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mitochondrial complex II

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157186/a-high-caloric-diet-rich-in-soy-oil-alleviates-oxidative-damage-of-skeletal-muscles-induced-by-dexamethasone-in-chickens
#1
Hongchao Jiao, Kaifeng Zhou, Jingpeng Zhao, Xiaojuan Wang, Hai Lin
Objective Glucocorticoids (GCs) can induce oxidative damage in skeletal muscles. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a high caloric (HC) diet rich in soy oil would change the oxidative stress induced by a GC. Methods The effect of dexamethasone (DEX) and HC diet on oxidative stress in plasma, skeletal muscles (M. pectoralis major, PM; M. biceps femoris, BF), and mitochondria were determined. The biomarkers of oxidative damage and antioxidative enzyme activity were determined. The fatty acid profile of muscles and the activities of complex I and II in mitochondria were measured...
November 20, 2017: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157056/the-intron-landscape-of-the-mtdna-cytb-gene-among-the-ascomycota-introns-and-intron-encoded-open-reading-frames
#2
Tuhin K Guha, Alvan Wai, Sahra-Taylor Mullineux, Georg Hausner
Fungal mitochondrial genes are frequently noted for the presence of introns. These introns are self-splicing and can be assigned to either group I or II introns and they can encode open reading frames (ORFs). This study examines the introns present within the cytochrome b (cytb) gene of ascomycetes fungi. Cytochrome b gene sequences were sampled from GenBank and supplemented with our own data for species of Leptographium and Ophiostoma. Group I introns were encountered most frequently, many encoding either LAGLIDADG or GIY-YIG homing endonucleases (HEs)...
November 20, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149089/mnsod-and-cyclin-b1-coordinate-a-mito-checkpoint-during-cell-cycle-response-to-oxidative-stress
#3
Amanda L Kalen, Iman M Ahmad, Maher Y Abdalla, Yunxia Q O'Malley, Prabhat C Goswami, Ehab H Sarsour
Communication between the nucleus and mitochondrion could coordinate many cellular processes. While the mechanisms regulating this communication are not completely understood, we hypothesize that cell cycle checkpoint proteins coordinate the cross-talk between nuclear and mitochondrial functions following oxidative stress. Human normal skin fibroblasts, representative of the G₂-phase, were irradiated with 6 Gy of ionizing radiation and assayed for cyclin B1 translocation, mitochondrial function, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and cytotoxicity...
November 17, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133864/effects-of-microgravity-on-osteoblast-mitochondria-a-proteomic-and-metabolomics-profile
#4
Anna Michaletti, Magda Gioia, Umberto Tarantino, Lello Zolla
The response of human primary osteoblasts exposed to simulated microgravity has been investigated and analysis of metabolomic and proteomic profiles demonstrated a prominent dysregulation of mitochondrion homeostasis. Gravitational unloading treatment induced a decrease in mitochondrial proteins, mainly affecting efficiency of the respiratory chain. Metabolomic analysis revealed that microgravity influenced several metabolic pathways; stimulating glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathways, while the Krebs cycle was interrupted at succinate-fumarate transformation...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127580/sigma-1-receptor-agonists-induce-oxidative-stress-in-mitochondria-and-enhance-complex-i-activity-in-physiological-condition-but-protect-against-pathological-oxidative-stress
#5
Nino Goguadze, Elene Zhuravliova, Didier Morin, Davit Mikeladze, Tangui Maurice
The sigma1 receptor (σ1R) is a chaperone protein residing at mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes (MAMs), where it modulates Ca(2+) exchange between the ER and mitochondria by interacting with inositol-1,4,5 trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs). The σ1R is highly expressed in the central nervous system and its activation stimulates neuromodulation and neuroprotection, for instance in Alzheimer's disease (AD) models in vitro and in vivo. σ1R effects on mitochondria pathophysiology and the downstream signaling are still not fully understood...
