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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771310/fingolimod-phosphate-inhibits-astrocyte-inflammatory-activity-in-mucolipidosis-iv
#1
Laura Weinstock, Amanda M Furness, Shawn Herron, Sierra S Smith, Sitara Sankar, Samantha G DeRosa, Dadi Gao, Molly E Mepyans, Anna Scotto Rosato, Diego L Medina, Ayelet Vardi, Natalia S Ferreira, Soo Min Cho, Anthony H Futerman, Susan A Slaugenhaupt, Levi B Wood, Yulia Grishchuk
Mucolipidosis IV (MLIV) is an orphan neurodevelopmental disease that causes severe neurologic dysfunction and loss of vision. Currently there is no therapy for MLIV. It is caused by loss of function of the lysosomal channel mucolipin-1, also known as TRPML1. Knockout of the Mcoln1 gene in a mouse model mirrors clinical and neuropathological signs in humans. Using this model, we previously observed robust activation of microglia and astrocytes in early symptomatic stages of disease. Here we investigate the consequence of mucolipin-1 loss on astrocyte inflammatory activation in vivo and in vitro and apply a pharmacological approach to restore Mcoln1-/- astrocyte homeostasis using a clinically approved immunomodulator, fingolimod...
May 16, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770442/current-concepts-in-the-neuropathogenesis-of-mucolipidosis-type-iv
#2
REVIEW
Lauren C Boudewyn, Steven U Walkley
Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is an autosomal recessive, lysosomal storage disorder causing progressively severe intellectual disability, motor and speech deficits, retinal degeneration often culminating in blindness, and systemic disease causing a shortened lifespan. MLIV results from mutations in the gene MCOLN1 encoding the transient receptor potential channel mucolipin-1. It is an ultra-rare disease and is currently known to affect just over 100 diagnosed individuals. The last decade has provided a wealth of research focused on understanding the role of the enigmatic mucolipin-1 protein in cell and brain function and how its absence causes disease...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491374/chloroquine-modulates-antitumor-immune-response-by-resetting-tumor-associated-macrophages-toward-m1-phenotype
#3
Degao Chen, Jing Xie, Roland Fiskesund, Wenqian Dong, Xiaoyu Liang, Jiadi Lv, Xun Jin, Jinyan Liu, Siqi Mo, Tianzhen Zhang, Feiran Cheng, Yabo Zhou, Huafeng Zhang, Ke Tang, Jingwei Ma, Yuying Liu, Bo Huang
Resetting tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) is a promising strategy to ameliorate the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and improve innate and adaptive antitumor immunity. Here we show that chloroquine (CQ), a proven anti-malarial drug, can function as an antitumor immune modulator that switches TAMs from M2 to tumor-killing M1 phenotype. Mechanistically, CQ increases macrophage lysosomal pH, causing Ca2+ release via the lysosomal Ca2+ channel mucolipin-1 (Mcoln1), which induces the activation of p38 and NF-κB, thus polarizing TAMs to M1 phenotype...
February 28, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467198/endothelial-tfeb-transcription-factor-eb-positively-regulates-postischemic-angiogenesis
#4
Yanbo Fan, Haocheng Lu, Wenying Liang, Minerva T Garcia-Barrio, Yanhong Guo, Ji Zhang, Tianqing Zhu, Yibai Hao, Jifeng Zhang, Y Eugene Chen
RATIONALE: Postischemic angiogenesis is critical to limit the ischemic tissue damage and improve the blood flow recovery. The regulation and the underlying molecular mechanisms of postischemic angiogenesis are not fully unraveled. TFEB (transcription factor EB) is emerging as a master gene for autophagy and lysosome biogenesis. However, the role of TFEB in vascular disease is less understood. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the role of endothelial TFEB in postischemic angiogenesis and its underlying molecular mechanism...
