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Michael Camilleri, Paula Carlson, Nelson Valentin, Andres Acosta, Jessica O'Neill, Deborah Eckert, Roy Dyer, Jie Na, Eric W Klee, Joseph A Murray
Prior studies in with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) patients showed immune activation, secretion, and barrier dysfunction in jejunal or colorectal mucosa. We measured mRNA expression by RT-PCR of 91 genes reflecting tight junction proteins, chemokines, innate immunity, ion channels, transmitters, housekeeping genes, and controls for DNA contamination and PCR efficiency in small intestinal mucosa from 15 IBS-D and 7 controls (biopsies negative for celiac disease). Fold change was calculated using 2((-ΔΔCT)) formula...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Jian Zhang, Dahua Fan, Zhixiang Jian, George G Chen, Paul B S Lai
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate gene expression by acting with microRNAs (miRNAs). However, the roles of cancer specific lncRNA and its related competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNA) network in hepatocellular cell carcinoma (HCC) are not fully understood. The lncRNA profiles in 372 HCC patients, including 372 tumor and 48 adjacent non-tumor liver tissues, from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and NCBI GEO omnibus (GSE65485) were analyzed. Cancer specific lncRNAs (or HCC related lncRNAs) were identified and correlated with clinical features...
2015: PloS One
S J Kiddle, C J Steves, M Mehta, A Simmons, X Xu, S Newhouse, M Sattlecker, N J Ashton, C Bazenet, R Killick, J Adnan, E Westman, S Nelson, H Soininen, I Kloszewska, P Mecocci, M Tsolaki, B Vellas, C Curtis, G Breen, S C R Williams, S Lovestone, T D Spector, R J B Dobson
There is great interest in blood-based markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD), especially in its pre-symptomatic stages. Therefore, we aimed to identify plasma proteins whose levels associate with potential markers of pre-symptomatic AD. We also aimed to characterise confounding by genetics and the effect of genetics on blood proteins in general. Panel-based proteomics was performed using SOMAscan on plasma samples from TwinsUK subjects who are asymptomatic for AD, measuring the level of 1129 proteins. Protein levels were compared with 10-year change in CANTAB-paired associates learning (PAL; n = 195), and regional brain volumes (n = 34)...
2015: Translational Psychiatry
Sheila Figel Dwyer, Irwin H Gelman
P38-regulated and activated kinase (PRAK/MAPKAPK5) is a serine/threonine kinase which lies downstream of the p38 and ERK3/4 MAP kinase pathways. PRAK plays diverse roles in the processes of cell growth, nutrient starvation response, programmed cell death, senescence and motility. PRAK has been shown to both promote and inhibit cell motility in different contexts. The pro-motility functions of PRAK are attributed mainly to cytoskeletal rearrangement occurring downstream of its phosphorylated substrate HSP27; however, it was recently shown that PRAK is required for motility in endothelial cells upstream of Focal adhesion kinase (FAK)...
May 14, 2014: Journal of Cancer Biology & Research
Ayca Erbilgin, Mete Civelek, Casey E Romanoski, Calvin Pan, Raffi Hagopian, Judith A Berliner, Aldons J Lusis
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 35 loci that significantly associate with coronary artery disease (CAD) susceptibility. The majority of the genes represented in these loci have not previously been studied in the context of atherosclerosis. To characterize the roles of these candidate genes in the vessel wall, we determined their expression levels in endothelial, smooth muscle, and macrophage cells isolated from healthy, prelesioned, and lesioned mouse aortas. We also performed expression quantitative locus (eQTL) mapping of these genes in human endothelial cells under control and proatherogenic conditions...
