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Central airway obstruction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780608/bronchoscopic-debulking-of-a-feline-tracheobronchial-carcinoma-and-long-term-outcome
#1
Marina Dominguez Ruiz, Jessica Grant, Juan Hernandez
Case summary: This report describes a 10-year-old female spayed Russian Blue cat presented with a 5 month history of respiratory difficulty. Thoracic radiographs were suggestive of a central airway obstruction. Bronchoscopy revealed a broad-base mass in the region of the carina. Bronchoscopic debulking was performed using a urinary catheter. Histopathology confirmed the presence of a tracheobronchial carcinoma. Survival from diagnosis was 16 months (480 days), over which time the cat underwent three endoscopic debulking procedures in combination with doxorubicin chemotherapy...
January 2018: JFMS open reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773293/usefulness-of-the-forced-oscillation-technique-in-assessing-the-therapeutic-result-of-tracheobronchial-central-airway-obstruction
#2
Masanori Yasuo, Yoshiaki Kitaguchi, Fumiya Kinota, Makoto Kosaka, Kazuhisa Urushihata, Atsuhito Ushiki, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Satoshi Kawakami, Masayuki Hanaoka
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) comprise the traditional method for detecting central airway obstruction (CAO) and evaluating therapeutic effects, but are effort-dependent. By contrast, the forced oscillation technique (FOT) is performed during tidal breathing in an effort-independent mode and is universally used to assess respiratory function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. We used the FOT to measure airway resistance and reactance in patients with CAO before and after interventional bronchoscopy and compared the results to data obtained using PFTs...
May 2018: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767468/central-adenosine-a-1-receptors-inhibit-cough-via-suppression-of-excitatory-glutamatergic-and-tachykininergic-neurotransmission
#3
Ahmed Z El-Hashim, Seena Mathews, Fajer Al-Shamlan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The A1 adenosine receptor is reported to mediate several excitatory effects in the airways and has inhibitory effects in the central nervous system. In this study, we investigated the role of peripheral and central A1 adenosine receptors in regulating cough and airway obstruction. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Drugs were administered to guinea pigs via the inhaled or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) routes. Cough was induced by exposing guinea pigs to aerosolised 0...
May 16, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761478/pain-relief-for-women-undergoing-oocyte-retrieval-for-assisted-reproduction
#4
REVIEW
Irene Kwan, Rui Wang, Emily Pearce, Siladitya Bhattacharya
BACKGROUND: Various methods of conscious sedation and analgesia (CSA) have been used during oocyte retrieval for assisted reproduction. The choice of agent has been influenced by the quality of sedation and analgesia and by concerns about possible detrimental effects on reproductive outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of different methods of conscious sedation and analgesia for pain relief and pregnancy outcomes in women undergoing transvaginal oocyte retrieval...
May 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744361/the-role-of-the-immune-response-in-the-pathogenesis-of-bronchiectasis
#5
REVIEW
Paul T King
Bronchiectasis is a prevalent respiratory condition characterised by permanent and abnormal dilation of the lung airways (bronchi). There are a large variety of causative factors that have been identified for bronchiectasis; all of these compromise the function of the immune response to fight infection. A triggering factor may lead to the establishment of chronic infection in the lower respiratory tract. The bacteria responsible for the lower respiratory tract infection are usually found as commensals in the upper respiratory tract microbiome...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734980/the-longest-obstructive-apnea-you-have-ever-seen-a-patient-with-new-onset-autonomic-dysfunction
#6
Puneet K Aulakh, David E Westerman, Raj C Dedhia
Autonomic dysfunction (AD) has been associated with both obstructive and central sleep apneas. Several mechanisms have been proposed for the emergence of sleep apnea in AD, which include impaired sensory input, compromised local reflexes, and altered central processing. We present a case of a 70-year-old woman who had experienced cardiac arrest four times related to hypoxic events due to the apparent sudden onset of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in the setting of AD. The episodes of OSA were profoundly prolonged and a tracheostomy was ultimately needed due to the inability of positive airway pressure therapy with supplemental oxygen to control events...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734977/use-of-chest-wall-emg-to-classify-hypopneas-as-obstructive-or-central
#7
Richard B Berry, Scott Ryals, Mary H Wagner
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To compare classification of hypopneas as obstructive or central based on an effort signal derived from surface chest wall electromyography (CW-EMG-EF) coupled with airflow amplitude versus classification using The AASM Manual for the Scoring of Sleep and Associated Events: Rules, Terminology and Technical Specifications (AASM Scoring Manual) criteria; and to characterize hypopneas classified as obstructive versus central using a resistance surrogate. METHODS: CW-EMG was recorded in the eighth intercostal space at the right midaxillary line...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731500/sleep-disordered-breathing-a-real-therapeutic-target-for-hypertension-pulmonary-hypertension-ischemic-heart-disease-and-chronic-heart-failure
#8
Takaaki Nakamoto
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease including acute coronary syndrome and acute myocardial infarction, and treating SDB prevents their development and recurrence and improves a patient's prognosis. Therefore, SDB is considered a therapeutic target for cardiovascular disease. In 2010, the Japanese Circulation Society published guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of SDB in patients with cardiovascular disease. However, therapeutic intervention for patients with SDB was recently reported not to suppress the development or deterioration of cardiovascular disease in three middle- to large-sized randomized clinical trials: the SERVE-HF trial, which examined the effects of adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) on patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and central sleep apnea; the CAT-HF trial, which examined the effects of ASV therapy on patients with CHF after acute deterioration; and the SAVE study, which examined the secondary preventive effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on patients with ischemic heart disease who had mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea...