March 30, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460684/a-negative-feedback-regulation-of-mtorc1-activity-by-the-lysosomal-ca-2-channel-mcoln1-mucolipin-1-using-a-calm-calmodulin-dependent-mechanism
#5
Xue Sun, Yiming Yang, Xi Zoë Zhong, Qi Cao, Xin-Hong Zhu, Xiaojuan Zhu, Xian-Ping Dong
Macroautophagy/autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that is required for cellular homeostasis, growth and survival. The lysosome plays an essential role in autophagy regulation. For example, the activity of MTORC1, a master regulator of autophagy, is regulated by nutrients within the lysosome. Starvation inhibits MTORC1 causing autophagy induction. Given that MTORC1 is critical for protein synthesis and cellular homeostasis, a feedback regulatory mechanism must exist to restore MTORC1 during starvation...
2018: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449188/novel-homozygous-variants-in-atcay-mcoln1-and-sacs-in-complex-neurological-disorders
#6
Humera Manzoor, Norbert Brüggemann, Hafiz Muhammad Jafar Hussain, Tobias Bäumer, Frauke Hinrichs, Muhammad Wajid, Alexander Münchau, Sadaf Naz, Katja Lohmann
BACKGROUND: Neurological disorders comprise a large group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders, many of which have a genetic cause. In addition to a detailed neurological examination, exome sequencing is being increasingly used as a complementary diagnostic tool to identify the underlying genetic cause in patients with unclear, supposedly genetically determined disorders. OBJECTIVE: To identify the genetic cause of a complex movement disorder in five consanguineous Pakistani families...
February 6, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296759/a-specialized-pathway-for-erythroid-iron-delivery-through-lysosomal-trafficking-of-transferrin-receptor-2
#7
Shadi Khalil, Maja Holy, Stephen Grado, Robert Fleming, Ryo Kurita, Yukio Nakamura, Adam Goldfarb
Erythroid progenitors are the largest consumers of iron in the human body. In these cells, a high flux of iron must reach the mitochondrial matrix to form sufficient heme to support hemoglobinization. Canonical erythroid iron trafficking occurs via the first transferrin receptor (TfR1)-mediated endocytosis of diferric-transferrin into recycling endosomes, where ferric iron is released, reduced, and exported to the cytosol via DMT1. However, mice lacking TfR1 or DMT1 demonstrate residual erythropoiesis, suggesting additional pathways for iron use...
June 27, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019979/cryo-electron-microscopy-structure-of-the-lysosomal-calcium-permeable-channel-trpml3
#8
Marscha Hirschi, Mark A Herzik, Jinhong Wie, Yang Suo, William F Borschel, Dejian Ren, Gabriel C Lander, Seok-Yong Lee
The modulation of ion channel activity by lipids is increasingly recognized as a fundamental component of cellular signalling. The transient receptor potential mucolipin (TRPML) channel family belongs to the TRP superfamily and is composed of three members: TRPML1-TRPML3. TRPMLs are the major Ca2+ -permeable channels on late endosomes and lysosomes (LEL). They regulate the release of Ca2+ from organelles, which is important for various physiological processes, including organelle trafficking and fusion. Loss-of-function mutations in the MCOLN1 gene, which encodes TRPML1, cause the neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder mucolipidosis type IV, and a gain-of-function mutation (Ala419Pro) in TRPML3 gives rise to the varitint-waddler (Va) mouse phenotype...
