders. Many ROS detection methods have been developed. Although widely utilized, many of these methods are useful only in post mortem tissues, or require relatively expensive equipment, or involve intraocular injection. In the present study, we demonstrated and characterized a chemiluminescent probe L-012 as a noninvasive, in vivo ROS detection agent in the mouse retina. Using optic nerve crush (ONC) and retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) as injury models, we show that L-012 produced intensive luminescent signals specifically in the injured eyes...
June 8, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580085/apocynin-preserves-glutamatergic-neurons-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-in-mice-with-neonatal-sevoflurane-exposure
#3
Zhongliang Sun, Maiko Satomoto, Yushi U Adachi, Koshi Makita
BACKGROUND: Neonatal exposure to anesthetics induces neuronal apoptosis and long-term cognitive dysfunction in rodents. We showed that the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase inhibitor apocynin not only reduces neurotoxicity by decreasing superoxide levels and preventing mitochondrial dysfunction but also improves long-term memory impairment in neonatal mice exposed to sevoflurane. We also found that after the contextual fear conditioning test, glutamatergic neurons expressed c-Fos (neural activation) regardless of previous exposure to sevoflurane...
June 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575082/the-role-of-reactive-oxygen-intermediates-in-the-intracellular-fate-of-leptospira-interrogans-in-the-macrophages-of-different-hosts
#4
Shijun Li, Peili Li, Lei Zhang, Weilin Hu, Ming Wang, Ying Liu, Guangpeng Tang, Dingming Wang, Bijun Zhou, Jie Yan
BACKGROUND: Pathogenic species of Leptospira cause leptospirosis, a global zoonotic disease. Our previous work showed that leptospires survive and replicate in human macrophages but are killed in murine macrophages. However, the mechanism responsible for the different intracellular fates of leptospires within the macrophages of different hosts remains unclear. RESULTS: The present study demonstrates that infection with Leptospira interrogans caused significant up-regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide in J774A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573935/the-nadph-oxidase-inhibitor-apocynin-suppresses-preneoplastic-liver-foci-of-rats
#5
Satoshi Fuji, Shugo Suzuki, Aya Naiki-Ito, Hiroyuki Kato, Masashi Hayakawa, Yoriko Yamashita, Toshiya Kuno, Satoru Takahashi
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been revealed to be important factors for carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Therefore, we focused on an ROS-generating protein, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, and evaluated whether its inhibitor, apocynin, could suppress hepatocarcinogenesis in a medium-term rat liver bioassay. The number and size of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive foci were significantly reduced by apocynin in a dose-dependent manner. The reduction of ROS generation by apocynin was confirmed by dihydroethidium staining...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562386/neurotoxicity-of-anesthetic-drugs-an-update
#6
Federico Bilotta, Lis A Evered, Shaun E Gruenbaum
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the most recently published evidence that investigated anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity in both animals and humans, especially as it pertains to the perinatal period. RECENT FINDINGS: Several recent studies have focused on better understanding the complex mechanisms that underlie intravenous and volatile anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity in animals. Adjuvant agents that target these pathways have been investigated for their effectiveness in attenuating the neuroapoptosis and neurocognitive deficits that result from anesthesia exposure, including dexmedetomidine, rutin, vitamin C, tumor necrosis factor α, lithium, apocynin, carreic acid phenethyl ester...
May 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558355/apocynin-prevented-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-carbon-tetra-chloride-induced-hepatic-dysfunction-in-rats
#7
Md Mizanur Rahman, Awale Yousuf Muse, D M Isha Olive Khan, Ismaile Hussein Ahmed, Nusrat Subhan, Hasan Mahmud Reza, Md Ashraful Alam, Lutfun Nahar, Satyajit Dey Sarker
BACKGROUND: Liver fibrosis is a leading pathway to cirrhosis and a global clinical issue. Oxidative stress mediated tissue damage is one of the prime causes of hepatic dysfunction and fibrosis. Apocynin is one of many strong antioxidants. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of apocynin in the CCl4 administered hepatic dysfunction in rats. METHODS: Female Long Evans rats were administered with CCl4 orally (1mL/kg) twice a week for 2 weeks and were treated with apocynin (100mg/kg)...
May 27, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551086/hmgb1-rage-pathway-drives-peroxynitrite-signaling-induced-ibd-like-inflammation-in-murine-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#8
Varun Chandrashekaran, Ratanesh K Seth, Diptadip Dattaroy, Firas Alhasson, Jacek Ziolenka, James Carson, Franklin G Berger, Balaraman Kalyanaraman, Anna Mae Diehl, Saurabh Chatterjee
Recent clinical studies found a strong association of colonic inflammation and Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-like phenotype with NonAlcoholic Fatty liver Disease (NAFLD) yet the mechanisms remain unknown. The present study identifies high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) as a key mediator of intestinal inflammation in NAFLD and outlines a detailed redox signaling mechanism for such a pathway. NAFLD mice showed liver damage and release of elevated HMGB1 in systemic circulation and increased intestinal tyrosine nitration that was dependent on NADPH oxidase...
