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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425297/new-approaches-for-itaconic-acid-production-bottlenecks-and-possible-remedies
#1
Richa Bafana, R A Pandey
Currently, growing attention is being devoted to the conversion of biomass into value-added products, such as itaconic acid (IA), which is considered as the cleanest alternative to petroleum-based acrylic acid. IA is an unsaturated dicarboxylic acid that is used as a building block chemical for the production of several value-added products such as poly-itaconic acid. IA and its derivatives have a wide range of potential applications in textile, paint, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Presently, industries are producing IA on the large scale by fermentation from glucose...
April 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415494/investigation-on-au-nano-incorporated-ph-sensitive-itaconic-acid-acrylic-acid-triethylene-glycol-based-polymeric-biocompatible-hydrogels
#2
M Sakthivel, D S Franklin, S Sudarsan, G Chitra, S Guhanathan
The pH-sensitive gold nano hydrogel based on itaconic acid, acrylic acid and triethylene glycol (GIAT) has been prepared by free radical polymerization viz. organic solventless approach with different monomer ratios. The nature of bonding and structural identification of GIAT hydrogels were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy. The surface morphology of gold gel was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to identify the size of gold nano particles...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385524/itaconic-acid-grafted-carboxymethyl-chitosan-and-its-nanoparticles-preparation-characterization-and-evaluation
#3
Yanyan Yin, Qifeng Dang, Chengsheng Liu, Jingquan Yan, Dongsu Cha, Zhenzhen Yu, Yachan Cao, Yan Wang, Bing Fan
This work aims to synthesize a novel itaconic acid (IA) grafted carboxymethyl chitosan (PICMCS), and further fabricate its nanoparticles for potential biomedical applications. First, PICMCS was prepared via free-radical polymerization of IA monomer, in the presence of ammonium persulfate as an initiator and nitrogen as a protector. Its chemical structure was confirmed by FTIR and (1)H NMR. The IA substitution degree calculated by elemental analysis data was 1.85, implying that IA was successfully grafted to carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS)...
April 4, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366527/engineering-efficient-production-of-itaconic-acid-from-diverse-substrates-in-escherichia-coli
#4
Peiching Chang, Grey S Chen, Hsiang-Yuan Chu, Ken W Lu, Claire R Shen
Itaconic acid is an excellent polymeric precursor with wide range of industrial applications. Here, efficient production of itaconate from various renewable substrates was demonstrated by engineered Escherichia coli. Limitation in the itaconate precursor supply was revealed by feeding of the key intermediate citrate to the culture medium. Efforts of enhancing the cis-aconitate flux and preserving the isocitrate pool increased itaconate productivity by nearly 100-fold. Elimination of the isocitrate lyase lowered the itaconate production by 10-30%, suggesting the potential positive role of glyoxylate shunt...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356443/a-microrna93-irf9-irg1-itaconic-acid-pathway-modulates-m2-like-macrophage-polarization-to-revascularize-ischemic-muscle
#5
Vijay Chaitanya Ganta, Min Hyub Choi, Anna Kutateladze, Todd E Fox, Charles R Farber, Brian H Annex
Background -Currently no therapies exist for treating, and improving outcomes in patients with severe peripheral arterial disease (PAD). MicroRNA93 (miR93) has been shown to favorably modulate angiogenesis and reduce tissue loss in genetic PAD models. However, the cell specific function, downstream mechanisms or signaling involved in miR93 mediated ischemic muscle neovascularization is not clear. Macrophages were best known to modulate arteriogenic response in PAD and the extent of arteriogenic response induced by macrophages is dependent on greater M2 to M1-activation/polarization state...
