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NER pathway

G Lohmann, E Vasyutina, J Bloehdorn, N Reinart, J I Schneider, V Babu, G Knittel, G Crispatzu, P Mayer, C Prinz, J K Muenzner, B Biersack, D G Efremov, L Chessa, C D Herling, S Stilgenbauer, M Hallek, R Schobert, H C Reinhardt, B Schumacher, M Herling
Treatment resistance becomes a challenge at some point in the course of most patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). This applies to fludarabine-based regimens, but is also an increasing concern in the era of more targeted therapies. As cells with low replicative activity rely on repair that triggers checkpoint-independent non-canonical pathways, we reasoned that targeting the nucleotide excision repair (NER) reaction addresses a vulnerability of CLL and might even synergize with fludarabine, which blocks the NER gap-filling step...
October 24, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Bang-Shun He, Tao Xu, Yu-Qin Pan, Han-Jin Wang, William C Cho, Kang Lin, Hui-Ling Sun, Tian-Yi Gao, Shu-Kui Wang
Polymorphisms in nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway genes are associated with the risk of breast cancer, but the relevance of these associations appeared to vary according to the ethnicity of the subjects. To systemically evaluate the potential associations between NER polymorphisms and breast cancer risk in a Chinese population, we carried out a case-control study on 450 breast cancer patients and 430 healthy controls. Sequenom MassARRAY was used for genotyping, and immunohistochemistry was performed to detect estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) expression in tumor tissue...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Wynand Paul Roos, Andrea Krumm
Histone/protein deacetylases play multiple roles in regulating gene expression and protein activation and stability. Their deregulation during cancer initiation and progression cause resistance to therapy. Here, we review the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) and the NAD(+) dependent sirtuins (SIRTs) in the DNA damage response (DDR). These lysine deacetylases contribute to DNA repair by base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER), mismatch repair (MMR), non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), homologous recombination (HR) and interstrand crosslink (ICL) repair...
October 13, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Peng Mao, John J Wyrick
DNA repair is critical to maintain genome stability. In eukaryotic cells, DNA repair is complicated by the packaging of the DNA 'substrate' into chromatin. DNA repair pathways utilize different mechanisms to overcome the barrier presented by chromatin to efficiently locate and remove DNA lesions in the genome. DNA excision repair pathways are responsible for repairing a majority of DNA lesions arising in the genome. Excision repair pathways include nucleotide excision repair (NER) and base excision repair (BER), which repair bulky and non-bulky DNA lesions, respectively...
October 12, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
Zhigang Wang, Zoufeng Xu, Guangyu Zhu
DNA damage response plays a key role not only in maintaining genome integrity but also in mediating the antitumor efficacy of DNA-damaging antineoplastic drugs. Herein, we report the rational design and evaluation of a Pt(IV) anticancer prodrug inhibiting nucleotide excision repair (NER), one of the most pivotal processes after the formation of cisplatin-induced DNA damage that deactivates the drug and leads to drug resistance in the clinic. This dual-action prodrug enters cells efficiently and causes DNA damage while simultaneously inhibiting NER to promote apoptotic response...
October 13, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Claire Darrigo, Elisabeth Guillemet, Rozenn Dervyn, Nalini Ramarao
Production of reactive nitrogen species is an important component of the host immune defence against bacteria. Here, we show that the bacterial protein Mfd (Mutation frequency decline), a highly conserved and ubiquitous bacterial protein involved in DNA repair, confers bacterial resistance to the eukaryotic nitrogen response produced by macrophage cells and during mice infection. In addition, we show that RecBC is also necessary to survive this stress. The inactivation of recBC and mfd genes is epistatic showing that Mfd follows the RecBC repair pathway to protect the bacteria against the genotoxic effect of nitrite...
2016: PloS One
Qianzheng Zhu, Altaf A Wani
Nucleotide excision repair (NER) eliminates a broad variety of helix-distorting DNA lesions that can otherwise cause genomic instability. NER comprises two distinct sub-pathways: global genomic NER (GG-NER) operating throughout the genome, and transcription-coupled NER (TC-NER) preferentially removing DNA lesions from transcribing DNA strands of transcriptionally active genes. Several NER factors undergo post-translational modifications, including ubiquitination, occurring swiftly and reversibly at DNA lesion sites...