July 2013: Journal of Lipid Research
René Westhovens, Filip De Keyser, Dmytro Rekalov, Evgeny L Nasonov, Johan Beetens, Annegret Van der Aa, Piet Wigerinck, Florence Namour, Frédéric Vanhoutte, Patrick Durez
BACKGROUND: Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are key regulators of cytokine production, and are therefore potential targets for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). OBJECTIVE: This two-part phase II study investigated the efficacy and safety of a once-daily 50 mg GLPG0259 (an inhibitor of MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 5) dose vs placebo (part A). An interim analysis after part A would determine whether the dose-finding part (part B) would be performed...
May 2013: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Jun Zhou, Bo Wan, Xiao-Min Liu, Ruwei Li, Yingli Wang, Long Yu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. The mechanisms by which hepatoma cells resist apoptosis induced by doxorubicin are largely unknown. MAPKAPK5 (MK5), also named as p38-regulated/activated protein kinase (PRAK), has been identified as a crucial mediator of skin tumorigenesis in mouse and colon cancerogenesis in human. Here, we describe a novel role of MK5 in doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma cells. Expression of MK5 was highly upregulated in hepatoma cell lines...
October 26, 2012: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Florence Namour, Frédéric P Vanhoutte, Johan Beetens, Stan Blockhuys, Marc De Weer, Piet Wigerinck
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: GLPG0259 is a small-molecule inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 5 (MAPKAPK5), a kinase enzyme that plays a role in important inflammatory pathways. The main objectives of the phase I clinical studies in early development were to characterize the pharmacokinetics, tolerability, and safety of GLPG0259 in healthy subjects, including the development of a solid dosage form (free-base pellets and fumarate salt capsules) and the potential for interaction of GLPG0259 with methotrexate...
September 1, 2012: Drugs in R&D
Richard Holt, Nuala H Sykes, Inês C Conceição, Jean-Baptiste Cazier, Richard J L Anney, Guiomar Oliveira, Louise Gallagher, Astrid Vicente, Anthony P Monaco, Alistair T Pagnamenta
There is strong evidence that rare copy number variants (CNVs) have a role in susceptibility to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Much research has focused on how CNVs mediate a phenotypic effect by altering gene expression levels. We investigated an alternative mechanism whereby CNVs combine the 5' and 3' ends of two genes, creating a 'fusion gene'. Any resulting mRNA with an open reading frame could potentially alter the phenotype via a gain-of-function mechanism. We examined 2382 and 3096 rare CNVs from 996 individuals with ASD and 1287 controls, respectively, for potential to generate fusion transcripts...
November 2012: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Martin J I Andrews, J Andrew Clase, Gregory Bar, Giovanni Tricarico, Paul J Edwards, Reginald Brys, Mark Chambers, Wolfgang Schmidt, Angus MacLeod, Kim Hirst, Vivienne Allen, Veronique Birault, Joelle Le, John Harris, Andrew Self, Kevin Nash, Graham Dixon
MAPKAPK5 has been proposed to play a role in regulation of matrix metalloprotease expression and so to be a potential target for intervention in rheumatoid arthritis. We present here the identification of a series of compounds against this target which are effective in both biochemical and cell assays. The expansion of the series is described, along with early SAR and pharmacokinetics for some representative compounds.
March 15, 2012: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Azlinda Anwar, Takamitsu Hosoya, Kok Mun Leong, Hiroshi Onogi, Yukiko Okuno, Toshiyuki Hiramatsu, Hiroko Koyama, Masaaki Suzuki, Masatoshi Hagiwara, Mariano A Garcia-Blanco
Dengue virus (DENV) is the etiologic agent for dengue fever, for which there is no approved vaccine or specific anti-viral drug. As a remedy for this, we explored the use of compounds that interfere with the action of required host factors and describe here the characterization of a kinase inhibitor (SFV785), which has selective effects on NTRK1 and MAPKAPK5 kinase activity, and anti-viral activity on Hepatitis C, DENV and yellow fever viruses. SFV785 inhibited DENV propagation without inhibiting DENV RNA synthesis or translation...