October 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839241/leukocyte-trp-channel-gene-expressions-in%C3%A2-patients-with-non-valvular-atrial-fibrillation
#9
Irfan V Düzen, Fethi Yavuz, Ertan Vuruskan, Erhan Saracoglu, Fatih Poyraz, Hüseyin Göksülük, Basar Candemir, Seniz Demiryürek
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in clinical practice and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The upregulation of TRP channels is believed to mediate the progression of electrical remodelling and the arrhythmogenesis of the diseased heart. However, there is limited data about the contribution of the TRP channels to development of AF. The aim of this study was to investigate leukocyte TRP channels gene expressions in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients. The study included 47 NVAF patients and 47 sex and age matched controls...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720712/regulation-of-the-autophagy-system-during-chronic-contractile-activity-induced-muscle-adaptations
#10
Yuho Kim, David A Hood
Skeletal muscle is adaptable to exercise stimuli via the upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, and recent studies have suggested that autophagy also plays a role in exercise-induced muscle adaptations. However, it is still obscure how muscle regulates autophagy over the time course of training adaptations. This study examined the expression of autophagic proteins in skeletal muscle of rats exposed to chronic contractile activity (CCA; 6 h/day, 9V, 10 Hz continuous, 0.1 msec pulse duration) for 1, 3, and 7 days (n = 8/group)...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689729/trpml1-the-ca-2-retaker-of-the-lysosome
#11
REVIEW
Simone Di Paola, Anna Scotto-Rosato, Diego Luis Medina
Efficient functioning of lysosome is necessary to ensure the correct performance of a variety of intracellular processes such as degradation of cargoes coming from the endocytic and autophagic pathways, recycling of organelles, and signaling mechanisms involved in cellular adaptation to nutrient availability. Mutations in lysosomal genes lead to more than 50 lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs). Among them, mutations in the gene encoding TRPML1 (MCOLN1) cause Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV), a recessive LSD characterized by neurodegeneration, psychomotor retardation, ophthalmologic defects and achlorhydria...
January 2018: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610891/n-butyldeoxynojirimycin-delays-motor-deficits-cerebellar-microgliosis-and-purkinje-cell-loss-in-a-mouse-model-of-mucolipidosis-type-iv
#12
Lauren C Boudewyn, Jakub Sikora, Ladislav Kuchar, Jana Ledvinova, Yulia Grishchuk, Shirley L Wang, Kostantin Dobrenis, Steven U Walkley
Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is a lysosomal storage disease exhibiting progressive intellectual disability, motor impairment, and premature death. There is currently no cure or corrective treatment. The disease results from mutations in the gene encoding mucolipin-1, a transient receptor potential channel believed to play a key role in lysosomal calcium egress. Loss of mucolipin-1 and subsequent defects lead to a host of cellular aberrations, including accumulation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in neurons and other cell types, microgliosis and, as reported here, cerebellar Purkinje cell loss...
September 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449103/novel-degenerative-and-developmental-defects-in-a-zebrafish-model-of-mucolipidosis-type-iv
#13
Huiqing Li, Wuhong Pei, Sivia Vergarajauregui, Patricia M Zerfas, Nina Raben, Shawn M Burgess, Rosa Puertollano
Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is a lysosomal storage disease characterized by neurologic and ophthalmologic abnormalities. There is currently no effective treatment. MLIV is caused by mutations in MCOLN1, a lysosomal cation channel from the transient receptor potential (TRP) family. In this study, we used genome editing to knockout the two mcoln1 genes present in Danio rerio (zebrafish). Our model successfully reproduced the retinal and neuromuscular defects observed in MLIV patients, indicating that this model is suitable for studying the disease pathogenesis...
July 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293191/an-exploration-of-charge-compensating-ion-channels-across-the-phagocytic-vacuole-of-neutrophils
#14
Juliet R Foote, Philippe Behe, Mathew Frampton, Adam P Levine, Anthony W Segal
Neutrophils phagocytosing bacteria and fungi exhibit a burst of non-mitochondrial respiration that is required to kill and digest the engulfed microbes. This respiration is accomplished by the movement of electrons across the wall of the phagocytic vacuole by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase, NOX2. In this study, we have attempted to identify the non-proton ion channels or transporters involved in charge compensation by examining the effect of inhibitors on vacuolar pH and cross-sectional area, and on oxygen consumption...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786577/regulation-of-lysosomal-dynamics-and-autophagy-by-ctsb-cathepsin-b
#15
Si Ming Man, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
Cysteine cathepsins are responsible for driving proteolytic degradation within the lysosome and in the extralysosomal milieu. They also have an integral role in autophagy, antigen presentation, cellular stress signaling, metabolism and lysosome-dependent cell death. Here, we discuss our findings on the role of CTSB (cathepsin B), a member of the cysteine cathepsin family, in regulating the bioavailability of lysosomes and autophagosomes and consider how this regulatory response influences host susceptibility to infectious agents...
