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Claudia J Stocks, Mark A Schembri, Matthew J Sweet, Ronan Kapetanovic
Macrophages are linchpins of innate immunity, responding to invading microorganisms by initiating coordinated inflammatory and antimicrobial programs. Immediate antimicrobial responses, such as NADPH-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS), are triggered upon phagocytic receptor engagement. Macrophages also detect and respond to microbial products through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as TLRs. TLR signaling influences multiple biological processes including antigen presentation, cell survival, inflammation, and direct antimicrobial responses...
January 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Allison Yaguchi, Michael Spagnuolo, Mark Blenner
Realizing the economic benefits of alternative substrates for commodity chemical bioproduction typically requires significant metabolic engineering of common model organisms, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A growing toolkit is enabling engineering of non-conventional yeast that have robust native metabolism for xylose, acetate, aromatics, and waste lipids. Scheffersomyces stipitis was engineered to produce itaconic acid from xylose. Yarrowia lipolytica produced lipids from dilute acetate at over 100g/L. Cutaneotrichosporon oleaginosus was engineered to produce omega-3 fatty acids and recently was shown to accumulate nearly 70% lipids when grown on aromatics as a carbon source...
January 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Meilin Zhao, Xinyao Lu, Hong Zong, Jinyang Li, Bin Zhuge
Itaconic acid, 2-methylidenebutanedioic acid, is a precursor of polymers, chemicals, and fuels. Many fungi can synthesize itaconic acid; Aspergillus terreus and Ustilago maydis produce up to 85 and 53 g l-1, respectively. Other organisms, including Aspergillus niger and yeasts, have been engineered to produce itaconic acid. However, the titer of itaconic acid is low compared with the analogous major fermentation product, citric acid, for which the yield is > 200 g l-1. Here, we review two types of pathway for itaconic acid biosynthesis as well as recent advances by metabolic engineering strategies and process optimization to enhance itaconic acid productivity in native producers and heterologous hosts...
January 3, 2018: Biotechnology Letters
Qimeng Li, Ji Wu, Ming Hua, Guang Zhang, Wentao Li, Chendong Shuang, Aimin Li
In this research, a series of permanent magnetic anion exchange resins (MAERs) were prepared by polymerizing glycidyl methacrylate monomer and crosslinking diallyl itaconate (DAI) and divinylbenzene. The properties and performances of these novel MAERs were systematically characterized and evaluated for humic acid (HA) adsorption by batch experiments. With the increase of DAI content from 0 to 15%, the moisture of MAERs was elevated from 50.23% to 68.53%, along with the adsorption capacity increasing from 2...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Thiemo Zambanini, Sandra K Hartmann, Lisa M Schmitz, Linda Büttner, Hamed Hosseinpour Tehrani, Elena Geiser, Melanie Beudels, Dominik Venc, Georg Wandrey, Jochen Büchs, Markus Schwarzländer, Lars M Blank, Nick Wierckx
Background: Ustilago maydis is known for its natural potential to produce a broad range of valuable chemicals, such as itaconate, from both industrial carbon waste streams and renewable biomass. Production of itaconate, and many other secondary metabolites, is induced by nitrogen limitation in U. maydis. The clustered genes responsible for itaconate production have recently been identified, enabling the development of new expression tools that are compatible with biotechnological processes...
2017: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology
Myung Hyun Noh, Hyun Gyu Lim, Sung Hwa Woo, Jinyi Song, Gyoo Yeol Jung
Utilization of abundant and cheap carbon sources can effectively reduce the production cost and enhance the economic feasibility. Acetate is a promising carbon source to achieve cost-effective microbial processes. In this study, we engineered an Escherichia coli strain to produce itaconic acid from acetate. Since acetate is known to inhibit cell growth, we initially screened for a strain with a high tolerance to 10 g/L of acetate in the medium, and the W strain was selected as the host. Subsequently, the WC strain was obtained by overexpression of cad (encoding cis-aconitate decarboxylase) using a synthetic promoter and 5' UTR...