October 1, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Jörg Fahrer, Bernd Kaina
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers, which is causally linked to dietary habits, notably the intake of processed and red meat. Processed and red meat contain dietary carcinogens, including heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) and N-nitroso compounds (NOC). NOC are agents that induce various N-methylated DNA adducts and O(6)-methylguanine (O(6)-MeG), which are removed by base excision repair (BER) and O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), respectively. HCAs such as the highly mutagenic 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) cause bulky DNA adducts, which are removed from DNA by nucleotide excision repair (NER)...
October 6, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Rui-Xi Hua, Jinhong Zhu, Dan-Hua Jiang, Shao-Dan Zhang, Jiang-Bo Zhang, Wen-Qiong Xue, Xi-Zhao Li, Pei-Fen Zhang, Jing He, Wei-Hua Jia
Xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) is a key component of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. Dysfunctional XPC protein may impair NER-mediated DNA repair capacity and further lead to genomic instability and carcinogenesis. Two common nonsynonymous polymorphisms in the XPC gene, Lys939Gln (rs2228001 A > C) and Ala499Val (rs2228000 C > T), have been investigated in various types of cancer. We genotyped these two polymorphisms in 1141 cases with histologically confirmed colorectal cancer (CRC) and 1173 healthy controls to explore their causative association with CRC susceptibility...
2016: Genes
Travis J Bourret, Kevin A Lawrence, Jeff A Shaw, Tao Lin, Steven J Norris, Frank C Gherardini
The Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi encounters a wide range of environmental conditions as it cycles between ticks of the genus Ixodes and its various mammalian hosts. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are potent antimicrobial molecules generated during the innate immune response to infection, however, it is unclear whether ROS and RNS pose a significant challenge to B. burgdorferi in vivo. In this study, we screened a library of B. burgdorferi strains with mutations in DNA repair genes for increased susceptibility to ROS or RNS in vitro...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Manoj Thakur, Mohan B J Kumar, K Muniyappa
Much is known about the Escherichia coli nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway; however, very little is understood about the proteins involved and the molecular mechanism of NER in mycobacteria. In this study, we show that Mycobacterium tuberculosis UvrB (MtUvrB), which exists in solution as a monomer, binds to DNA in a structure-dependent manner. A systematic examination of MtUvrB substrate specificity reveals that it associates preferentially with single-stranded DNA, duplexes with 3' or 5' overhangs, and linear duplex DNA with splayed arms...
October 3, 2016: Biochemistry
Nimrat Chatterjee, Yunfu Lin, John H Wilson
Almost 20 incurable neurodegenerative disorders are caused by trinucleotide repeat (TNR) expansion beyond a certain threshold, with disease time of onset and severity positively correlating with repeat length. Typically, long TNRs display a bias toward further expansion and repeats continue to expand not only during germline transmissions from parents to offspring, but also remain highly unstable in somatic tissues of patients. Hence, understanding TNR instability mechanisms sheds light on underlying disease pathology...
May 2016: Postdoc Journal: a Journal of Postdoctoral Research and Postdoctoral Affairs
Shanshan Gu, Han Rong, Guowei Zhang, Lihua Kang, Mei Yang, Huaijin Guan
Many studies have suggested that individual susceptibility to age-related cataract (ARC) may be associated with DNA sequence polymorphisms affecting gene regulation. As DNA repair is implicated in ARC pathogenesis and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 3'-terminal untranslated region (3'-UTR) targeted by microRNAs (miRNAs) can alter the gene function, we hypothesize that the miRNA-binding SNPs (miRSNPs) in DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR) and nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathways might associate with ARC risk...
November 2016: Human Mutation
Mark D Evans, Vilas Mistry, Rajinder Singh, Daniel Gackowski, Rafał Różalski, Agnieszka Siomek-Gorecka, David H Phillips, Jie Zuo, Leon Mullenders, Alex Pines, Yusaku Nakabeppu, Kunihiko Sakumi, Mutsuo Sekiguchi, Teruhisa Tsuzuki, Margherita Bignami, Ryszard Oliński, Marcus S Cooke
Urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) is a widely measured biomarker of oxidative stress. It has been commonly assumed to be a product of DNA repair, and therefore reflective of DNA oxidation. However, the source of urinary 8-oxodGuo is not understood, although potential confounding contributions from cell turnover and diet have been ruled out. Clearly it is critical to understand the precise biological origins of this important biomarker, so that the target molecule that is oxidised can be identified, and the significance of its excretion can be interpreted fully...
