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Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

Jason W Arnold, Joshua B Simpson, Jeffrey Roach, Jakub Kwintkiewicz, M Andrea Azcarate-Peril
Large-scale microbiome studies have established that most of the diversity contained in the gastrointestinal tract is represented at the strain level; however, exhaustive genomic and physiological characterization of human isolates is still lacking. With increased use of probiotics as interventions for gastrointestinal disorders, genomic and functional characterization of novel microorganisms becomes essential. In this study, we explored the impact of strain-level genomic variability on bacterial physiology of two novel human Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains (AMC143 and AMC010) of probiotic potential in relation to stress resistance...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jiayi Cai, Chunyang Zhao, Yajie Du, Yaqiong Zhang, Mingyi Zhao, Qingchun Zhao
Background: Probiotics are commonly used for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). However, the optimum regimen remains controversial. Objective: The objective of this article is to compare and rank the relative efficacy and tolerability among all available probiotic agents for AAD through a network meta-analysis. Methods: Eligible studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, Medline, Cochrane library and Web of Science for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examined the efficacy of probiotic therapy for AAD...
March 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
Brendan A Daisley, Mark Trinder, Tim W McDowell, Stephanie L Collins, Mark W Sumarah, Gregor Reid
Despite benefits to the global food supply and agricultural economies, pesticides are believed to pose a threat to both human and wildlife health. Chlorpyrifos (CP), a commonly used organophosphate insecticide, has poor target-specificity and causes acute neurotoxicity in a wide range of species via suppression of acetylcholinesterase. This effect is exacerbated 10- to 100-fold by chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO), a principal metabolite of CP. Since many animal-associated symbiont microorganisms are known to hydrolyze CP into CPO, we used a Drosophila melanogaster insect model to investigate the hypothesis that indigenous and probiotic bacteria could affect CP metabolism and toxicity...
February 23, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Satoshi Koyama, Hiroyuki Fujita, Takeshi Shimosato, Aki Kamijo, Yasufumi Ishiyama, Eri Yamamoto, Yoshimi Ishii, Yukako Hattori, Maki Hagihara, Etsuko Yamazaki, Naoto Tomita, Hideaki Nakajima
Probiotic-rich foods are consumed without much restriction. We report here, a case of septic shock caused by yogurt derived Lactobacillus species in a 54-year-old male patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia, in second complete remission, and who was an autologous stem cell transplantation recipient. He received high dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. He ingested commercially available probiotic-enriched yogurt because of severe diarrhea. One week later, he developed septic shock, and the pathogen was determined by strain-specific PCR analysis as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103), which was found to be identical with the strain in the yogurt he consumed...
February 17, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Juliana Durack, Nikole E Kimes, Din L Lin, Marcus Rauch, Michelle McKean, Kathryn McCauley, Ariane R Panzer, Jordan S Mar, Michael D Cabana, Susan V Lynch
Gut microbiota dysbiosis and metabolic dysfunction in infancy precedes childhood atopy and asthma development. Here we examined gut microbiota maturation over the first year of life in infants at high risk for asthma (HR), and whether it is modifiable by early-life Lactobacillus supplementation. We performed a longitudinal comparison of stool samples collected from HR infants randomized to daily oral Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (HRLGG) or placebo (HRP) for 6 months, and healthy (HC) infants. Meconium microbiota of HRP participants is distinct, follows a delayed developmental trajectory, and is primarily glycolytic and depleted of a range of anti-inflammatory lipids at 6 months of age...
February 16, 2018: Nature Communications
Zhenhui Cao, Hongbin Pan, Shijun Li, Chongying Shi, Sifan Wang, Fuyi Wang, Pengfei Ye, Junjing Jia, Changrong Ge, Qiuye Lin, Zhiyong Zhao
This study aimed to investigate the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from De'ang pickled tea, a traditional food consumed by the De'ang nationality of Yunnan, China. Twenty-six LAB strains isolated from De'ang pickled tea were subjected to identification based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Twenty-four belonged to Lactobacillus plantarum, one belonged to Enterococcus casseliflavus, and one belonged to Lactobacillus acidophilus. Eighteen out of 26 LAB strains which showed a higher capability to tolerate simulated gastrointestinal juices were chosen to further evaluate their probiotic properties...