November 10, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127035/the-high-production-volume-fungicide-pyraclostrobin-induces-triglyceride-accumulation-associated-with-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-promotes-adipocyte-differentiation-independent-of-ppar%C3%AE-activation-in-3t3-l1-cells
#6
Anthony L Luz, Christopher D Kassotis, Heather M Stapleton, Joel N Meyer
Pyraclostrobin is one of the most heavily used fungicides, and has been detected on a variety of produce, suggesting human exposure occurs regularly. Recently, pyraclostrobin exposure has been linked to a variety of toxic effects, including neurodegeneration and triglyceride (TG) accumulation. As pyraclostrobin inhibits electron transport chain complex III, and as mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with metabolic syndrome (cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, obesity), we designed experiments to test the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction underlies its adipogenic activity...
November 7, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125827/early-cerebellar-deficits-in-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-respiratory-chain-complexes-in-the-kiko-mouse-model-of-friedreich-ataxia
#7
Hong Lin, Jordi Magrane, Amy Rattelle, Anna Stepanova, Alexander Galkin, Elisia M Clark, Yi Na Dong, Sarah M Halawani, David R Lynch
Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), the most common recessive inherited ataxia, results from deficiency of frataxin, a small mitochondrial protein crucial for iron-sulphur cluster formation and ATP production. Frataxin deficiency is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in FRDA patients and animal models; however, early mitochondrial pathology in FRDA cerebellum remains elusive. Using frataxin knock-in/knockout (KIKO) mice and KIKO mice carrying the mitoDendra transgene, we show early cerebellar deficits in mitochondrial biogenesis and respiratory chain complexes in this FRDA model...
November 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123192/targeted-mitochondrial-therapy-using-mitoq-shows-equivalent-renoprotection-to-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibition-but-no-combined-synergy-in-diabetes
#8
Micheal S Ward, Nicole B Flemming, Linda A Gallo, Amelia K Fotheringham, Domenica A McCarthy, Aowen Zhuang, Peter H Tang, Danielle J Borg, Hannah Shaw, Benjamin Harvie, David R Briskey, Llion A Roberts, Manuel R Plan, Michael P Murphy, Mark P Hodson, Josephine M Forbes
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a pathological mediator of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Our objective was to test the mitochondrially targeted agent, MitoQ, alone and in combination with first line therapy for DKD. Intervention therapies (i) vehicle (D); (ii) MitoQ (DMitoQ;0.6 mg/kg/day); (iii) Ramipril (DRam;3 mg/kg/day) or (iv) combination (DCoAd) were administered to male diabetic db/db mice for 12 weeks (n = 11-13/group). Non-diabetic (C) db/m mice were followed concurrently. No therapy altered glycaemic control or body weight...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119535/mitochondria-bound-hexokinase-mt-hk-activity-differ-in-cortical-and-hypothalamic-synaptosomes-differential-role-of-mt-hk-in-h2o2-depuration
#9
João Paulo Cavalcanti-de-Albuquerque, Eduardo de Souza Ferreira, Denise Pires de Carvalho, Antonio Galina
Glucose and oxygen are vital for the brain, as these molecules provide energy and metabolic intermediates that are necessary for cell function. The glycolysis pathway and mitochondria play a pivotal role in cell energy metabolism, which is closely related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Hexokinase (HK) is a key enzyme involved in glucose metabolism that modulates the level of brain mitochondrial ROS by recycling ADP for oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos). Here, we hypothesize that the control of mitochondrial metabolism by hexokinase differs in distinct areas of the brain, such as the cortex and hypothalamus, in which ROS might function as signaling molecules...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115384/atorvastatin-protects-the-proliferative-ability-of-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-inhibited-by-angiotensin-ii-by-changing-mitochondrial-energy-metabolism
#10
Ye Chang, Yuan Li, Ning Ye, Xiaofan Guo, Zhao Li, Guozhe Sun, Yingxian Sun
This study aimed to explore whether angiotensin II (Ang II) inhibits the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by changing mitochondrial energy metabolism, and whether atorvastatin has a protective role via restoration of endothelial function. HUVECs were treated with 1 µM Ang II alone or with 10 µM atorvastatin for 24 h. Proliferation was detected by MTT assay, cell counting, 5‑ethynyl‑2'‑deoxyuridine assay and real‑time cell analyzer. Mitochondrial energy metabolism including oxygen consumption rate and extracellular acidification rate were measured using a Seahorse metabolic flux analyzer...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091896/effect-of-the-nadph-oxidase-inhibitor-apocynin-on-ischemia-reperfusion-hippocampus-injury-in-rat-brain
#11
Monika Kapoor, Neha Sharma, Rajat Sandhir, Bimla Nehru
Blockage along with sudden restoration of blood following ischemia, results in several cascading events, such as a massive ROS production which plays an important role in the pathophysiology of ischemia. NADPH oxidase complex in mitochondria complex is believed to be the major source for ROS production. The present study explores the therapeutic potential of apocynin, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor in attenuating the ROS production, and the resultant neuroinflammation and mitochondrial injury during cerebral ischemia in rats...
