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M B Abubakar, S H Gan
Although anastrozole (Anas) plays a key role in the management of endocrine sensitive post-menopausal (PM) breast cancer (BC), there is much variability in its efficacy and tolerability. Anas-associated musculoskeletal symptoms (MS) and other adverse reactions, such as hot flashes (HF) and vaginal dryness/dyspareunia (VDD), are common and can affect the quality of life of BC patients, even sometimes leading to treatment withdrawal. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and demographic factors associated with these adverse events...
December 30, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
Daniel Glassman, Sue Hignett, Shazza Rehman, Richard Linforth, Mohamed Salhab
The benefits of five years of adjuvant endocrine therapy for oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive early breast cancer are well established. However, recent evidence suggests that extended endocrine treatment and ovarian suppression in selected groups of patients have significant advantages. In this article, we review the current evidence for adjuvant endocrine therapy in breast cancer with focus on extended adjuvant endocrine therapy and ovarian suppression, and also highlight the advantages and disadvantages of these therapeutic strategies...
October 2017: Anticancer Research
Zhaoying Xian, Alexander K Quinones, Gary Tozbikian, Debra L Zynger
In patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), there is no consensus on retesting biomarkers within the excision specimen. Our aim was to investigate the clinical relevance of biomarker changes post-NAC at a large tertiary medical center. A retrospective search was performed to identify cases from 2012 to 2015 with needle biopsy-confirmed invasive breast carcinoma treated with NAC and subsequent excision containing residual invasive tumor. Biomarkers (estrogen receptor [ER], progesterone receptor [PR], and HER2/neu [HER2]) were performed on all pre-NAC biopsies...
April 2017: Human Pathology
Simon P Langdon, Charlie Gourley, Hani Gabra, Barbara Stanley
The estrogen receptor (ER) is expressed at high levels in many epithelial ovarian cancers (EOC) and represents a potential target for endocrine therapy. Both anti-estrogens and aromatase inhibitors have been evaluated in phase II clinical trials. Areas covered: We present an overview of the phase II and phase III trials of anti-estrogens (tamoxifen and fulvestrant) and aromatase inhibitors (letrozole, anastrazole and exemestane) undertaken in epithelial ovarian cancer identified through a Pubmed search. We describe predictive biomarkers that are being investigated to identify responsive cancers...
February 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Kathleen I Pritchard, Stephen K Chia, Christine Simmons, Deanna McLeod, Alexander Paterson, Louise Provencher, Daniel Rayson
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy in women worldwide, with approximately two-thirds having hormone receptor-positive (HR+) tumors. New endocrine therapy (ET) strategies include combining ET agents as well as adding inhibitors targeting growth factors, angiogenesis, the mechanistic target of rapamycin, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), or cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 to ET. Level 1 evidence supports use of fulvestrant plus anastrozole or palbociclib plus letrozole as first-line therapy for HR+/HER- advanced BC with special consideration for the former in ET-naïve patients, as well as everolimus plus exemestane or palbociclib plus fulvestrant as second-line therapy with special consideration in select first-line patients...
January 2017: Oncologist
Michael A Mancano
The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) MedWatch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to MedWatch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested...
July 2016: Hospital Pharmacy
Afshan Dean, Margaret Nilsen, Lynn Loughlin, Ian P Salt, Margaret R MacLean
Females are more susceptible to pulmonary arterial hypertension than males, although the reasons remain unclear. The hypoglycemic drug, metformin, is reported to have multiple actions, including the inhibition of aromatase and stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Inhibition of aromatase using anastrazole is protective in experimental pulmonary hypertension but whether metformin attenuates pulmonary hypertension through this mechanism remains unknown. We investigated whether metformin affected aromatase activity and if it could reduce the development of pulmonary hypertension in the sugen 5416/hypoxic rat model...
August 2016: Hypertension
Federica Mazzuca, Andrea Botticelli, Eva Mazzotti, Marco La Torre, Marina Borro, Luca Marchetti, Chiara Maddalena, Giovanna Gentile, Maurizio Simmaco, Paolo Marchetti
OBJECTIVE: Third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AI) are potent suppressors of aromatase activity. The aim of this study was to measure the incidence of adverse effects in breast cancer patients treated with AI-based adjuvant therapy and the relationship with the CYP19A1 genotypes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-five postmenopausal breast cancer patients (46-85 yrs) in AI adjuvant treatment were genotyped for the rs4646 polymorphisms of CYP19A1 gene and three variations were identified...