February 14, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Fanny Chaffanel, Florence Charron-Bourgoin, Claire Soligot, Mounira Kebouchi, Stéphane Bertin, Sophie Payot, Yves Le Roux, Nathalie Leblond-Bourget
The adhesion properties of 14 Streptococcus salivarius strains to mucus (HT29-MTX) and non-mucus secreting (Caco-2/TC7) human intestinal epithelial cells were investigated. Ability to adhere to these two eukaryotic cell lines greatly differs between strains. The presence of mucus played a major factor in adhesion, likely due to high adhesiveness to mucins present in the native human mucus layer covering the whole cell surface. Only one S. salivarius strain (F6-1), isolated from the feces of a healthy baby, was found to strongly adhere to HT-29 MTX cells at a level comparable to that of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, a probiotic strain considered to be highly adherent...
February 13, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Sohini Walia, Rozy Kamal, D K Dhawan, S S Kanwar
BACKGROUND: Probiotics are believed to have properties that lower the risk of colon cancer. However, the mechanisms by which they exert their beneficial effects are relatively unknown. AIM: To assess the impact of probiotics in preventing induction of colon carcinogenesis in rats. METHODS: The rats were divided into six groups viz., normal control, Lactobacillus plantarum (AdF10)-treated, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG)-treated, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-treated, L...
February 9, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Hemanti Mandal, Tamishraha Bagchi
Lactobacilli have several attributes that provide health benefits to the host. The aim of this study was to screen indigenous lactobacilli from human gut and fermented foods for such attributes as production of β- and α-galactosidase and also their ability to reduce serum cholesterol. Lactobacilli were cultured on MRS broth and β-galactosidase activity was determined using o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) as a substrate. Three isolates Lactobacillus fermentum GPI-3 and L. fermentum GPI-6 and Lactobacillus salivarius GPI-1(S) showed better β-galactosidase activity than the standard strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014...
February 8, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Andrea F Kane, Anisha D Bhatia, Patricia W Denning, Andi L Shane, Ravi Mangal Patel
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if routine supplementation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 (LGG) is associated with a decreased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational cohort study of VLBW (<1500 g) infants at a single center from 2008 to 2016. LGG supplementation with Culturelle at a dose of 2.5 to 5 × 109 CFU/day began in 2014. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the association between LGG supplementation and necrotizing enterocolitis (modified Bell stage IIA or greater), after adjusting for potential confounders...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Shashank Singh, Ruchika Bhatia, Ankit Singh, Paramdeep Singh, Ramandeep Kaur, Pragyanshu Khare, Ravi K Purama, Ravneet K Boparai, Praveen Rishi, Padma Ambalam, Sanjay Kumar Bhadada, Mahendra Bishnoi, Jaspreet Kaur, Kanthi Kiran Kondepudi
Probiotic lactic acid bacteria are known to modulate gut associated immune responses. Not many studies have reported on the role of Weissella species in preventing lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced proinflammatory stress in murine macrophages as well as in human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2). Therefore, the present study was taken up to evaluate the probiotic attributes of four newly isolated Weissella strains (two each from fermented dosa batter and a human infant faecal sample); these attributes are cholesterol reduction, adhesion to Caco-2 cells and mucin and their ability to prevent LPS-induced nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokine (IL-6, IL-1β and TNFα) production by the murine macrophages and IL-8 production by the human epithelial cells...
February 2, 2018: Food & Function
Ya-Nan Cao, Li-Juan Feng, Yuan-Yuan Liu, Kui Jiang, Mao-Jun Zhang, Yi-Xin Gu, Bang-Mao Wang, Jia Gao, Ze-Lan Wang, Yu-Ming Wang
AIM: To evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant (LGG-s) on the expression of serotonin transporter (SERT) in rats with post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS). METHODS: Campylobacter jejuni 81-176 (1010 CFU/mL) was used to induce intestinal infection to develop a PI-IBS model. After evaluation of the post-infectious phase by biochemical tests, DNA agarose gel electrophoresis, abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) test, and the intestinal motility test, four PI-IBS groups received different concentrations of LGG-s for 4 wk...
January 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Hung Yi Song, Roch Chui Yu
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), a nonprotein amino acid, is widely distributed in nature and fulfills several physiological functions. In this study, various lactic acid strains commonly used to produce fermented milk products were inoculated into adzuki bean milk for producing GABA. The high GABA producing strain was selected in further experiment to improve the GABA production utilizing culture medium optimization. The results demonstrated that adzuki bean milk inoculated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG increased GABA content from 0...
