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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812994/organ-organ-crosstalk-and-alcoholic-liver-disease
#1
REVIEW
Lauren G Poole, Christine E Dolin, Gavin E Arteel
Alcohol consumption is a common custom worldwide, and the toxic effects of alcohol on several target organs are well-understood. Given the poor prognosis of treating clinically-relevant alcoholic liver disease (ALD) (i.e., alcoholic hepatitis (AH) and cirrhosis), additional research is required to develop more effective therapies. While the stages of ALD have been well-characterized, targeted therapies to prevent or reverse this process in humans are still needed. Better understanding of risk factors and mechanisms underlying disease progression can lead to the development of rational therapies to prevent or reverse ALD in the clinic...
August 16, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812436/the-mechanism-of-protective-effect-of-crocin-against-liver-mitochondrial-toxicity-caused-by-arsenic-iii
#2
Bahareh Sadat Yousefsani, Jalal Pourahmad, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
In this study, we want to understand whether crocin could prevent mitochondrial damage caused by As III. For this purpose, we determined different mitochondrial toxicity endpoints caused by As III. We evaluated mitochondrial ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, mitochondrial outer membrane integrity and cytochrome c release. Our results showed that pretreatment with crocin at a concentration of 25 µg/ml significantly (P < 0.001) reduced As III induced mitochondrial ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse and mitochondrial swelling...
August 16, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811672/an-evaluation-of-the-in-vivo-safety-of-nonporous-silica-nanoparticles-ocular-topical-administration-versus-oral-administration
#3
Martha Kim, Joo-Hee Park, Hyejoong Jeong, Jinkee Hong, Woo Sung Choi, Byung-Han Lee, Choul Yong Park
Nonporous silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) have potential as promising carriers for ophthalmic drugs. However, the in vivo safety of ocular topical SiNPs remains unclear. This study investigated the in vivo safety of oral and ocular topical applications of 100 nm-sized SiNPs in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were divided into the following four groups: low-dose oral administration (total 100 mg/kg of SiNPs mixed with food for one week), high-dose oral administration (total 1000 mg/kg of SiNPs mixed with food for one week), ocular topical administration (10 mg/ml concentration, one drop, applied to the right eyes four times a day for one month), or a negative control (no SiNP treatment)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811603/2-4-6-trinitrotoluene-induces-apoptosis-via-ros-regulated-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-hepg2-and-hep3b-cells
#4
Hung-Yu Liao, Chih-Ming Kao, Chao-Ling Yao, Po-Wei Chiu, Chun-Chen Yao, Ssu-Ching Chen
2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been reported to cause numerous adverse effects. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying TNT-induced liver toxicity need to be elucidated. In this study, we used HepG2 (p53wt) and Hep3B (p53null) cell lines to investigate the cytotoxic effects of TNT. At first, we found that TNT significantly decreased cell viability and induced DNA damage. Thereafter, through transcriptomic analysis, we observed that the diverse biological functions affected included mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810822/gamma-irradiated-%C3%AE-glucan-modulates-signaling-molecular-targets-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-rats
#5
Sawsan M Elsonbaty, Walid E Zahran, Fatma Sm Moawed
β-glucans are one of the most abundant forms of polysaccharides known as biological response modifiers which influence host's biological response and stimulate immune system. Accordingly, this study was initiated to evaluate irradiated β-glucan as a modulator for cellular signaling growth factors involved in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma in rats. Hepatocellular carcinoma was induced with 20 mg diethylnitrosamine/kg BW. Rats received daily by gastric gavage 65 mg irradiated β-glucan/kg BW. It was found that treatment of rats with diethylnitrosamine induced hepatic injury and caused significant increase in liver injury markers with a concomitant significant increase in both hepatic oxidative and inflammatory indices: alpha-fetoprotein, interferon gamma, and interleukin 6 in comparison with normal and irradiated β-glucan-treated groups...