February 2016: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
Melissa Schwartz, Gloria S Huang
•Over 90% of granulosa cell tumors have a FOXL2 mutation that contributes to aromatase upregulation.•Chemotherapy has demonstrated limited efficacy in the treatment of granulosa cell tumors.•A patient with recurrent granulosa cell tumor responded briefly to anastrazole treatment.•Retreatment with another aromatase inhibitor letrozole led to a durable response of 24 months.
January 2016: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
Gökhan Erbağ, Kazım Uygun, Emine Binnetoğlu, Ayşe Nurdan Korkmaz, Mehmet Aşık, Hacer Şen, Fahri Güneş, Mustafa Eroğlu, Ferhat Gökmen, Süleyman Temiz
AIM OF THIS STUDY: Aim of this study was to examine the effects of aromatase inhibitors (AIs), which are used in every phase of breast cancer treatment, on the bone mineral density (BMD) of patients with early-stage breast cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Menopausal female patients who were diagnosed with stages 1-3 breast cancer and who were planned for anastrazole or letrozole as adjuvant therapy were examined. After the patients' BMD was measured, 45 patients without osteoporosis were included in the study...
2015: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
Michael A S Guth
As men age, testosterone levels progressively fall and inflammatory biomarkers increase. The gradual decline in testosterone production with aging, known as andropause, is common and may have deleterious effects on men including decreased overall well-being, increased sarcopenia, increased risk of cardiovascular disease, reduced sexual function, and bone loss. Therefore, it comes as no surprise that an increasing number of men worldwide have begun requesting testosterone replacement therapy from their physicians...
May 2015: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
Patricia A Ganz, Reena S Cecchini, Thomas B Julian, Richard G Margolese, Joseph P Costantino, Laura A Vallow, Kathy S Albain, Patrick W Whitworth, Mary E Cianfrocca, Adam M Brufsky, Howard M Gross, Gamini S Soori, Judith O Hopkins, Louis Fehrenbacher, Keren Sturtz, Timothy F Wozniak, Thomas E Seay, Eleftherios P Mamounas, Norman Wolmark
BACKGROUND: The NSABP B-35 trial compared 5 years of treatment with anastrozole versus tamoxifen for reducing subsequent occurrence of breast cancer in postmenopausal patients with ductal carcinoma in situ. This report assesses the effect of these drugs on quality of life and symptoms. METHODS: The study was done at 333 hospitals in North America. Postmenopausal women with hormone-positive ductal carcinoma in situ treated by lumpectomy with clear resection margins and whole breast irradiation were randomly assigned to receive either tamoxifen (20 mg/day) or anastrazole (1 mg/day) for 5 years, stratified by age (<60 years vs ≥60 years)...
February 27, 2016: Lancet
Francesco Recchia, Giampiero Candeloro, Michele Rosselli, Massimo Bratta, Vittorio Pasta, Valerio D'Orazi, Luca A Fumagalli, Silvio Rea
BACKGROUND: Premenopausal patients with breast cancer and more than 10 positive axillary nodes (BC>10) have a poor prognosis: In these patients the best adjuvant therapy (CT) has not yet been established. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-two BC>10 received, in sequence, the following adjuvant treatments: luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LH-RH) analog for 5 years; anthracycline-based induction chemotherapy; radiation therapy; platinum-based high-dose CT, with autologous bone marrow transplantation; immunotherapy with interleukin 2 (IL2) and 13-cis retinoic acid (RA); anastrazole given 5 years to estrogen receptor-positive patients...
December 2015: Anticancer Research
Ioannis Boutas, Vasilios Pergialiotis, Nicolaos Salakos, George Agrogiannis, Panagiotis Konstantopoulos, Laskarina-Maria Korou, Theodoros Kalampokas, Odysseas Gregoriou, George Creatsas, Despina Perrea
Anastrazole and Letrozole are used as endocrine therapy for breast cancer patients. Previous studies suggested a possible association with metabolic and liver adverse effects. Their results are conflicting. Fifty-five 4-week-old female Wistar rats were allocated in 4 groups 1) ovariectomy control (OC), 2) ovariectomy-Anastrazole (OA) 3) ovariectomy -Letrozole (OL), 4) control. Serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-c and LDL-c were measured at baseline, 2 and 4 months. At the end, the animals' liver were dissected for pathology...