March 29, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356226/surfactants-from-itaconic-acid-toxicity-to-hacat-keratinocytes-in-vitro-micellar-solubilization-and-skin-permeation-enhancement-of-hydrocortisone
#6
Angela Abruzzo, Nicola Armenise, Federica Bigucci, Teresa Cerchiara, Mireia Broch Gösser, Chiara Samorì, Paola Galletti, Emilio Tagliavini, David M Brown, Helinor J Johnston, Teresa F Fernandes, Barbara Luppi
One of the most widely used approaches for improving drug permeation across the stratum corneum barrier of the skin is the use of chemical penetration enhancers, such as surfactants. In this study, two anionic surfactants, named C12-OPK and C18-OPK, were synthesized via condensation of itaconic acid and fatty amines, with C12 and C18 alkyl chains, respectively. Assessment of impacts on HaCaT keratinocyte cell viability was used as indicator of their potential to cause skin irritation 24h post exposure (Alamar Blue assay)...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344094/controlled-release-of-antibiotic-amoxicillin-drug-using-carboxymethyl-cellulose-cl-poly-lactic-acid-co-itaconic-acid-hydrogel
#7
S Sood, Vinod Kumar Gupta, Shilpi Agarwal, Kamal Dev, Deepak Pathania
In this paper, microwave assisted preparation of carboxymethyl cellulose-cl-poly(lactic acid-co-itaconic acid) (CMC-cl-P(LA-co-IA)) hydrogel was reported via facile graft copolymerization using N,N(1)-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) and potassium persulphate as cross linker and initiator. Different reaction parameters were optimized to achieve good yield. The formation of hydrogel was confirmed by characterization techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermo gravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy etc...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332572/xeno-free-culture-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-on-oligopeptide-grafted-hydrogels-with-various-molecular-designs
#8
Yen-Ming Chen, Li-Hua Chen, Meng-Pei Li, Hsing-Fen Li, Akon Higuchi, S Suresh Kumar, Qing-Dong Ling, Abdullah A Alarfaj, Murugan A Munusamy, Yung Chang, Giovanni Benelli, Kadarkarai Murugan, Akihiro Umezawa
Establishing cultures of human embryonic (ES) and induced pluripotent (iPS) stem cells in xeno-free conditions is essential for producing clinical-grade cells. Development of cell culture biomaterials for human ES and iPS cells is critical for this purpose. We designed several structures of oligopeptide-grafted poly (vinyl alcohol-co-itaconic acid) hydrogels with optimal elasticity, and prepared them in formations of single chain, single chain with joint segment, dual chain with joint segment, and branched-type chain...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302477/toxicological-features-of-maleilated-polyflavonoids-from-pinus-radiata-d-don-as-potential-functional-additives-for-biomaterials-design
#9
Danny E García, Paulina A Medina, Valentina I Zúñiga
Polyflavonoids from Pinus radiata (D. Don.) are an abundant natural oligomers highly desirable as renewable chemicals. However, structural modification of polyflavonoids is a viable strategy in order to use such polyphenols as macrobuilding-blocks for biomaterial design. Polyflavonoids were esterified with three five-member cyclic anhydrides (maleic, itaconic, and citraconic) at 20 °C during 24 h in order to diversify physicochemical-, and biological-properties for agricultural, and food-packaging applications...
March 14, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235991/process-development-of-itaconic-acid-production-by-a-natural-wild-type-strain-of-aspergillus-terreus-to-reach-industrially-relevant-final-titers
#10
Susan Krull, Antje Hevekerl, Anja Kuenz, Ulf Prüße
Itaconic acid is a promising organic acid and is commercially produced by submerged fermentation of Aspergillus terreus. The cultivation process of the sensitive filamentous fungus has been studied intensively since 1932, with respect to fermentation media components, oxygen supply, shearing rate, pH value, or culture method. Whereas increased final titers were achieved over the years, the productivity has so far remained quite low. In this study, the impact of the pH on the itaconic acid production was investigated in detail...
February 25, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211065/the-synthesis-of-weak-acidic-type-hybrid-monolith-via-thiol-ene-click-chemistry-and-its-application-in-hydrophilic-interaction-chromatography
#11
Jiao Zeng, Shengquan Liu, Menglin Wang, Shouzhuo Yao, Yingzhuang Chen
In this work, a porous structure and good permeability monolithic column was polymerized in UV transparent fused-silica capillaries via photo-initiated thiol-ene click polymerization of 2,4,6,8-tetravinyl-2,4,6,8-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (TMTVS), pentaerythritol tetra(3-mercaptopropionate)(PETMP), itaconic acid, respectively, in the presence of porogenic solvents (tetrahydrofuranand methanol) and an initiator (2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone) (DMPA) within 30 min. The physical properties of this monolith were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements...
