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Danny E García, Paulina A Medina, Valentina I Zúñiga
Polyflavonoids from Pinus radiata (D. Don.) are an abundant natural oligomers highly desirable as renewable chemicals. However, structural modification of polyflavonoids is a viable strategy in order to use such polyphenols as macrobuilding-blocks for biomaterial design. Polyflavonoids were esterified with three five-member cyclic anhydrides (maleic, itaconic, and citraconic) at 20 °C during 24 h in order to diversify physicochemical-, and biological-properties for agricultural, and food-packaging applications...
March 13, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Susan Krull, Antje Hevekerl, Anja Kuenz, Ulf Prüße
Itaconic acid is a promising organic acid and is commercially produced by submerged fermentation of Aspergillus terreus. The cultivation process of the sensitive filamentous fungus has been studied intensively since 1932, with respect to fermentation media components, oxygen supply, shearing rate, pH value, or culture method. Whereas increased final titers were achieved over the years, the productivity has so far remained quite low. In this study, the impact of the pH on the itaconic acid production was investigated in detail...
February 25, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jiao Zeng, Shengquan Liu, Menglin Wang, Shouzhuo Yao, Yingzhuang Chen
In this work, a porous structure and good permeability monolithic column was polymerized in UV transparent fused-silica capillaries via photo-initiated thiol-ene click polymerization of 2, 4, 6, 8-tetravinyl-2, 4, 6, 8- tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (TMTVS), pentaerythritol tetra(3-mercaptopropionate) (PETMP), itaconic acid, respectively, in the presence of porogenic solvents (tetrahydrofuran and methanol) and a initiator (2, 2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone) (DMPA) within 30 min. The physical properties of this monolith were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements...
February 17, 2017: Electrophoresis
Mahmoud ElAzzouny, Christopher T M B Tom, Charles R Evans, Lori L Olson, Mary J Tanga, Katherine A Gallagher, Brent R Martin, Charles F Burant
Itaconic acid is an important metabolite produced by macrophages after stimulation with LPS. The role of itaconate in the inflammatory cascade is unclear. Here we used (13)C-itaconate and (13)C-dimethyl itaconate (DMI) to probe itaconate metabolism, and find that (13)C-DMI is not metabolized to itaconate. (13)C-itaconate in the cell culture medium leads to elevated intracellular levels of unlabeled succinate, with no evidence of intracellular uptake. The goal of this report is to encourage the development effective pro-drug strategies to increase the intracellular levels of itaconate, which will enable more conclusive analysis of its action on macrophages and other cell and tissue types...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Aurica P Chiriac, Loredana Elena Nita, Alina Diaconu, Maria Bercea, Nita Tudorachi, Daniela Pamfil, Liliana Mititelu-Tartau
The approach of covalent conjugation for coupling synthetic polymers with biomolecules represents an appealing strategy to produce new compounds with distinctive properties for biomedical applications. In the present study we generated hybrid gels with tunable characteristics by using hyaluronic acid (HA) and four variants of poly(itaconic anhydride-co-3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro[5.5] undecane) (PITAU) copolymers, differing through the molar ratios between comonomers. The new bioconjugate compounds were realized by using a ″grafting to″ strategy, for further ensuring new ways for coupling of various bioactive compounds, taking into account that the grafted copolymers are dual sensitive to pH and temperature...
January 30, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Tomasz Boruta, Marcin Bizukojc
Aspergillus terreus is a textbook example of an industrially relevant filamentous fungus. It is used for the biotechnological production of two valuable metabolites, namely itaconic acid and lovastatin. Itaconic acid serves as a precursor in polymer industry, whereas lovastatin found its place in the pharmaceutical market as a cholesterol-lowering statin drug and a precursor for semisynthetic statins. Interestingly, their biosynthetic gene clusters were shown to reside in the common genetic neighborhood. Despite the genomic proximity of the underlying biosynthetic genes, the production of lovastatin and itaconic acid was shown to be favored by different factors, especially with respect to pH values of the broth...
February 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Nahid Poorgholy, Bakhshali Massoumi, Mehdi Jaymand
The aim of this study was to synthesis and characterization of a novel stimuli-responsive polymeric nanosystem for theranostic applications. For this purpose, starch was modified by itaconic anhydride to afford an itaconat-functionalized starch macromonomer (starch-IA). This macromonomer with carboxylic functional groups was subsequently adsorbed onto the surface of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs), and then copolymerized with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) monomer via a 'free' radical initiated polymerization technique to produce a temperature-responsive magnetic nanohydrogel (MNHG)...