December 1, 2015: Scientific Reports
Mohammad Saiful Islam, Gavin Wright, Peter Tanner, Robert Lucas
An otherwise asymptomatic 66-year-old British Caucasian female with a history of breast cancer was referred by the oncologists due to progressively abnormal liver function tests (LFTs). After undergoing wide local excision and axillary dissection she was started on the anti-oestrogen drug Arimidex (anastrozole) as the tumour cells were oestrogen receptor positive. With a background of normal LFTs, an absence of risk factors for chronic liver disease and otherwise good health, 6 months after starting Arimidex the oncology team noted deranged LFTs...
October 2014: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Larry House, Jacqueline Ramirez, Michael Seminerio, Snezana Mirkov, Mark J Ratain
1. Aprepitant, an oral antiemetic, commonly used in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Aprepitant glucuronidation has yet to be evaluated in humans. The contribution of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms to the metabolism of aprepitant was investigated by performing kinetic studies, inhibition studies and correlation analyses. In addition, aprepitant was evaluated as an inhibitor of UGTs. 2. Glucuronidation of aprepitant was catalyzed by UGT1A4 (82%), UGT1A3 (12%) and UGT1A8 (6%) and Kms were 161...
2015: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Shaheenah Dawood
The san antonio breast cancer syposium (SABCS 2014) was an exciting one this year. Data from the SOFT trial was presented that had potential implications on the treatment of pre menapausal women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer. In a phase II trial fulvestrant was found to significantly improve progression free and overall survival compared to anastrazole in the first line treatment of women with hormone receptor positive metastatic breast cancer. We saw a number of intersting abstracts looking at trying to refine the role of platinums and exploring the role of blocking PD-1 among women with triple receptor negative breast cancer...
January 2015: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
Ricardo Ribas, Zara Ghazoui, Qiong Gao, Sunil Pancholi, Aradhana Rani, Anita Dunbier, Mitch Dowsett, Lesley-Ann Martin
INTRODUCTION: Endocrine therapies target oestrogenic stimulation of breast cancer (BC) growth, but resistance remains problematic. Our aims in this study were (1) to identify genes most strongly associated with resistance to endocrine therapy by intersecting global gene transcription data from patients treated presurgically with the aromatase inhibitor anastrazole with those from MCF7 cells adapted to long-term oestrogen deprivation (LTED) (2) to assess the clinical value of selected genes in public clinical data sets and (3) to determine the impact of targeting these genes with novel agents...
2014: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
Saúl Campos-Gómez, Jose H Flores-Arredondo, Rita Dorantes-Heredia, Mónica Chapa-Ibargüengoitia, Roberto de la Peña-Lopez
BACKGROUND: Ductal carcinomas of the parotid gland are rare, highly aggressive, have a poor prognosis and are histologically similar to Ductal Breast Cancer. We report what we believe to be the first case in literature of metastatic salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) of the parotid gland with objective response to tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors, achieving a long-term stability of disease with no associated toxicity. CASE PRESENTATION: A 70-year-old female was referred to our institution for treatment of a painless nodular lesion in the scalp, localized in the frontal region of the cranium...
2014: BMC Cancer
Yassine Rechoum, Daniela Rovito, Domenico Iacopetta, Ines Barone, Sebastiano Andò, Nancy L Weigel, Bert W O'Malley, Powel H Brown, Suzanne A W Fuqua
Androgen receptor (AR) is an attractive target in breast cancer because of its frequent expression in all the molecular subtypes, especially in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive luminal breast cancers. We have previously shown a role for AR overexpression in tamoxifen resistance. We engineered ER-positive MCF-7 cells to overexpress aromatase and AR (MCF-7 AR Arom cells) to explore the role of AR in aromatase inhibitor (AI) resistance. Androstendione (AD) was used as a substrate for aromatization to estrogen. The nonsteroidal AI anastrazole (Ana) inhibited AD-stimulated growth and ER transcriptional activity in MCF-7 Arom cells, but not in MCF-7 AR Arom cells...
October 2014: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
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