2018: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727208/indications-and-complications-of-rigid-bronchoscopy
#9
Hitesh Batra, Lonny Yarmus
Rigid bronchoscopy is an invaluable tool for the management of airway disorders and an essential skill for an interventional pulmonologist. Since its introduction in the late 19th century, it has remained an important technique for the management of central airway obstruction, foreign body aspiration and massive hemoptysis. Areas covered: This article will review the history, indications, contraindication, technique and complications of rigid bronchoscopy. We will also briefly discuss the methods of anesthesia and ventilation and finally our perspective on the future of rigid bronchoscopy...
May 4, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722436/cigarette-smoke-upregulates-pde3-and-pde4-to-decrease-camp-in-airway-cells
#10
Haoxiao Zuo, Bing Han, Wilfred J Poppinga, Lennard Ringnalda, Loes E M Kistemaker, Andrew J Halayko, Reinoud Gosens, Viacheslav O Nikolaev, Martina Schmidt
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: 3', 5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a central second messenger that broadly regulates cell function and can underpin pathophysiology. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a lung disease primarily provoked by cigarette smoke (CS), the induction of cAMP-dependent pathways, via inhibition of hydrolyzing phosphodiesterases (PDEs), is a prime therapeutic strategy. Mechanisms that disrupt cAMP signaling in airway cells, in particular regulation of endogenous PDEs are poorly understood...
May 3, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721318/central-airway-obstruction-caused-by-adenoid-cystic-carcinoma-in-pregnancy-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Samaneh Shafiee, Alan Adno, Bruce French, Cherynne Johansson, Anthony Frankel, Jonathan P Williamson
Malignancy complicates one in a thousand pregnancies. The most frequently diagnosed of these are breast, cervical, melanoma, ovarian, and haematological neoplasms. Tumours of respiratory origin are very uncommon during pregnancy. We present a case of tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), a rare type of primary airway tumour, diagnosed in a pregnant woman. To our knowledge, this is the third reported case of tracheal ACC complicating pregnancy. We discuss potential barriers to timely diagnosis of malignancies during pregnancy and consider optimal management strategies, taking into account the potential harm to the mother and foetus in a field with a limited evidence base...
July 2018: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709333/gender-differences-in-morphological-and-functional-outcomes-after-mandibular-setback-surgery
#12
Khaled Dahy, Katsu Takahashi, Kazuyuki Saito, Honoka Kiso, Ibrahim Rezk, Toru Oga, Ryuji Uozumi, Kazuo Chin, Kazuhisa Bessho
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine and compare morphological and functional outcomes after either isolated mandibular setback or bimaxillary surgery in males and females. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was done on 52 patients, in whom surgical correction for mandibular prognathism was performed either by isolated mandibular setback (30 cases) or by bimaxillary surgery (22 cases). Morphological changes were studied using cephalograms and functional changes studied using impulse oscillometry (IOS) taken before surgery (T0), 3 months (T1) and 1 year after surgery (T2)...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708507/granulocyte-csf-links-destructive-inflammation-and-comorbidities-in-obstructive-lung-disease
#13
Evelyn Tsantikos, Maverick Lau, Cassandra Mn Castelino, Mhairi J Maxwell, Samantha L Passey, Michelle J Hansen, Narelle E McGregor, Natalie A Sims, Daniel P Steinfort, Louis B Irving, Gary P Anderson, Margaret L Hibbs
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an incurable inflammatory lung disease that afflicts millions of people worldwide, and it is the fourth leading cause of death. Systemic comorbidities affecting the heart, skeletal muscle, bone, and metabolism are major contributors to morbidity and mortality. Given the surprising finding in large prospective clinical biomarker studies that peripheral white blood cell count is more closely associated with disease than inflammatory biomarkers, we probed the role of blood growth factors...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707506/airway-stents
#14
Erik Folch, Colleen Keyes
Stents and tubes to maintain the patency of the airways are commonly used for malignant obstruction and are occasionally employed in benign disease. Malignant airway obstruction usually results from direct involvement of bronchogenic carcinoma, or by extension of carcinomas occurring in the esophagus or the thyroid. External compression from lymph nodes or metastatic disease from other organs can also cause central airway obstruction. Most malignant airway lesions are surgically inoperable due to advanced disease stage and require multimodality palliation, including stent placement...