April 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Xian Yin, Hyun-Dong Shin, Jianghua Li, Guocheng Du, Long Liu, Jian Chen
The dynamic control of gene expression is important for adjusting fluxes in order to obtain desired products and achieve appropriate cell growth, particularly when the synthesis of a desired product drains metabolites required for cell growth. For dynamic gene expression, a promoter responsive to a particular environmental stressor is vital. Here, we report a low-pH-inducible promoter, Pgas, which promotes minimal gene expression at pH values above 5.0 but functions efficiently at low pHs, such as pH 2.0. First, we performed a transcriptional analysis of Aspergillus niger, an excellent platform for the production of organic acids, and we found that the promoter Pgas may act efficiently at low pH...
March 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Gabriel Magno de Freitas Almeida, Lorena C Ferreira Silva, Philippe Colson, Jonatas Santos Abrahao
In this review we discuss the role of mimiviruses as potential human pathogens focusing on clinical and evolutionary evidence. We also propose a novel antiviral immunomodulatory pathway controlled by interferon-β (IFN-β) and mediated by immune-responsive gene 1 (IRG1) and itaconic acid, its product. Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus (APMV) was isolated from amoebae in a hospital while investigating a pneumonia outbreak. Mimivirus ubiquity and role as protist pathogens are well understood, and its putative status as a human pathogen has been gaining strength as more evidence is being found...
January 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
Hiroshi Nishimura, Daisuke Yamaguchi, Takashi Watanabe
Ceriporiopsis subvermispora is a selective white-rot fungus that degrades lignin at a site far from the hyphae and extracellular enzymes, without intensive damage to the cellulose. In selective ligninolysis, low molecular mass metabolites play a principal role and amphipathic substances are involved to control the degradation and transport of hydrophobic aromatic molecules, including lignin and lipids; however, secretion of the amphipathic substances by this fungus has not been well understood, except for alk(en)yl itaconates called ceriporic acids, which have a weak amphiphilicity...
January 3, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Junyoung Kim, Hyung-Min Seo, Shashi Kant Bhatia, Hun-Seok Song, Jung-Ho Kim, Jong-Min Jeon, Kwon-Young Choi, Wooseong Kim, Jeong-Jun Yoon, Yun-Gon Kim, Yung-Hun Yang
Itaconate, a C5 unsaturated dicarboxylic acid, is an important chemical building block that is used in manufacturing high-value products, such as latex and superabsorbent polymers. Itaconate is produced by fermentation of sugars by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus terreus. However, fermentation by A. terreus involves a long fermentation period and the formation of various byproducts, resulting in high production costs. E. coli has been developed as an alternative for producing itaconate. However, fermentation of glucose gives low conversion yields and low productivity...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
Nithinart Chitpong, Scott M Husson
An evaluation of the performance of polyelectrolyte-modified nanofiber membranes was undertaken to determine their efficacy in the rapid uptake and recovery of heavy metals from impaired waters. The membranes were prepared by grafting poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(itaconic acid) (PIA) to cellulose nanofiber mats. Performance measurements quantified the dynamic ion-exchange capacity for cadmium (Cd), productivity, and recovery of Cd(II) from the membranes by regeneration. The dynamic binding capacities of Cd(II) on both types of nanofiber membrane were independent of the linear flow velocity, with a residence time of as low as 2 s...
December 20, 2016: Membranes
Elena Geiser, Florian Ludwig, Thiemo Zambanini, Nick Wierckx, Lars M Blank
Some smut fungi of the family Ustilaginaceae produce itaconate from glucose. De novo genome sequencing of nine itaconate-producing Ustilaginaceae revealed genome sizes between 19 and 25 Mbp. Comparison to the itaconate cluster of U. maydis MB215 revealed all essential genes for itaconate production contributing to metabolic engineering for improving itaconate production.
