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mitochondrial complex II

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774505/mitigating-peroxynitrite-mediated-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-aged-rat-brain-by-mitochondria-targeted-antioxidant-mitoq
#1
Arpan Kumar Maiti, B C Spoorthi, Nimai Chandra Saha, Ashis Kumar Panigrahi
Although reactive oxygen species mediated oxidative stress is a well-documented mechanism of aging, recent evidences indicate involvement of nitrosative stress in the same. As mitochondrial dysfunction is considered as one of the primary features of aging, the present study was designed to understand the involvement of nitrosative stress by studying the impact of a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ, a peroxynitrite (ONOO- ) scavenger, on mitochondrial functions. Four groups of rats were included in this study: Group I: Young-6 months (-MitoQ), Group II: Aged-22 months (- MitoQ), Group III: Young-6 months (+ MitoQ), Group IV: Aged-22 months (+ MitoQ)...
May 17, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772707/pimt-ncoa6ip-deletion-in-the-mouse-heart-causes-delayed-cardiomyopathy-attributable-to-perturbation-in-energy-metabolism
#2
Yuzhi Jia, Ning Liu, Navin Viswakarma, Ruya Sun, Mathew J Schipma, Meng Shang, Edward B Thorp, Yashpal S Kanwar, Bayar Thimmapaya, Janardan K Reddy
PIMT/NCOA6IP, a transcriptional coactivator PRIP/NCOA6 binding protein, enhances nuclear receptor transcriptional activity. Germline disruption of PIMT results in early embryonic lethality due to impairment of development around blastocyst and uterine implantation stages. We now generated mice with Cre-mediated cardiac-specific deletion of PIMT (csPIMT-/- ) in adult mice. These mice manifest enlargement of heart, with nearly 100% mortality by 7.5 months of age due to dilated cardiomyopathy. Significant reductions in the expression of genes (i) pertaining to mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I to IV; (ii) calcium cycling cardiac muscle contraction ( Atp2a1 , Atp2a2 , Ryr2 ); and (iii) nuclear receptor PPAR- regulated genes involved in glucose and fatty acid energy metabolism were found in csPIMT-/- mouse heart...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769317/lysophospholipids-induce-innate-immune-transdifferentiation-of-endothelial-cells-resulting-in-prolonged-endothelial-activation
#3
Xinyuan Li, Luqiao Wang, Pu Fang, Yu Sun, Xiaohua Jiang, Hong Wang, Xiao-Feng Yang
Innate immune cells express danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) receptors, T-cell co-stimulation/co-inhibition receptors, and the major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II). We have recently proposed that endothelial cells can serve as innate immune cells, but the molecular mechanisms involved still await discovery. Here, we investigated whether human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) could be transdifferentiated into innate immune cells by exposing them to hyperlipidemia-upregulated DAMP molecules, i...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755985/single-ring-intermediates-are-essential-for-some-chaperonins
#4
Jay M Bhatt, Adrian S Enriquez, Jinliang Wang, Humberto M Rojo, Sudheer K Molugu, Zacariah L Hildenbrand, Ricardo A Bernal
Chaperonins are macromolecular complexes found throughout all kingdoms of life that assist unfolded proteins reach a biologically active state. Historically, chaperonins have been classified into two groups based on sequence, subunit structure, and the requirement for a co-chaperonin. Here, we present a brief review of chaperonins that can form double- and single-ring conformational intermediates in their protein-folding catalytic pathway. To date, the bacteriophage encoded chaperonins ϕ-EL and OBP, human mitochondrial chaperonin and most recently, the bacterial groEL/ES systems, have been reported to form single-ring intermediates as part of their normal protein-folding activity...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753173/comparative-effects-of-avocado-oil-and-losartan-on-blood-pressure-renal-vascular-function-and-mitochondrial-oxidative-stress-in-hypertensive-rats
#5
Cristian Adrián Márquez-Ramírez, José Lucio Hernández de la Paz, Omar Ortiz-Avila, Andrés Raya-Farias, Juan Carlos González-Hernández, Alain Raimundo Rodríguez-Orozco, Rafael Salgado-Garciglia, Alfredo Saavedra-Molina, Daniel Godínez-Hernández, Christian Cortés-Rojo
OBJECTIVE: Angiotensin II (Ang-II) antagonism alleviates hypertensive kidney damage by improving mitochondrial function and decreasing oxidative stress. This condition also is associated with altered renal vascular tone due to enhanced constriction by Ang-II. Thus, approaches ameliorating these events are desirable to alleviate kidney damage. Avocado oil, a source of antioxidants and oleic acid, is known to improve mitochondrial function, while oleic acid has antihypertensive effects...