March 2018: Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701198/-a-case-of-severe-obstructive-sleep-apnea-hypopnea-syndrome-with-urinary-and-anal-incontinence
#15
Li Zhou, Ruoyun Ouyang, Ping Chen, Hong Luo, Hanmei Liu, Guiqian Liu
A case of a young male patient, who came to the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University because of snoring for 10 years and nocturnal gatism for half month, was analyzed retrospectively. He was diagnosed as obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) finally. The patient had been diagnosed and treated as stroke in the local hospital, while urinary and anal incontinence were not relieved. It was a dilemma for him to be properly diagnosed and treated. Polysomnography in our hospital revealed apnea hypopnea index (AHI) at 44...
March 28, 2018: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675059/natural-history-of-treatment-emergent-central-sleep-apnea-on-positive-airway-pressure-a-systematic-review
#16
Gaurav Nigam, Muhammad Riaz, Edward T Chang, Macario Camacho
INTRODUCTION: Treatment-emergent central sleep apnea (TECSA) is observed in some patients when they are treated with positive airway pressure (PAP) after significant resolution of the preexisting obstructive events in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature for studies describing the natural history of TECSA. METHODS: PubMed, Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochran Library databases were searched through June 29, 2017...
April 2018: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644546/imaging-of-urgencies-and-emergencies-in-the-lung-cancer-patient
#17
REVIEW
Bruno De Potter, Jef Huyskens, Birgitta Hiddinga, Maarten Spinhoven, Annelies Janssens, Jan P van Meerbeeck, Paul M Parizel, Annemie Snoeckx
Lung cancer patients often experience potentially life-threatening medical urgencies and emergencies, which may be a direct or indirect result of the underlying malignancy. This pictorial review addresses the most common thoracic, neurological and musculoskeletal medical emergencies in lung cancer patients, including superior vena cava syndrome, pulmonary embolism, spontaneous pneumothorax, cardiac tamponade, massive haemoptysis, central airway obstruction, oesophagorespiratory fistula, malignant spinal cord compression, carcinomatous meningitis, cerebral herniation and pathological fracture...
April 11, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627422/predictors-of-failure-in-infant-mandibular-distraction-osteogenesis
#18
Jeffrey A Hammoudeh, Artur Fahradyan, Colin Brady, Michaela Tsuha, Beina Azadgoli, Sally Ward, Mark M Urata
PURPOSE: Mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) has been shown to be successful in treating upper airway obstruction caused by micrognathia in pediatric patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the success rate of MDO and possible predictors of failure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The records of all neonates and infants who underwent MDO from 2008 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Procedural failure was defined as patient death or the need for tracheostomy postoperatively...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627058/nonoperative-endoscopic-management-of-benign-tracheobronchial-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Cameron D Wright
Modern thoracic surgery requires knowledge and skill in advanced bronchoscopic techniques. Rigid bronchoscopy remains a workhorse for the management of central airway obstruction. Dilation of tracheal strictures is now much simpler with the advent of the balloon dilator, which can be passed through a therapeutic bronchoscope. Numerous adjuncts, such as laser, argon beam coagulation, electrocautery, and cryotherapy, can be used to improve airway patency. There are now numerous stenting options for strictures that require stenting to maintain airway patency...
May 2018: Thoracic Surgery Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623556/anesthesia-for-interventional-pulmonology-procedures-a-review-of-advanced-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-bronchoscopy
#20
Andres de Lima, Fayez Kheir, Adnan Majid, John Pawlowski
PURPOSE: Interventional pulmonology is a growing subspecialty of pulmonary medicine with flexible and rigid bronchoscopies increasingly used by interventional pulmonologists for advanced diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This review discusses different technical aspects of anesthesia for interventional pulmonary procedures with an emphasis placed on pharmacologic combinations, airway management, ventilation techniques, and common complications. SOURCE: Relevant medical literature was identified by searching the PubMed and Google Scholar databases for publications on different anesthesia topics applicable to interventional pulmonary procedures...
April 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesth├ęsie
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