December 2, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Sukriti Chaudhary, Jitender Sharma, Balbir S Kaith, Satender Yadav, Ashish Kumar Sharma, Aayushi Goel
The present work highlights the synthesis of the adsorbent based on Gum xanthan-psyllium hybrid backbone graft co-polymerized with polyacrylic acid-co-polyitaconic acid chains for the rapid sequestration of auramine-O (Aur-O) and eriochrome black-T (EBT) dyes from the aqueous fluid. The excellent dye removal efficiency of 90.53% for EBT and 95.63% for Aur-O was found at initial dye concentration of 30mgL(-1) (EBT) and 15 mgL(-1) (Aur-O) 40mL(-1) with an adsorbent dose of 600mg within time duration of 5h and 323K temp...
November 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jayabrata Maity, Samit Kumar Ray
With an objective to improve the adsorption properties of a synthetic hydrogel, potato starch (PS) was incorporated in the ter-copolymer (TP) of acrylic acid (AA), acrylamide (AM), and bicarboxylic itaconic acid (IA) during polymerization of the monomers. The resulting TP-PS composite hydrogels were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX), and rheological properties...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Badal C Saha, Gregory J Kennedy
Itaconic acid (IA) is a building block platform chemical that is currently produced industrially from glucose by fermentation with Aspergillus terreus. However, lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to serve as low cost source of sugars for production of IA. Previously, 100 A. terreus strains were evaluated for production of IA from pentose sugars in shake-flasks. Six selected strains were then investigated for IA production in shake-flasks. But none of the strains grew and produced IA using biomass hydrolyzates...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Vinod Kumar Gupta, Swadeep Sood, Shilpi Agarwal, Adesh K Saini, Deepak Pathania
Tragacanth gum-cl-poly (lactic acid-co-itaconic acid) (TG-cl-p(LA-co-IA)) hydrogel is synthesized through graft copolymerization reaction using microwave assisted technique. The synthesized hydrogel was characterised using various analytical and characterization techniques such as FTIR, FESEM, XRD, TGA, TEM and SEM. It was observed that, the maximum percentage swelling (Ps) of the hydrogel was 311.61% after 6h at room temperature and 298.06% after 3h at 60°C and TG-cl-p(LA-co-IA) exhibited highest Amoxicillin loading (73%) in double distilled waterafter 24h...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Michael A Reid, Jihye Paik, Jason W Locasale
Nearly 3% of the human population carries bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in the gene encoding CLYBL. While largely healthy, these individuals exhibit reduced circulating vitamin B12 levels. In this issue of Cell, Shen and colleagues uncover the metabolic role of CLYBL, linking its function to B12 metabolism and the immunomodulatory metabolite, itaconate.
November 2, 2017: Cell
F Shokrolahi, M Zandi, P Shokrollahi, M Atai, E Ghafarzadeh, M Hanifeh
The physical, mechanical and biological properties of multicomponent acrylate-based hard lenses are directly influenced by degree of conversion achieved during copolymerization. In this research, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) acrylate is introduced into the polymer backbone in combination with hydroxyethyl methacrylate, dimethyl itaconate, methyl methacrylate, 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate in free-radical bulk polymerization. Kinetics of curing process was investigated by two techniques: differential scanning calorimetry and FTIR spectroscopy...
October 25, 2017: Progress in Biomaterials
Vesna V Panic, Sanja I Seslija, Ivanka G Popovic, Vuk D Spasojevic, Aleksandar R Popovic, Vladimir B Nikolic, Pavle M Spasojevic
For the preparation of fully biobased unsaturated polyester resins (UPRs), the replacement of styrene with alternate nonpetroleum-based monomers turned out to be one of the most challenging tasks. Its complexity lies in the fact that reactive diluents (RD) have to have low viscosity and volatility, good compatibility with prepolymer, and capability to homopolymerize and copolymerize with its unsaturations. In this context, we directed our efforts to develop fully biobased UPRs using the dialkyl itaconates as an alternative to styrene...