March 20, 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747424/alterations-of-oxidative-phosphorylation-complexes-in-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#6
Franz A Zimmermann, Daniel Neureiter, Wolfgang Sperl, Johannes A Mayr, Barbara Kofler
The papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common malignant tumor of the thyroid gland, with disruptive mutations in mitochondrial complex I subunits reported at very low frequency. Furthermore, metabolic diversity of PTC has been postulated owing to variable messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of genes encoding subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXHPOS) complexes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the metabolic diversity of the OXPHOS system at the protein level by using immunohistochemical staining...
May 9, 2018: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746824/reduction-of-2-methoxy-1-4-naphtoquinone-by-mitochondrially-localized-nqo1-yielding-nad-supports-substrate-level-phosphorylation-during-respiratory-inhibition
#7
Dora Ravasz, Gergely Kacso, Viktoria Fodor, Kata Horvath, Vera Adam-Vizi, Christos Chinopoulos
Provision of NAD+ for oxidative decarboxylation of alpha-ketoglutarate to succinyl-CoA by the ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) is critical for maintained operation of succinyl-CoA ligase yielding high-energy phosphates, a process known as mitochondrial substrate-level phosphorylation (mSLP). We have shown previously that when NADH oxidation by complex I is inhibited by rotenone or anoxia, mitochondrial diaphorases yield NAD+ , provided that suitable quinones are present (Kiss G et al., FASEB J 2014, 28:1682)...
May 7, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745031/trypanosoma-cruzi-biochemical-changes-and-cell-death-induced-by-an-organometallic-platinum-based-compound
#8
M Florencia Mosquillo, Lucía Bilbao, Fabricio Hernández, Florencia Tissot, Dinorah Gambino, Beatriz Garat, Leticia Pérez-Díaz
Chagas disease is an endemic illness in Latin America caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Current chemotherapies are old and inadequate, and the emergence of drug resistant strains underscores the need of new drugs. Platinum-based complexes have been shown to be a promising approach against parasitic diseases. In this work, the effect of 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene pyridine-2-thiolate-1-oxide Pt(II) hexafluorophosphate, Pt-dppf-mpo, was studied on T. cruzi. A promising anti-trypanosomal activity was determined for the CL Brener strain with a low cytotoxicity determined using in vitro cultured mammal cells...
May 9, 2018: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739879/chemical-synapses-without-synaptic-vesicles-purinergic-neurotransmission-through-a-calhm1-channel-mitochondrial-signaling-complex
#9
Roman A Romanov, Robert S Lasher, Brigit High, Logan E Savidge, Adam Lawson, Olga A Rogachevskaja, Haitian Zhao, Vadim V Rogachevsky, Marina F Bystrova, Gleb D Churbanov, Igor Adameyko, Tibor Harkany, Ruibiao Yang, Grahame J Kidd, Philippe Marambaud, John C Kinnamon, Stanislav S Kolesnikov, Thomas E Finger
Conventional chemical synapses in the nervous system involve a presynaptic accumulation of neurotransmitter-containing vesicles, which fuse with the plasma membrane to release neurotransmitters that activate postsynaptic receptors. In taste buds, type II receptor cells do not have conventional synaptic features but nonetheless show regulated release of their afferent neurotransmitter, ATP, through a large-pore, voltage-gated channel, CALHM1. Immunohistochemistry revealed that CALHM1 was localized to points of contact between the receptor cells and sensory nerve fibers...