October 28, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080556/a-new-mutation-independent-approach-to-cancer-therapy-inhibiting-oncogenic-ras-and-myc-by-targeting-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#12
Bela Ozsvari, Federica Sotgia, Michael P Lisanti
Here, we used MCF7 cells as a model system to interrogate how MYC/RAS co-operativity contributes to metabolic flux and stemness in breast cancer cells. We compared the behavior of isogenic MCF7 cell lines transduced with c-Myc or H-Ras (G12V), either individually or in combination. Cancer stem cell (CSC) activity was measured using the mammosphere assay. c-Myc augmented both mammosphere formation and mitochondrial respiration, without any effects on glycolytic flux. In contrast, H-Ras (G12V) synergistically augmented both mammosphere formation and glycolysis, but only in combination with c-Myc, directly demonstrating MYC/RAS co-operativity...
October 27, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078279/electron-leak-from-ndufa13-within-mitochondrial-complex-i-attenuates-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-dimerized-stat3
#13
Hengxun Hu, Jinliang Nan, Yong Sun, Dan Zhu, Changchen Xiao, Yaping Wang, Lianlian Zhu, Yue Wu, Jing Zhao, Rongrong Wu, Jinghai Chen, Hong Yu, Xinyang Hu, Wei Zhu, Jian'an Wang
The causative relationship between specific mitochondrial molecular structure and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation has attracted much attention. NDUFA13 is a newly identified accessory subunit of mitochondria complex I with a unique molecular structure and a location that is very close to the subunits of complex I of low electrochemical potentials. It has been reported that down-regulated NDUFA13 rendered tumor cells more resistant to apoptosis. Thus, this molecule might provide an ideal opportunity for us to investigate the profile of ROS generation and its role in cell protection against apoptosis...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073106/cardiovascular-homeostasis-dependence-on-micu2-a-regulatory-subunit-of-the-mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter
#14
Alexander G Bick, Hiroko Wakimoto, Kimberli J Kamer, Yasemin Sancak, Olga Goldberger, Anna Axelsson, Daniel M DeLaughter, Joshua M Gorham, Vamsi K Mootha, J G Seidman, Christine E Seidman
Comparative analyses of transcriptional profiles from humans and mice with cardiovascular pathologies revealed consistently elevated expression of MICU2, a regulatory subunit of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex. To determine if MICU2 expression was cardioprotective, we produced and characterized Micu2(-/-) mice. Mutant mice had left atrial enlargement and Micu2(-/-) cardiomyocytes had delayed sarcomere relaxation and cytosolic calcium reuptake kinetics, indicating diastolic dysfunction. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of Micu2(-/-) ventricular tissues revealed markedly reduced transcripts encoding the apelin receptor (Micu2(-/-) vs...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069960/4-4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-2-butanone-modulates-redox-signal-in-gamma-irradiation-induced-nephrotoxicity-in-rats
#15
Omayma A R Abozaid, Fatma S M Moawed, Mostafa A Farrag, Abdel Aziz A Abdel Aziz
Cellular exposure to ionizing radiation leads to oxidative stress events, which refer to elevated intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The elevated levels of ROS significantly contributed to γ-radiation (IR) induced cytotoxicity. In an attempt to minimize these cytotoxic effects, antioxidant compounds have been identified to counteract radiation- associated toxicities. We mainly aimed to study the protective effect of 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanone (HMB) on IR-induced nephrotoxicity whereas; it was previously shown to have anti-inflammatory effects in different inflammation models...