December 15, 2016: Genome Announcements
Woo-Shik Shin, Boonyoung Park, Dohoon Lee, Min-Kyu Oh, Gie-Taek Chun, Sangyong Kim
Metabolic engineering with a high-yielding mutant, A. terreus AN37 was performed to enhance the production of itaconic acid (IA). Reportedly, the gene cluster for IA biosynthesis is composed of four genes: reg (regulator), mtt (mitochondrial transporter), cad (cis-aconitate decarboxylase), and mfs (membrane transporter). By overexpressing each gene of the IA gene cluster in A. terreus AN37 transformed by REMI method, several transformants showing high productivity of IA were successfully obtained. One of the AN37/cad transformants could produce very high amount of IA (75 g/l) in shake-flask cultivations, showing an average of 5% higher IA titer compared to the high-yielding control strain...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Badal C Saha
Recently, itaconic acid (IA), an unsaturated C5-dicarboxylic acid, has attracted much attention as a biobased building block chemical. It is produced industrially (>80 g L(-1)) from glucose by fermentation with Aspergillus terreus. The titer is low compared with citric acid production (>200 g L(-1)). This review summarizes the latest progress on enhancing the yield and productivity of IA production. IA biosynthesis involves the decarboxylation of the TCA cycle intermediate cis-aconitate through the action of cis-aconitate decarboxylase (CAD) enzyme encoded by the CadA gene in A...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Linglin Wu, Mark Mascal, Thomas J Farmer, Sacha Pérocheau Arnaud, Maria-Angelica Wong Chang
Electrolysis of biomass-derived carbonyl compounds is an alternative to condensation chemistry for supplying products with chain length >C6 for biofuels and renewable materials production. Kolbe coupling of biomass-derived levulinic acid is used to obtain 2,7-octanedione, a new platform molecule only two low process-intensity steps removed from raw biomass. Hydrogenation to 2,7-octanediol provides a chiral secondary diol largely unknown to polymer chemistry, whereas intramolecular aldol condensation followed by hydrogenation yields branched cycloalkanes suitable for use as high-octane, cellulosic gasoline...
January 10, 2017: ChemSusChem
Antonio Irineudo Magalhães, Júlio Cesar de Carvalho, Jesus David Coral Medina, Carlos Ricardo Soccol
Itaconic acid is a promising chemical that has a wide range of applications and can be obtained in large scale using fermentation processes. One of the most important uses of this biomonomer is the environmentally sustainable production of biopolymers. Separation of itaconic acid from the fermented broth has a considerable impact in the total production cost. Therefore, optimization and high efficiency downstream processes are technological challenges to make biorefineries sustainable and economically viable...
January 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Kaijia Xu, Yuzhi Wang, Yixue Li, Yunxuan Lin, Haibao Zhang, Yigang Zhou
Novel poly(deep eutectic solvent) grafted silica-coated magnetic microspheres (Fe3O4@SiO2-MPS@PDES) were prepared by polymerization of choline chloride-itaconic acid (ChCl-IA) and γ-MPS-modified magnetic silica composites, and were characterized by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Then the synthetic Fe3O4@SiO2-MPS@PDES microspheres were applied for the magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of trypsin for the first time...
November 23, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Huacai Ge, Tingting Hua, Jincui Wang
A novel nanoadsorbent (PIACS) with average size of 52.6nm was prepared by controlling grafted polymerization of itaconic acid on chitosan to emulsion stage and then crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. The preparation conditions were optimized and PIACS was characterized by FT-IR, XRD, SEM, TEM and TGA. The adsorption of PIACS for some metal ions was studied. The adsorption results showed that PIACS for adsorption of Hg(2+) and Pb(2+) had higher uptakes than some reported adsorbents. Various variables for adsorption of Hg(2+) and Pb(2+) were systematically researched...
February 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Dadong Liang, Yan Wang, Songyang Li, Yuqing Li, Miliang Zhang, Yang Li, Weishuai Tian, Junbo Liu, Shanshan Tang, Bo Li, Ruifa Jin
With the aid of theoretical calculations, a series of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were designed and prepared for the recognition of dicyandiamide (DCD) via precipitation polymerization using acetonitrile as the solvent at 333 K. On the basis of the long-range correction method of M062X/6-31G(d,p), we simulated the bonding sites, bonding situations, binding energies, imprinted molar ratios, and the mechanisms of interaction between DCD and the functional monomers. Among acrylamide (AM), N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA), itaconic acid (IA), and methacrylic acid (MAA), MAA was confirmed as the best functional monomer, because the strongest interaction (the maximum number of hydrogen bonds and the lowest binding energy) occurs between DCD and MAA, when the optimal molar ratios for DCD to the functional monomers were used, respectively...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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