February 17, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188288/dimethyl-itaconate-is-not-metabolized-into-itaconate-intracellularly
#12
Mahmoud ElAzzouny, Christopher T M B Tom, Charles R Evans, Lori L Olson, Mary J Tanga, Katherine A Gallagher, Brent R Martin, Charles F Burant
Itaconic acid is an important metabolite produced by macrophages after stimulation with LPS. The role of itaconate in the inflammatory cascade is unclear. Here we used [(13)C]itaconate and dimethyl [(13)C]itaconate (DMI) to probe itaconate metabolism, and find that [(13)C]DMI is not metabolized to itaconate. [(13)C]Itaconate in the cell culture medium leads to elevated intracellular levels of unlabeled succinate, with no evidence of intracellular uptake. The goal of this study is to encourage the development of effective pro-drug strategies to increase the intracellular levels of itaconate, which will enable more conclusive analysis of its action on macrophages and other cell and tissue types...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153463/hybrid-gels-by-conjugation-of-hyaluronic-acid-with-poly-itaconic-anhydride-co-3-9-divinyl-2-4-8-10-tetraoxaspiro-5-5-undecane-copolymers
#13
Aurica P Chiriac, Loredana Elena Nita, Alina Diaconu, Maria Bercea, Nita Tudorachi, Daniela Pamfil, Liliana Mititelu-Tartau
The approach of covalent conjugation for coupling synthetic polymers with biomolecules represents an appealing strategy to produce new compounds with distinctive properties for biomedical applications. In the present study we generated hybrid gels with tunable characteristics by using hyaluronic acid (HA) and four variants of poly(itaconic anhydride-co-3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro[5.5] undecane) (PITAU) copolymers, differing through the molar ratios between comonomers. The new bioconjugate compounds were realized by using a ″grafting to″ strategy, for further ensuring new ways for coupling of various bioactive compounds, taking into account that the grafted copolymers are dual sensitive to pH and temperature...
May 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102516/production-of-lovastatin-and-itaconic-acid-by-aspergillus-terreus-a-comparative-perspective
#14
REVIEW
Tomasz Boruta, Marcin Bizukojc
Aspergillus terreus is a textbook example of an industrially relevant filamentous fungus. It is used for the biotechnological production of two valuable metabolites, namely itaconic acid and lovastatin. Itaconic acid serves as a precursor in polymer industry, whereas lovastatin found its place in the pharmaceutical market as a cholesterol-lowering statin drug and a precursor for semisynthetic statins. Interestingly, their biosynthetic gene clusters were shown to reside in the common genetic neighborhood. Despite the genomic proximity of the underlying biosynthetic genes, the production of lovastatin and itaconic acid was shown to be favored by different factors, especially with respect to pH values of the broth...
February 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099892/a-novel-starch-based-stimuli-responsive-nanosystem-for-theranostic-applications
#15
Nahid Poorgholy, Bakhshali Massoumi, Mehdi Jaymand
The aim of this study was to synthesis and characterization of a novel stimuli-responsive polymeric nanosystem for theranostic applications. For this purpose, starch was modified by itaconic anhydride to afford an itaconat-functionalized starch macromonomer (starch-IA). This macromonomer with carboxylic functional groups was subsequently adsorbed onto the surface of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs), and then copolymerized with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) monomer via a 'free' radical initiated polymerization technique to produce a temperature-responsive magnetic nanohydrogel (MNHG)...