November 8, 2017: Biomacromolecules
Hongying Shen, Gregory C Campanello, Daniel Flicker, Zenon Grabarek, Junchi Hu, Cheng Luo, Ruma Banerjee, Vamsi K Mootha
CLYBL encodes a ubiquitously expressed mitochondrial enzyme, conserved across all vertebrates, whose cellular activity and pathway assignment are unknown. Its homozygous loss is tolerated in seemingly healthy individuals, with reduced circulating B12 levels being the only and consistent phenotype reported to date. Here, by combining enzymology, structural biology, and activity-based metabolomics, we report that CLYBL operates as a citramalyl-CoA lyase in mammalian cells. Cells lacking CLYBL accumulate citramalyl-CoA, an intermediate in the C5-dicarboxylate metabolic pathway that includes itaconate, a recently identified human anti-microbial metabolite and immunomodulator...
November 2, 2017: Cell
B C Saha, G J Kennedy
Itaconic acid (IA), an unsaturated 5-carbon dicarboxylic acid, is a building block platform chemical that is currently produced industrially from glucose by fermentation with Aspergillus terreus. Softwood has the potential to serve as low cost source of sugars for its production. Effective utilization of all softwood derived sugars such as glucose, mannose and galactose by the fungus for production of IA will lower the cost of its production. In this work, 20 A. terreus strains were evaluated for the first time for IA production from mannose and galactose in shake-flasks at initial pH of 3·1, 33°C and 200 rev min(-1) for 7 days...
October 4, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Ahmad Shaabani, Seyyed Emad Hooshmand
A planning strategy for diversity-oriented catalyst-free synthesis of pseudopeptides containing rhodanine scaffolds has been developed via a novel one-pot sequential six-component reaction in water. This approach is an efficient, environmentally friendly and expeditious procedure for direct access to wide ranges of pharmacologically significant and structurally interesting compounds based on the union of multicomponent reactions approach via tandem Michael/domino cycloaddition/Ugi reactions sequence from readily available starting materials...
January 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Richa Bafana, Sarvanadevi Sivanesan, R A Pandey
Several fungi and starch-rich industrial residues were screened for itaconic acid (IA) production. Out of 15 strains, only three fungal strains were found to produce IA, which was confirmed by HPLC and GC-MS analysis. These strains were identified as Aspergillus terreus strains C1 and C2, and Ustilago maydis strain C3 by sequencing of 18S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer regions. Cis-aconitate decarboxylase (cad) gene, which encodes a key enzyme in IA production in A. terreus, was characterized from strains C1 and C2...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Long Huang, Meiying Liu, Liucheng Mao, Qiang Huang, Hongye Huang, Qing Wan, Jianwen Tian, Yuanqing Wen, Xiaoyong Zhang, Yen Wei
As a new type of mesoporous silica materials with large pore diameter (pore size between 2 and 50nm) and high specific surface areas, SBA-15 has been widely explored for different applications especially in the biomedical fields. The surface modification of SBA-15 with functional polymers has demonstrated to be an effective way for improving its properties and performance. In this work, we reported the preparation of PEGylated SBA-15 polymer composites through surface-initiated chain transfer free radical polymerization for the first time...
December 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Marjan Ghorbani, Hamed Hamishehkar
The aim of this study was to design and develop a new pH-responsive nano-platform for controlled and targeted delivery of anticancer drugs. Engineering of pH-responsive nanocarriers was prepared via decoration of gold nanoparticles (NPs) by thiolated (methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly((2-dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate-co-itaconic acid) (mPEG-b-p(DMAEMA-co-IA) copolymer and fully characterized by various techniques and subsequently used for loading and targeted delivery of anticancer agent, methotrexate (MTX)...
December 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Björn-Johannes Harder, Katja Bettenbrock, Steffen Klamt
Based on the recently constructed Escherichia coli itaconic acid production strain ita23, we aimed to improve the productivity by applying a two-stage process strategy with decoupled production of biomass and itaconic acid. We constructed a strain ita32 (MG1655 ΔaceA Δpta ΔpykF ΔpykA pCadCs), which, in contrast to ita23, has an active tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and a fast growth rate of 0.52 hr(-1) at 37°C, thus representing an ideal phenotype for the first stage, the growth phase. Subsequently we implemented a synthetic genetic control allowing the downregulation of the TCA cycle and thus the switch from growth to itaconic acid production in the second stage...
September 2, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
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