August 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809446/deferasirox-for-managing-iron-overload-in-people-with-thalassaemia
#6
REVIEW
Claudia Bollig, Lisa K Schell, Gerta Rücker, Roman Allert, Edith Motschall, Charlotte M Niemeyer, Dirk Bassler, Joerg J Meerpohl
BACKGROUND: Thalassaemia is a hereditary anaemia due to ineffective erythropoiesis. In particular, people with thalassaemia major develop secondary iron overload resulting from regular red blood cell transfusions. Iron chelation therapy is needed to prevent long-term complications.Both deferoxamine and deferiprone are effective; however, a review of the effectiveness and safety of the newer oral chelator deferasirox in people with thalassaemia is needed. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of oral deferasirox in people with thalassaemia and iron overload...
August 15, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808954/heavy-metal-pollutants-in-selected-organs-of-african-giant-rats-from-three-agro-ecological-zones-of-nigeria-evidence-for-their-role-as-an-environmental-specimen-bank
#7
Ifukibot Levi Usende, Benjamin O Emikpe, James Olukayode Olopade
An assessment of the concentration of heavy metals in the liver, brain, kidney, bone, and lungs of African giant rats (AGRs) from three agro-ecological zones of Nigeria having different industrial activities was carried out using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Twenty adult AGRs from cities in mangrove/freshwater swamp, rainforest, and woodland/tall grass savanna agro-ecological zones of Nigeria were used for this study. AGRs were euthanized, carefully dissected, and the brains, liver, lungs, bone, and kidneys were harvested, digested, and analyzed for concentrations of vanadium (V), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe)...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808386/in-vitro-inhibitory-effects-of-andrographis-paniculata-gynura-procumbens-ficus-deltoidea-and-curcuma-xanthorrhiza-extracts-and-constituents-on-human-liver-glucuronidation-activity
#8
Zulhilmi Husni, Sabariah Ismail, Mohd Halimhilmi Zulkiffli, Atiqah Afandi, Munirah Haron
BACKGROUND: Andrographis paniculata, Gynura procumbens, Ficus deltoidea and Curcuma xanthorrhiza are commonly consumed as herbal medicines. However their effects on human liver glucuronidation activity are not yet evaluated. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we evaluate the inhibitory Effects of Andrographis paniculata, Gynura procumbens, Ficus deltoidea and Curcuma xanthorrhiza extracts and their constituents on human liver glucuronidation activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Herbal extracts (aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts) and their constituents were incubated with human liver microsomes with the addition of UDPGA to initiate the reaction...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807851/toxic-pyrrolizidine-alkaloids-provide-a-warning-sign-to-overuse-of-the-ethnomedicine-arnebia-benthamii
#9
Latif Ahmad, He Yi, Jia-Chen Hao, Andrew Semotiuk, Quan-Ru Liu, Paras Mazari
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: From early times man has used medicinal plants for the treatment of various ailments and basic health care needs. The use of herbal medicines has increased day by day and with this, so do reports of adverse events, poisoning, and suspected toxicity. Similarly, the indigenous communities of Neelum Valley in Azad Kashmir commonly use Arnebia benthamii (Wall. ex G.Don) I.M.Johnst. for medicinal purposes to treat various human aliments. Besides their medicinal uses, it also contains hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs)...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807745/acute-toxicity-of-functionalized-single-wall-carbon-nanotubes-a-biochemical-histopathologic-and-proteomics-approach
#10
Homa Ahmadi, Mohammad Ramezani, Rezvan Yazdian Robati, Behzad Behnam, Kamal Razavi Azarkhiavi, Azadeh Hashem Nia, Ahad Mokhtarzadeh, Maryam Matbou Riahi, Bibi Marjan Razavi, Khalil Abnous
Recently carbon nanotubes (CNTs) showed promising potentials in different biomedical applications but their safe use in humans and probable toxicities are still challenging. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). In this project, PEGylated and Tween functionalized SWCNTs were prepared. BALB/c mice were randomly divided into nine groups, including PEGylated SWCNTs (75,150μg/mouse) and PEG, Tween80 suspended SWCNTs, Tween 80 and a control group (intact mice)...