May 10, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545810/thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-and-apocynin-alter-the-expression-of-airway-remodeling-factors-in-human-rhinovirus-infected-cells
#9
Joanna Wieczfinska, Rafal Pawliczak
Airway remodeling is a characteristic of bronchial asthma. The process involves the expression of many genes, such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1), MMP and arginase. Human rhinovirus (HRV) is known to cause asthma exacerbations, and viral infections might be involved in the development of airway remodeling. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the influence of HRV on the genes involved in airway remodeling and to examine the impact of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and contribution of oxidative stress on airway remodeling in the context of HRV infection...
August 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539244/manganese-exposure-induces-neuroinflammation-by-impairing-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-astrocytes
#10
Souvarish Sarkar, Emir Malovic, Dilshan S Harischandra, Hilary A Ngwa, Anamitra Ghosh, Colleen Hogan, Dharmin Rokad, Gary Zenitsky, Huajun Jin, Vellareddy Anantharam, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Arthi Kanthasamy
Chronic manganese (Mn) exposure induces neurotoxicity, which is characterized by Parkinsonian symptoms resulting from impairment in the extrapyramidal motor system of the basal ganglia. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are considered key pathophysiological features of Mn neurotoxicity. Recent evidence suggests astrocytes as a major target of Mn neurotoxicity since Mn accumulates predominantly in astrocytes. However, the primary mechanisms underlying Mn-induced astroglial dysfunction and its role in metal neurotoxicity are not completely understood...
May 21, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526682/aeroallergens-induce-reactive-oxygen-species-production-and-dna-damage-and-dampen-antioxidant-responses-in-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#11
Tze Khee Chan, W S Daniel Tan, Hong Yong Peh, W S Fred Wong
Exposure to environmental allergens is a major risk factor for asthma development. Allergens possess proteolytic activity that is capable of disrupting the airway epithelium. Although there is increasing evidence pointing to asthma as an epithelial disease, the underlying mechanism that drives asthma has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the direct DNA damage potential of aeroallergens on human bronchial epithelial cells and elucidated the mechanisms mediating the damage. Human bronchial epithelial cells, BEAS-2B, directly exposed to house dust mites (HDM) resulted in enhanced DNA damage, as measured by the CometChip and the staining of DNA double-strand break marker, γH2AX...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515175/role-for-reactive-oxygen-species-in-flow-stimulated-inner-medullary-collecting-duct-endothelin-1-production
#12
Will Wheatley, Donald E Kohan
Inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD)-derived endothelin-1 (ET-1) is stimulated by volume expansion, in part through augmented luminal flow, whereupon it can elicit natriuresis and diuresis. Since flow can alter nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), both of which can affect collecting duct salt transport, we asked whether NO and/or ROS mediate flow-stimulated IMCD ET-1. Mouse IMCD3 cells were exposed to flow and ET-1/GAPDH mRNA assessed. A shear stress of 10 dyne/cm2 for 1 hr increased ET-1 mRNA by 4-fold compared to no flow (ET-1 flow response)...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507586/neutrophil-elastase-stimulates-muc5ac-expression-in-human-biliary-epithelial-cells-a-possible-pathway-of-pkc-nox-ros
#13
Yu Tian, Min Li, Shuodong Wu, Duoliang Wang, Ben Sun, Junqing Xie, Hong Wang
INTRODUCTION: Bacterial infection and bile flow retardation form a vicious cycle which promotes stone formation and recurrence, and it seems that mucin overexpression plays an important role in this process. However, the mechanism of increased mucus secretion in the biliary tract by bacterial infection and its treatment remain unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Human biliary epithelial cells were induced by neutrophil elastase (NE), and H2O2 production in the cell supernatants was detected by a specific kit, and then cells were pretreated with a H2O2 inhibitor, and expression of MUC5AC was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Western blot, and immunohistochemistry...
April 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500760/the-opposite-effects-of-nitric-oxide-donor-s-nitrosoglutathione-on-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-diabetic-and-non-diabetic-mice
#14
Yi Liu, Chenhai Xia, Rutao Wang, Jinglong Zhang, Tao Yin, Yanzuo Ma, Ling Tao
Nitric oxide is a potent anti-apoptotic and cardioprotective molecule in healthy animals. However, Recent study demonstrates that overexpression of eNOS exacerbates the liver injury in diabetic animals. whether diabetes may also alter NO's biologic activity in ischemic/reperfused heart remains unknown. The present experiment was designed to determine whether the nitric oxide donor, S-nitrosoglutathione, may exert different effects on diabetic and non-diabetic myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Diabetic state was induced in mice by multiple intraperitoneal injections of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ)...