2011: PloS One
Theresia R Kress, Ian G Cannell, Arjan B Brenkman, Birgit Samans, Matthias Gaestel, Paul Roepman, Boudewijn M Burgering, Martin Bushell, Andreas Rosenwald, Martin Eilers
Expression of the Myc oncoprotein is downregulated in response to stress signals to allow cells to cease proliferation and escape apoptosis, but the mechanisms involved in this process are poorly understood. Cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage requires downregulation of Myc via a p53-independent signaling pathway. Here we have used siRNA screening of the human kinome to identify MAPKAPK5 (MK5, PRAK) as a negative regulator of Myc expression. MK5 regulates translation of Myc, since it is required for expression of miR-34b and miR-34c that bind to the 3'UTR of MYC...
February 18, 2011: Molecular Cell
Katherine Ewen, Andrew Jackson, Dagmar Wilhelm, Peter Koopman
Germ cell sex differentiation in the mouse embryo is denoted by meiosis entry in females and mitotic arrest in males. Because p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling initiates mitotic arrest in other differentiating cell types, we investigated its potential role in XY germ cell differentiation in mice. We report that p38 MAPK is phosphorylated and therefore activated only in XY germ cells around the time of sex differentiation. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that 14 known targets of p38 MAPK signaling are expressed in the embryonic gonads at this time and that five of these targets (Mapkapk5, Max, Myc, Hbp1, and Cebpa) have expression profiles similar to that of activated p38 MAPK...
December 2010: Biology of Reproduction
Nancy Gerits, Werner Van Belle, Ugo Moens
BACKGROUND: The mitogen-activated protein kinases, MAPKs for short, constitute cascades of signalling pathways involved in the regulation of several cellular processes that include cell proliferation, differentiation and motility. They also intervene in neurological processes like fear conditioning and memory. Since little remains known about the MAPK-Activated Protein Kinase, MAPKAPK5, we constructed the first MAPKAPK knockin mouse model, using a constitutive active variant of MAPKAPK5 and analyzed the resulting mice for changes in anxiety-related behaviour...
2007: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Andrew J M Paliga, David R Natale, Andrew J Watson
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) superfamily of proteins consists of four separate signalling cascades: the c-Jun N-terminal kinase or stress-activated protein kinases (JNK/SAPK); the ERKs (extracellular-signal-regulated kinases); the ERK5 or big MAPK1; and the p38 MAPK group of protein kinases, all of which are highly conserved. To date, our studies have focused on defining the role of the p38 MAPK pathway during preimplantation development. p38 MAPK regulates actin filament formation through the downstream kinases MAPKAPK2/3 (MAPK-activated protein kinase 2/3) or MAPKAPK5 [PRAK (p38 regulated/activated kinase)] and subsequently through HSP25/27 (heat-shock protein 25/27)...
August 2005: Biology of the Cell
Liguo New, Yong Jiang, Jiahuai Han
The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway plays an important role in cellular responses to inflammatory stimuli and environmental stress. p38 regulated/activated protein kinase (PRAK, also known as mitogen-activated protein kinase activated protein kinase 5 [MAPKAPK5]) functions downstream of p38alpha and p38beta in mediating the signaling of the p38 pathway. Immunostaining revealed that endogenous PRAK was predominantly localized in the cytoplasm. Interestingly, ectopically expressed PRAK was localized in the nucleus and can be redistributed by coexpression of p38alpha or p38beta to the locations of p38alpha and p38beta...
June 2003: Molecular Biology of the Cell
H Ni, X S Wang, K Diener, Z Yao
A novel protein kinase that has significant sequence homology to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-activated protein kinase (MAPKAPK) was identified. This novel protein kinase has a nucleotide sequence that encodes a protein of 473 amino acids and shares 45%, 46%, and 44% amino acid sequence identities to MAPKAPK2, 3 and 4 respectively. Northern blot analysis revealed that it has a wide tissue distribution. This novel protein kinase designated MAPKAPK5 can be phosphorylated by extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK), and p38 kinase but not by c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in vitro...
February 13, 1998: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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