May 8, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738577/widespread-plant-specialization-in-the-polyphagous-planthopper-hyalesthes-obsoletus-cixiidae-a-major-vector-of-stolbur-phytoplasma-evidence-of-cryptic-speciation
#10
Andrea Kosovac, Jes Johannesen, Oliver Krstić, Milana Mitrović, Tatjana Cvrković, Ivo Toševski, Jelena Jović
The stolbur phytoplasma vector Hyalesthes obsoletus is generally considered as a polyphagous species associated with numerous wild and cultivated plants. However, recent research in southeastern Europe, the distribution centre of H. obsoletus and the area of most stolbur-inflicted crop diseases, points toward specific host-plant associations of the vector, indicating specific vector-based transmission routes. Here, we study the specificity of populations associated with four host-plants using mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers, and we evaluate the evolution of host-shifts in H...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731306/absence-of-complex-i-implicates-rearrangement-of-the-respiratory-chain-in-european-mistletoe
#11
Jennifer Senkler, Nils Rugen, Holger Eubel, Jan Hegermann, Hans-Peter Braun
The mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system, which is based on the presence of five protein complexes, is in the very center of cellular ATP production. Complexes I to IV are components of the respiratory electron transport chain that drives proton translocation across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The resulting proton gradient is used by complex V (the ATP synthase complex) for the phosphorylation of ADP. Occurrence of complexes I to V is highly conserved in eukaryotes, with exceptions being restricted to unicellular parasites that take up energy-rich compounds from their hosts...
April 27, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730232/structure-and-biological-properties-of-five-pt-ii-complexes-as-potential-anticancer-agents
#12
Jungang Deng, Jun Wang, MuhammadHamid Khan, Ping Yu, Feng Yang, Hong Liang
We synthesized and validated five Schiff base Pt(II) complexes derived from 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde benzoyl hydrazone and its derivatives, which are modified at the benzohydrazide structures (L1-L5). The complexes were [Pt(L1)(DMSO)Cl] (C1), [Pt(L2)(DMSO)Cl] (C2), [Pt(L3)(DMSO)Cl] (C3), [Pt(L4)(DMSO)Cl] (C4), and [Pt(L5)(DMSO)Cl] (C5). Crystal structures showed that the Pt centers of all complexes were tetra-coordinated with other atoms. The structure-activity relationships and anticancer mechanisms of the complexes were explored...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725013/iron-overload-promotes-mitochondrial-fragmentation-in-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-from-myelodysplastic-syndrome-patients-through-activation-of-the-ampk-mff-drp1-pathway
#13
Qingqing Zheng, Youshan Zhao, Juan Guo, Sida Zhao, Chengming Fei, Chao Xiao, Dong Wu, Lingyun Wu, Xiao Li, Chunkang Chang
Iron overload (IO) has been reported to contribute to mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) damage, but the precise mechanism has yet to be clearly elucidated. In this study, we found that IO increased cell apoptosis and lowered cell viability in MSCs, accompanied by extensive mitochondrial fragmentation and autophagy enhancement. All these effects were reactive oxygen species (ROS) dependent. In MSCs with IO, the ATP concentrations were significantly reduced due to high ROS levels and low electron respiratory chain complex (ETC) II/III activity...
May 3, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724195/bioactive-components-and-mechanisms-of-chinese-poplar-propolis-alleviates-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-induced-endothelial-cells-injury
#14
Huasong Chang, Wenwen Yuan, Haizhu Wu, Xusheng Yin, Hongzhuan Xuan
BACKGROUND: Propolis, a polyphenol-rich natural product, has been used as a functional food in anti-inflammation. However, its bioactive components and mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. To discover the bioactive components and anti-inflammatory mechanism, we prepared and separated 8 subfractions from ethyl acetate extract of Chinese propolis (EACP) and investigated the mechanism in oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) damage...