May 13, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499911/aging-associated-metabolic-disorder-induces-nox2-activation-and-oxidative-damage-of-endothelial-function
#15
Lampson M Fan, Sarah Cahill-Smith, Li Geng, Junjie Du, Gavin Brooks, Jian-Mei Li
Oxidative stress attributable to the activation of a Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase is involved in the development of vascular diseases and in aging. However, the mechanism of Nox2 activation in normal aging remains unclear. In this study, we used age-matched wild-type (WT) and Nox2 knockout (KO) mice at 3-4 months (young); 11-12 months (middle-aged) and 21-22 months (aging) to investigate age-related metabolic disorders, Nox2 activation and endothelial dysfunction. Compared to young mice, middle-aged and aging WT mice had significant hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, increased systemic oxidative stress and higher blood pressure...
May 10, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499252/crosstalk-between-hdac6-and-nox2-based-nadph-oxidase-mediates-hiv-1-tat-induced-pro-inflammatory-responses-in-astrocytes
#16
Gi Soo Youn, Hyundong Cho, Donggyu Kim, Soo Young Choi, Jinseu Park
Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) likely is important in inflammatory diseases. However, how HDAC6 exerts its effect on inflammatory processes remains unclear. HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) activates NADPH oxidase resulting in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to extensive neuro-inflammation in the central nervous system. We investigated the correlation of HDAC6 and NADPH oxidase in HIV-1 Tat-stimulated astrocytes. HDAC6 knockdown attenuated HIV-1 Tat-induced ROS generation and NADPH oxidase activation...
August 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497199/arachidonic-acid-induces-are-nrf2-dependent-heme-oxygenase-1-transcription-in-rat-brain-astrocytes
#17
Chih-Chung Lin, Chien-Chung Yang, Yu-Wen Chen, Li-Der Hsiao, Chuen-Mao Yang
Arachidonic acid (AA) is a major product of phospholipid hydrolysis catalyzed by phospholipase A2 during neurodegenerative diseases. AA exerts as a second messenger to regulate various signaling components which may be involved in different pathophysiological processes. Astrocytes are the main types of CNS resident cells which maintain and support the physiological function of brain. AA has been shown to induce ROS generation through activation of NADPH oxidases (Noxs) which may play a key role in the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)...
May 11, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485605/influence-of-dimerization-of-apocynin-on-its-effects-in-experimental-colitis
#18
Marta Marín, Clotilde Gimeno, Rosa M Giner, José L Ríos, Salvador Máñez, Marı A C Recio
Apocynin has been widely used as an inhibitor of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH-oxidase) system and shows promise as an anti-inflammatory drug. Diapocynin, the dimeric product generated by the oxidation of apocynin in the presence of myeloperoxidase (MPO), is supposed to be its active form. In this study, diapocynin has been chemically synthesized and its activity on several inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and its anti-inflammatory effect on ulcerative colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in mice analyzed...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480509/oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-stimulates-epithelial-sodium-channels-in-endothelial-cells-of-mouse-thoracic-aorta
#19
Chen Liang, Qiu-Shi Wang, Xu Yang, Na Niu, Qing-Qing Hu, Bao-Long Zhang, Ming-Ming Wu, Chang-Jiang Yu, Xiao Chen, Bin-Lin Song, Zhi-Ren Zhang, He-Ping Ma
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is expressed in endothelial cells and acts as a negative modulator of vasodilation. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is a key pathological factor in endothelial dysfunction. The present study is to examine the role of ENaC in ox-LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction and its associated signal transduction pathway. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Patch-clamp techniques combined with pharmacological approaches were used to examine ENaC activity in the endothelial cells of split-open mouse thoracic aorta...
May 8, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458776/role-of-protein-kinase-c-and-nox2-derived-reactive-oxygen-species-formation-in-the-activation-and-maturation-of-dendritic-cells-by-phorbol-ester-and-lipopolysaccharide
#20
Judith Stein, Sebastian Steven, Matthias Bros, Stephan Sudowe, Michael Hausding, Matthias Oelze, Thomas Münzel, Stephan Grabbe, Angelika Reske-Kunz, Andreas Daiber
Aims. Activation/maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) plays a central role in adaptive immune responses by antigen processing and (cross-) activation of T cells. There is ongoing discussion on the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in these processes and with the present study we investigated this enigmatic pathway. Methods and Results. DCs were cultured from precursors in the bone marrow of mice (BM-DCs) and analyzed for ROS formation, maturation, and T cell stimulatory capacity upon stimulation with phorbol ester (PDBu) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
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