April 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087530/pgas-a-low-ph-induced-promoter-as-a-tool-for-dynamic-control-of-gene-expression-for-metabolic-engineering-of-aspergillus-niger
#16
Xian Yin, Hyun-Dong Shin, Jianghua Li, Guocheng Du, Long Liu, Jian Chen
The dynamic control of gene expression is important for adjusting fluxes in order to obtain desired products and achieve appropriate cell growth, particularly when the synthesis of a desired product drains metabolites required for cell growth. For dynamic gene expression, a promoter responsive to a particular environmental stressor is vital. Here, we report a low-pH-inducible promoter, Pgas, which promotes minimal gene expression at pH values above 5.0 but functions efficiently at low pHs, such as pH 2.0. First, we performed a transcriptional analysis of Aspergillus niger, an excellent platform for the production of organic acids, and we found that the promoter Pgas may act efficiently at low pH...
March 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079476/mimiviruses-and-the-human-interferon-system-viral-evasion-of-classical-antiviral-activities-but-inhibition-by-a-novel-interferon-%C3%AE-regulated-immunomodulatory-pathway
#17
Gabriel Magno de Freitas Almeida, Lorena C Ferreira Silva, Philippe Colson, Jonatas Santos Abrahao
In this review we discuss the role of mimiviruses as potential human pathogens focusing on clinical and evolutionary evidence. We also propose a novel antiviral immunomodulatory pathway controlled by interferon-β (IFN-β) and mediated by immune-responsive gene 1 (IRG1) and itaconic acid, its product. Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus (APMV) was isolated from amoebae in a hospital while investigating a pneumonia outbreak. Mimivirus ubiquity and role as protist pathogens are well understood, and its putative status as a human pathogen has been gaining strength as more evidence is being found...
January 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062355/cerebrosides-extracellular-glycolipids-secreted-by-the-selective-lignin-degrading-fungus-ceriporiopsis-subvermispora
#18
Hiroshi Nishimura, Daisuke Yamaguchi, Takashi Watanabe
Ceriporiopsis subvermispora is a selective white-rot fungus that degrades lignin at a site far from the hyphae and extracellular enzymes, without intensive damage to the cellulose. In selective ligninolysis, low molecular mass metabolites play a principal role and amphipathic substances are involved to control the degradation and transport of hydrophobic aromatic molecules, including lignin and lipids; however, secretion of the amphipathic substances by this fungus has not been well understood, except for alk(en)yl itaconates called ceriporic acids, which have a weak amphiphilicity...
January 3, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051098/production-of-itaconate-by-whole-cell-bioconversion-of-citrate-mediated-by-expression-of-multiple-cis-aconitate-decarboxylase-cada-genes-in-escherichia-coli
#19
Junyoung Kim, Hyung-Min Seo, Shashi Kant Bhatia, Hun-Seok Song, Jung-Ho Kim, Jong-Min Jeon, Kwon-Young Choi, Wooseong Kim, Jeong-Jun Yoon, Yun-Gon Kim, Yung-Hun Yang
Itaconate, a C5 unsaturated dicarboxylic acid, is an important chemical building block that is used in manufacturing high-value products, such as latex and superabsorbent polymers. Itaconate is produced by fermentation of sugars by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus terreus. However, fermentation by A. terreus involves a long fermentation period and the formation of various byproducts, resulting in high production costs. E. coli has been developed as an alternative for producing itaconate. However, fermentation of glucose gives low conversion yields and low productivity...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999394/nanofiber-ion-exchange-membranes-for-the-rapid-uptake-and-recovery-of-heavy-metals-from-water
#20
Nithinart Chitpong, Scott M Husson
An evaluation of the performance of polyelectrolyte-modified nanofiber membranes was undertaken to determine their efficacy in the rapid uptake and recovery of heavy metals from impaired waters. The membranes were prepared by grafting poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(itaconic acid) (PIA) to cellulose nanofiber mats. Performance measurements quantified the dynamic ion-exchange capacity for cadmium (Cd), productivity, and recovery of Cd(II) from the membranes by regeneration. The dynamic binding capacities of Cd(II) on both types of nanofiber membrane were independent of the linear flow velocity, with a residence time of as low as 2 s...
December 20, 2016: Membranes
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