October 25, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069586/fumarate-hydratase-loss-causes-combined-respiratory-chain-defects
#16
Petros A Tyrakis, Marie E Yurkovich, Marco Sciacovelli, Evangelia K Papachristou, Hannah R Bridges, Edoardo Gaude, Alexander Schreiner, Clive D'Santos, Judy Hirst, Juan Hernandez-Fernaud, Roger Springett, John R Griffiths, Christian Frezza
Fumarate hydratase (FH) is an enzyme of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle mutated in hereditary and sporadic cancers. Despite recent advances in understanding its role in tumorigenesis, the effects of FH loss on mitochondrial metabolism are still unclear. Here, we used mouse and human cell lines to assess mitochondrial function of FH-deficient cells. We found that human and mouse FH-deficient cells exhibit decreased respiration, accompanied by a varying degree of dysfunction of respiratory chain (RC) complex I and II...
October 24, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066618/epigenetic-modification-of-mir-663-controls-mitochondria-to-nucleus-retrograde-signaling-and-tumor-progression
#17
Trevor Carden, Bhupendra Singh, Ved Mooga, Prachi Bajpai, Keshav K Singh
The normal cellular function requires communication between mitochondria and the nucleus, termed mitochondria-to-nucleus retrograde signaling. Disruption of this mechanism has been implicated in the development of cancers. Many proteins are known modulators of retrograde signaling, but whether microRNAs (miRNAs) are also involved is unknown. We conducted a miRNA microarray analysis using RNA from a parental cell line, a rho0 line lacking mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and a rho0 line with restored mtDNA. We found that miR-663 was down-regulated in the mtDNA-depleted rho0 line...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066001/antiproliferative-and-proapoptotic-activity-of-molecular-copper-ii-complex-of-n-1-tosylcytosine
#18
Ljubica Glavaš-Obrovac, Marijana Jukić, Katarina Mišković, Ivana Marković, Dijana Saftić, Željka Ban, Josipa Matić, Biserka Žinić
In an attempt to enhance the previously observed antiproliferative capacity of 1-(p-toluenesulfonyl)cytosine (N-1-tosylcytosine, ligand 1), its copper(II) complex (Cu(1-TsC-N3)2Cl2, complex 2) was prepared and tested in vitro on various carcinoma and leukemia cells. The comparative in vitro studies using the ligand 1, the complex 2, CuCl2x2H2O salt (salt 3) and the 1:2 mixture of the salt 3 and ligand 1 (mixture 4) were performed on normal (WI38), human carcinoma (HeLa, CaCo2, MiaPaCa2, SW620), lymphoma (Raji) and leukemia (K562) cell lines...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065123/supplemental-arginine-vasopressin-during-the-resuscitation-of-severe-hemorrhagic-shock-preserves-renal-mitochondrial-function
#19
Carrie A Sims, Guan Yuxia, Khushboo Singh, Evan C Werlin, Patrick M Reilly, Joseph A Baur
Arginine vasopressin (AVP), a hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary, plays a vital role in maintaining vasomotor tone during acute blood loss. We hypothesized that decompensated hemorrhagic shock is associated with decreased AVP stores and supplementation during resuscitation would improve both blood pressure and renal function. Using a decompensated hemorrhagic shock model, male Long-Evans rats were bled to mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) of 40mmHg and maintained until the MAP could not be sustained without fluid...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063196/a-newly-synthesized-nickel-chelate-can-selectively-target-and-overcome-multidrug-resistance-in-cancer-through-redox-imbalance-both-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#20
Kaushik Banerjee, Manas Kumar Biswas, Soumitra Kumar Choudhuri
Induction of undesired toxicity and emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) are the major obstacles for cancer treatment. Moreover, aggressive cancers are less sensitive towards existing chemotherapeutics. Therefore, selective targeting of cancers without inducing undesired side effects and designing proper strategies to overcome MDR has utmost importance in modern chemotherapy. Previously we revealed the anticancer properties of some transition metal chelates of Schiff base, but the effectiveness of nickel complex is still unrevealed...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
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