August 11, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807437/aminosquaraines-as-potential-photodynamic-agents-synthesis-and-evaluation-of-in-vitro-cytotoxicity
#11
Álvaro F Magalhães, Vânia C Graça, Ricardo C Calhelha, Isabel C F R Ferreira, Paulo F Santos
The synthesis of several aminosquaraine cationic dyes displaying strong absorption within the so-called phototherapeutic window (650-850nm) is described. Their cytotoxicity, under dark and illuminated conditions, was tested against several human tumor cell lines (breast, lung, cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas) and non-tumor porcine liver primary cells. All compounds showed to inhibit the growth of the tumor cells upon irradiation more than in the absence of light, in more or less extension, clearly exhibiting photodynamic activity...
August 3, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807246/hepatic-intra-arterial-injection-of-irinotecan-drug-eluting-beads-debiri-for-patients-with-unresectable-colorectal-liver-metastases-a%C3%A2-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Olaguoke Akinwande, Meaghan Dendy, Johannes M Ludwig, Hyun S Kim
PURPOSE: To systematically review the safety and efficacy of transarterial drug-eluting beads, irinotecan (DEBIRI) for the treatment of pretreated patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). METHODS: A systematic search of the current literature was conducted to extract publications reporting on the use of DEBIRI for CRLM. Data on the safety and efficacy was extracted and tabulated. Weighted average values (WAV) were calculated for each variable to provide a single value representing the pooled safety and efficacy data...
September 2017: Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807226/liver-metabolomics-study-reveals-protective-function-of-phyllanthus-urinaria-against-ccl4-induced-liver-injury
#13
Qing Guo, Qian-Qian Zhang, Jia-Qing Chen, Wei Zhang, Hong-Cong Qiu, Zun-Jian Zhang, Bu-Ming Liu, Feng-Guo Xu
Phyllanthus Urinaria L. (PUL) is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat hepatic and renal disorders. However, the mechanism of its hepatoprotective action is not fully understood. In the present study, blood biochemical indexes and liver histopathological changes were used to estimate the extent of hepatic injury. GC/MS and LC/MS-based untargeted metabolomics were used in combination to characterize the potential biomarkers associated with the protective activity of PUL against CCl4-induced liver injury in rats...
July 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807102/bitter-melon-powder-protects-against-obesity-associated-fatty-liver-disease-by-improving-colonic-microenvironment-in-rats-with-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#14
Juan Bai, Ying Zhu, Ying Dong
This study explored how bitter melon powder (BMP) alters the colonic microenvironment during the development of obesity-associated fatty liver in rats. We observed that BMP effectively inhibited the body weight gain and lipid accumulation in the liver, ameliorated glucose intolerance, and increased the colon weight after an 8-week treatment compared to that in the high-fat diet (HFD) group. BMP significantly decreased fecal water toxicity towards HT-29 cells, as revealed by the cell counting kit (CCK)-8 assay results, and the mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in colon mucosa...
August 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807098/protective-effect-of-ozone-against-hemiscorpius-lepturus-envenomation-in-mice
#15
Parvaneh Naserzadeh, Farshad Shahi, Delavar Shahbazzadeh, Mostafa Ghanei, Khadijeh Ashtari, Yoones Panahi, Mir-Jamal Hosseini, Morteza Izadi
OBJECTIVE: Scorpion (Hemiscorpius lepturus) stings are a public health concern in Iran, particularly in south and southwestern regions of Iran. The gold standard for the treatment of a scorpion sting is anti-venom therapy. However, immunotherapy can have serious side effects, such as anaphylactic shock (which can sometimes even lead to death). The aim of the current study was to demonstrate the protective effect of ozone against toxicity induced by Hemiscorpius lepturus (H. lepturus) venom in mice...