December 2016: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485905/lysosome-calcium-in-ros-regulation-of-autophagy
#16
Xiaoli Zhang, Lu Yu, Haoxing Xu
Lysosomes, the cell's recycling center, undergo nutrient-sensitive adaptive changes in function and biogenesis, i.e., lysosomal adaptation. We recently discovered that lysosomes also mediate the cell's "survival" response (i.e., autophagy) to oxidative stress through the activation of TFEB (transcription factor EB), a master regulator of lysosome biogenesis and autophagy. MCOLN1/TRPML1, the principal Ca(2+) release channel on the lysosomal membrane, serves as the redox sensor in this process. Increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, either endogenously by mitochondrial damage or exogenously, directly activates MCOLN1 to induce lysosomal Ca(2+) release, triggering PPP3/calcineurin-dependent TFEB nuclear translocation to enhance autophagy...
October 2, 2016: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357649/mcoln1-is-a-ros-sensor-in-lysosomes-that-regulates-autophagy
#17
Xiaoli Zhang, Xiping Cheng, Lu Yu, Junsheng Yang, Raul Calvo, Samarjit Patnaik, Xin Hu, Qiong Gao, Meimei Yang, Maria Lawas, Markus Delling, Juan Marugan, Marc Ferrer, Haoxing Xu
Cellular stresses trigger autophagy to remove damaged macromolecules and organelles. Lysosomes 'host' multiple stress-sensing mechanisms that trigger the coordinated biogenesis of autophagosomes and lysosomes. For example, transcription factor (TF)EB, which regulates autophagy and lysosome biogenesis, is activated following the inhibition of mTOR, a lysosome-localized nutrient sensor. Here we show that reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate TFEB via a lysosomal Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism independent of mTOR...
June 30, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27190617/the-first-genetically-confirmed-japanese-patient-with-mucolipidosis-type-iv
#18
Harumi Saijo, Masaharu Hayashi, Takanori Ezoe, Chihiro Ohba, Hirotomo Saitsu, Kiyoko Kurata, Naomichi Matsumoto
Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by severe psychomotor delay and visual impairment. We report the brain pathology in the first Japanese patient of MLIV with a novel homozygous missense mutation in MCOLN1. We detected the localized increase in p62-reactive astrocytes in the basal ganglia.
May 2016: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26926398/mucolipidosis-iv-a-milder-form-with-novel-mutations-and-serial-mri-findings
#19
Takashi Shiihara, Mio Watanabe, Kengo Moriyama, Yasuhiro Maruyama, Atsuo Kikuchi, Natsuko Arai-Ichinoi, Mitsugu Uematsu, Kiyoko Sameshima
BACKGROUND: Mucolipidosis IV (MLIV; OMIM #252650) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder, frequently observed in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. MLIV typically results in intellectual disability, corneal opacities, and delayed motor milestones during infancy, with a relatively static course. To date, reports of MLIV in other ethnic groups have been sparse. PATIENT: The present study is a case report of a 9-year-old Japanese boy, diagnosed via whole-exome sequencing, with compound heterozygous mutations of MCOLN1 (OMIM(*)605248): c...
September 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26608452/retinal-dystrophy-and-optic-nerve-pathology-in%C3%A2-the-mouse-model-of-mucolipidosis-iv
#20
Yulia Grishchuk, Katherine G Stember, Aya Matsunaga, Ana M Olivares, Nelly M Cruz, Victoria E King, Daniel M Humphrey, Shirley L Wang, Alona Muzikansky, Rebecca A Betensky, Wallace B Thoreson, Neena Haider, Susan A Slaugenhaupt
Mucolipidosis IV is a debilitating developmental lysosomal storage disorder characterized by severe neuromotor retardation and progressive loss of vision, leading to blindness by the second decade of life. Mucolipidosis IV is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the MCOLN1 gene, which encodes the transient receptor potential channel protein mucolipin-1. Ophthalmic pathology in patients includes corneal haze and progressive retinal and optic nerve atrophy. Herein, we report ocular pathology in Mcoln1(-/-) mouse, a good phenotypic model of the disease...
January 2016: American Journal of Pathology
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