August 30, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Emre Murat Altinkilic, Selim Isbir, Uzay Gormus, Seda Gulec Yilmaz, Altay Burak Dalan, Selvi Duman, Turgay Isbir
BACKGROUND/AIM: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a chronic inflammatory disease seen as formation of atherosclerotic plaques (atheroma) in coronary arteries. Recent published papers show that DNA damage and repair mechanisms play a crucial role on the development and severity of atheromas. In this study, we investigated nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway-related gene polymorphisms in atherosclerosis. XPD, encoded by ERCC2 gene, is an ATP-depended helicase enzyme involved in the NER pathway...
September 2016: In Vivo
Graciela Spivak
Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a versatile pathway that removes helix-distorting DNA lesions from the genomes of organisms across the evolutionary scale, from bacteria to humans. The serial steps in NER involve recognition of lesions, adducts or structures that disrupt the DNA double helix, removal of a short oligonucleotide containing the offending lesion, synthesis of a repair patch copying the opposite undamaged strand, and ligation, to restore the DNA to its original form. Transcription-coupled repair (TCR) is a subpathway of NER dedicated to the repair of lesions that, by virtue of their location on the transcribed strands of active genes, encumber elongation by RNA polymerases...
November 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Kate S Reid-Bayliss, Sarah T Arron, Lawrence A Loeb, Vladimir Bezrookove, James E Cleaver
Cockayne syndrome (CS) and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) are human photosensitive diseases with mutations in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, which repairs DNA damage from UV exposure. CS is mutated in the transcription-coupled repair (TCR) branch of the NER pathway and exhibits developmental and neurological pathologies. The XP-C group of XP patients have mutations in the global genome repair (GGR) branch of the NER pathway and have a very high incidence of UV-induced skin cancer. Cultured cells from both diseases have similar sensitivity to UV-induced cytotoxicity, but CS patients have never been reported to develop cancer, although they often exhibit photosensitivity...
September 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ajoy C Karikkineth, Morten Scheibye-Knudsen, Elayne Fivenson, Deborah L Croteau, Vilhelm A Bohr
Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a disorder characterized by a variety of clinical features including cachectic dwarfism, severe neurological manifestations including microcephaly and cognitive deficits, pigmentary retinopathy, cataracts, sensorineural deafness, and ambulatory and feeding difficulties, leading to death by 12 years of age on average. It is an autosomal recessive disorder, with a prevalence of approximately 2.5 per million. There are several phenotypes (1-3) and two complementation groups (CSA and CSB), and CS overlaps with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP)...
August 6, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
Ping Chen, Jian Li, Yong-Chang Chen, Hai Qian, Yu-Jiao Chen, Jin-Yu Su, Min Wu, Ting Lan
PURPOSE: Cisplatin can cause a variety of DNA crosslink lesions including intra-strand and inter-strand crosslinks (ICLs), which are associated with the sensitivity of cancer cells to cisplatin. Here, we aimed to assess the contribution of the Fanconi anemia (FA), homologous recombination (HR) and nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathways to cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)-derived cells. METHODS: The expression of FA, HR and NER pathway-associated genes was assessed by RT-qPCR and Western blotting...
July 29, 2016: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Shirong Yu, Katie Evans, Patrick van Eijk, Mark Bennett, Richard M Webster, Matthew Leadbitter, Yumin Teng, Raymond Waters, Stephen P Jackson, Simon H Reed
The rates at which lesions are removed by DNA repair can vary widely throughout the genome, with important implications for genomic stability. To study this, we measured the distribution of nucleotide excision repair (NER) rates for UV-induced lesions throughout the budding yeast genome. By plotting these repair rates in relation to genes and their associated flanking sequences, we reveal that, in normal cells, genomic repair rates display a distinctive pattern, suggesting that DNA repair is highly organized within the genome...
October 2016: Genome Research
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