August 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806675/biotransformation-of-nsaids-by-pig-liver-microsomes-in%C3%A2-vitro-kinetics-metabolites-identification-and-toxicity-prediction
#16
Liyun Ma, Xiaojing Mao, Xiao Sun, Li Xu
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the most frequently used pharmaceuticals in animals. In the current study, the biotransformation of five NSAIDs by pig liver microsomes (PLMs) was studied. The pseudo-first-order kinetics mode was obtained for the metabolization of the studied NSAIDs by PLMs in vitro. The metabolites were identified by high performance liquid chromatography with a high-resolution LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The hydroxylation of benzene was confirmed to be the dominating metabolic pathway...
August 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806674/cadmium-induces-histopathological-injuries-and-ultrastructural-changes-in-the-liver-of-freshwater-turtle-chinemys-reevesii
#17
Junfeng Huo, Aiguo Dong, Yonghui Wang, Shaochin Lee, Cungen Ma, Lan Wang
The study investigated the histopathological and ultrastructural lesions of liver of freshwater turtle Chinemys reevesii exposed to Cadmium (Cd). The animals were exposed to 0 mg kg(-1) (0.85% normal saline (NS)), 7.5 mg kg(-1), 15 mg kg(-1), 30 mg kg(-1) Cd chloride separately by intraperitoneal injection. Liver samples were collected for examination of lesions under light and electronic microscopes. Results showed that liver tissues from Cd -treated animals presented various degrees of histopathological lesions...
August 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806601/influence-of-sublethal-doses-of-acetamiprid-and-halosulfuron-methyl-on-metabolites-of-zebra-fish-brachydanio-rerio
#18
Hong Zhang, Lijuan Zhao
Acetamiprid, a neonicotinoid pesticide, is reported to have adverse sublethal effects on non-target beneficial organisms. Halosulfuron-methyl (HM), one of the most widely used herbicides in agriculture, has high ecotoxicity to aquatic plants and animals. In this study, a GC-MS-based metabolomics approach was used to investigate the toxicity of acetamiprid and HM. The Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification System (AMDIS) software program and the retention index method were used to identify 51 metabolites in zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio)...
August 4, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806564/tissue-distribution-and-toxicity-effects-of-myclobutanil-enantiomers-in-lizards-eremias-argus
#19
Li Chen, Ruiting Li, Jinling Diao, Zhongnan Tian, Shanshan Di, Wenjun Zhang, Cheng Cheng, Zhiqiang Zhou
In recent years, serious environmental pollution has caused a decrease in the abundance of many species worldwide. Reptiles are the most diverse group of terrestrial vertebrates. There are large amounts of toxicological data available regarding myclobutanil, but the adverse effects of myclobutanil on lizards has not been widely reported. In this study, treatment groups were orally administered a single-dose of myclobutanil (20mg/kg body weight (bw)). Subsequently, it was found that there were differences in myclobutanil levels between the different tissues and concentrations also changed with degradation time...
August 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805918/effects-of-encapsulated-nitrate-on-growth-performance-carcass-characteristics-nitrate-residues-in-tissues-and-enteric-methane-emissions-in-beef-steers-finishing-phase
#20
C Lee, R C Araujo, K M Koenig, K A Beauchemin
A finishing feedlot study was conducted with beef steers to determine effects of encapsulated nitrate (EN) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, methane production, and nitrate (NO) residues in tissues. The 132 crossbred steers were backgrounded in a feedlot for 91 d and transitioned for 28 days to the high-concentrate diets evaluated in the present study, maintaining the treatment and pen assignments designated at the start of the backgrounding period. The steers were initially assigned to 22 pens (6 animals per pen) in a randomized complete block design with BW (18 pens) and animals designated for methane measurement (4 pens) as blocking factors...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
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