May 3, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704825/respiratory-analysis-of-coupled-mitochondria-in-cryopreserved-liver-biopsies
#15
Mercedes García-Roche, Alberto Casal, Mariana Carriquiry, Rafael Radi, Celia Quijano, Adriana Cassina
The aim of this work was to develop a cryopreservation method of small liver biopsies for in situ mitochondrial function assessment. Herein we describe a detailed protocol for tissue collection, cryopreservation, high-resolution respirometry using complex I and II substrates, calculation and interpretation of respiratory parameters. Liver biopsies from cow and rat were sequentially frozen in a medium containing dimethylsulfoxide as cryoprotectant and stored for up to 3 months at -80 °C. Oxygen consumption rate studies of fresh and cryopreserved samples revealed that most respiratory parameters remained unchanged...
March 22, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702406/oxygen-dependence-of-mitochondrial-ros-production-as-detected-by-amplex-red-assay
#16
Vera G Grivennikova, Alexandra V Kareyeva, Andrei D Vinogradov
The initial rates of superoxide plus hydrogen peroxide (ROS) generation by intact or permeabilized rat heart mitochondria and coupled inside-out bovine heart submitochondrial particles (SMP) oxidizing NAD-dependent substrates, NADH, and succinate were measured by detecting resorufin formation in the Amplex Red assay at various oxygen concentrations. Linear dependences of the initial rates on oxygen concentration within the range of ~125-750 μM were found for all significant mitochondrial generators, i.e...
April 14, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689072/experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-eae-up-regulates-the-mitochondrial-activity-and-manganese-superoxide-dismutase-mnsod-in-the-mouse-renal-cortex
#17
Balamurugan Packialakshmi, Xiaoming Zhou
Increases of the activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain generally lead to increases of production of ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS) as by-products. MnSOD is the first line of defense against the stress induced by mitochondrial ROS. Our previous studies demonstrated that EAE progression increased Na,K-ATPase activity in the mouse kidney cortex. Since mitochondria are the major source of ATP, our present studies were sought to determine whether EAE progression increased mitochondrial activity...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686903/streptozotocin-induced-adaptive-modification-of-mitochondrial-supercomplexes-in-liver-of-wistar-rats-and-the-protective-effect-of-moringa-oleifera-lam
#18
María Alejandra Sánchez-Muñoz, Mónica Andrea Valdez-Solana, Mara Ibeth Campos-Almazán, Óscar Flores-Herrera, Mercedes Esparza-Perusquía, Sofia Olvera-Sánchez, Guadalupe García-Arenas, Claudia Avitia-Domínguez, Alfredo Téllez-Valencia, Erick Sierra-Campos
The increasing prevalence of diabetes continues to be a major health issue worldwide. Alteration of mitochondrial electron transport chain is a recognized hallmark of the diabetic-associated decline in liver bioenergetics; however, the molecular events involved are only poorly understood. Moringa oleifera is used for the treatment of diabetes. However, its role on mitochondrial functionality is not yet established. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of M. oleifera extract on supercomplex formation, ATPase activity, ROS production, GSH levels, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation...
2018: Biochemistry Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684861/inhibition-of-gastric-cancer-by-local-anesthetic-bupivacaine-through-multiple-mechanisms-independent-of-sodium-channel-blockade
#19
Jiapeng Dan, Xiaodan Gong, Dezhan Li, Guanhua Zhu, Lishen Wang, Fang Li
BACKGROUND: Retrospective studies of patients undergoing cancer surgery suggest the use of local anesthesia may decrease tumor recurrence and improve survival. The mechanisms on the benefits of local anesthesia on cancer recurrence are complex and remain to be elucidated. METHODS: This study investigated the effects of bupivacaine on various cellular activities of gastric cancer using proliferation, migration, apoptosis assay. The underlying mechanism was analyzed focusing on mitochondrial functions and the activities of Rho family members...
April 20, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678518/pattern-recognition-receptors-mediate-pro-inflammatory-effects-of-extracellular-mitochondrial-transcription-factor-a-tfam
#20
Stephanie M Schindler, Matthew G Frank, Jessica L Annis, Steven F Maier, Andis Klegeris
Neuroinflammation is a common pathogenic mechanism for a number of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Microglia, the immune cells of the brain, contribute to the onset and progression of the neuroinflammation observed in these diseases. Microglia become activated and initiate an inflammatory response by interacting with a diverse set of molecules, including the group of endogenous proteins released upon cell damage, termed damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)...
April 17, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
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