January 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Gerd Göstemeyer, Anna Kohls, Sebastian Paris, Falk Schwendicke
Uncertainty exists as to how to best prevent root caries development. The aim of the present study was to compare sodium fluoride (NaF), chlorhexidine (CHX) and silver diamine fluoride (SDF) varnishes (V) and rinses (R) regarding their caries preventive effect in an artificial caries biofilm model. 140 bovine root dentin samples were cut, polished and embedded. Samples were allocated to seven treatment groups (n = 20/group): Four varnishes (applied once prior biofilm challenge): 38% SDF (SDFV), 35% CHX-varnish (CHXV), 22,600 ppm NaF-varnish (NaFV), placebo-varnish (PV); two rinses (applied once daily during biofilm challenge): 500 ppm NaF solution (NaFR), 0...
January 31, 2018: Odontology
Lorena Valdés-Varela, Miguel Gueimonde, Patricia Ruas-Madiedo
Probiotics have been claimed as a valuable tool to restore the balance in the intestinal microbiota following a dysbiosis caused by, among other factors, antibiotic therapy. This perturbed environment could favor the overgrowth of Clostridium difficile and, in fact, the occurrence of C. difficile-associated infections (CDI) is being increasing in recent years. In spite of the high number of probiotics able to in vitro inhibit the growth and/or toxicity of this pathogen, its application for treatment or prevention of CDI is still scarce since there are not enough well-defined clinical studies supporting efficacy...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Qingru Jiang, Veera Kainulainen, Iva Stamatova, Riitta Korpela, Jukka H Meurman
Probiotic administration may favour caries prevention, as recent research has shown. This in vitro study aimed to investigate the growth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) in experimental biofilms exposed to various carbohydrates, and also to assess its cariogenic potential. Multispecies experimental oral biofilms with or without LGG were grown with a sole-carbohydrate source (fructose/glucose/lactose/sorbitol/sucrose). The viable cells of LGG and structure of the biofilms were examined after 64.5 h of incubation, and pH values of spent media were measured at 16...
January 20, 2018: Caries Research
Donald Cameron, Quak Seng Hock, Musal Kadim, Neelam Mohan, Eell Ryoo, Bhupinder Sandhu, Yuichiro Yamashiro, Chen Jie, Hans Hoekstra, Alfredo Guarino
Recommendations for probiotics are available in several regions. This paper proposes recommendations for probiotics in pediatric gastrointestinal diseases in the Asia-Pacific region. Epidemiology and clinical patterns of intestinal diseases in Asia-Pacific countries were discussed. Evidence-based recommendations and randomized controlled trials in the region were revised. Cultural aspects, health management issues and economic factors were also considered. Final recommendations were approved by applying the Likert scale and rated using the GRADE system...
December 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Melanie Rae Simpson, Ekaterina Avershina, Ola Storrø, Roar Johnsen, Knut Rudi, Torbjørn Øien
Breastfeeding is one of the major factors affecting the early development of the infant gut microbiota, and weaning is associated with a shift in the gut microbiota toward a more adult composition. Through breastfeeding, infants receive bioactive components that shape their microbiota while also being exposed to the breast milk and breast surface microbial communities. Recent studies have suggested the possibility of an entero-mammary route of microbial transfer, opening the possibility of infant gut microbiota modulation through maternal probiotic supplementation...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Chise Suzuki, Ayako Aoki-Yoshida, Reiji Aoki, Keisuke Sasaki, Yoshiharu Takayama, Koko Mizumachi
The molecular mechanisms of strain-specific probiotic effects and the impact of the oral administration of probiotic strains on the host's gene expression are not yet well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the strain-specific effects of probiotic strain intake on gene expression in the murine small intestine. Two distinct strains of lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (GG) and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis C59 (C59), were orally administered to BALB/c mice, daily for 2 weeks...
2017: PloS One
Xingyang Cui, Yunjia Shi, Shanshan Gu, Xin Yan, Hongyan Chen, Junwei Ge
The present study aims to investigate the probiotic properties of novel strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional artisanal milk cheese from Northeast China and to explore their antibacterial activity against enteropathogenic bacteria. Of the 321 isolates, 86 exhibited survival in low pH, resistance to pancreatin, and tolerance to bile salts; of these, 12 inhibited the growth of more than seven enteropathogenic bacteria and exhibited antibiofilm activities against Staphylococcus aureus CMCC26003 and/or Escherichia coli CVCC230...
December 7, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
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