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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634691/modulation-of-rotavirus-severe-gastroenteritis-by-the-combination-of-probiotics-and-prebiotics
#1
REVIEW
Guadalupe Gonzalez-Ochoa, Lilian K Flores-Mendoza, Ramona Icedo-Garcia, Ricardo Gomez-Flores, Patricia Tamez-Guerra
Annual mortality rates due to infectious diarrhea are about 2.2 million; children are the most vulnerable age group to severe gastroenteritis, representing group A rotaviruses as the main cause of disease. One of the main factors of rotavirus pathogenesis is the NSP4 protein, which has been characterized as a viral toxin involved in triggering several cellular responses leading to diarrhea. Furthermore, the rotavirus protein NSP1 has been associated with interferon production inhibition by inducing the degradation of interferon regulatory factors IRF3, IRF5, and IRF7...
June 20, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623344/an-essential-role-of-pi3k-in-the-control-of-west-nile-virus-infection
#2
Leilei Wang, Long Yang, Erol Fikrig, Penghua Wang
The phosphatidyl-inositol-3 kinases (PI3K) pathway regulates a variety of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, RNA processing, protein translation, autophagy, apoptosis and antiviral immunity. Many viruses depend on PI3K signaling for replication. However, its role in flaviviral infection has not been clearly defined. Here we report that PI3K signaling is critical for the control of West Nile virus (WNV) infection by regulating type I IFN (IFN-I) response. Inhibition of PI3K activity by 3-methyl adenine (3-MA), Wortmannin (WM) and LY294002 (LY) increased viral titers by 3-16 folds in primary mouse macrophages, embryonic fibroblasts and human cell lines...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604814/functional-paralysis-of-gm-csf-derived-bone-marrow-cells-productively-infected-with-ectromelia-virus
#3
Lidia Szulc-Dąbrowska, Justyna Struzik, Agnieszka Ostrowska, Maciej Guzera, Felix N Toka, Magdalena Bossowska-Nowicka, Małgorzata M Gieryńska, Anna Winnicka, Zuzanna Nowak, Marek G Niemiałtowski
Ectromelia virus (ECTV) is an orthopoxvirus responsible for mousepox, a lethal disease of certain strains of mice that is similar to smallpox in humans, caused by variola virus (VARV). ECTV, similar to VARV, exhibits a narrow host range and has co-evolved with its natural host. Consequently, ECTV employs sophisticated and host-specific strategies to control the immune cells that are important for induction of antiviral immune response. In the present study we investigated the influence of ECTV infection on immune functions of murine GM-CSF-derived bone marrow cells (GM-BM), comprised of conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) and macrophages...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600543/innate-and-adaptive-immunity-are-progressively-activated-in-parallel-with-renal-injury-in-the-5-6-renal-ablation-model
#4
Camilla Fanelli, Simone C A Arias, Flavia G Machado, Jessica K Okuma, Denise M A C Malheiros, Hatylas Azevedo, Carlos A Moreira-Filho, Niels O S Camara, Clarice K Fujihara, Roberto Zatz
The mechanisms triggering renal inflammation in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are unclear. We performed a detailed analysis of the time course of innate and adaptive immunity activation in the 5/6 renal ablation (Nx) model. Munich-Wistar rats undergoing Nx were studied 15, 60 and 120 days after ablation. Hypertension, albuminuria, creatinine retention, interstitial expansion and infiltration by macrophages and T-lymphocytes were already evident 15 days after Nx. PCR-array was used to screen for altered gene expression, whereas gene and protein expressions of TLR4, CASP1, IL-1β and NLRP3 were individually assessed...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588282/comparison-and-immunobiological-characterization-of-retinoic-acid-inducible-gene-i-like-receptor-expression-in-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#5
Gordana Raicevic, Mehdi Najar, Hélène Busser, Emerence Crompot, Dominique Bron, Michel Toungouz, Laurence Lagneaux
Due to their immunomodulatory and regenerative properties, Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have generated major interests in several clinical settings including transplantation and inflammatory diseases. MSC functions can be influenced by their tissue origin. Their microenvironment strongly affects their biology notably through TLR sensing. In this study, we show that MSC isolated from four different sources express another type of cytosolic pathogen recognition receptors known as retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLR)...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569178/prediction-of-response-to-remission-induction-therapy-by-gene-expression-profiling-of-peripheral-blood-in-japanese-patients-with-microscopic-polyangiitis
#6
Akihiro Ishizu, Utano Tomaru, Sakiko Masuda, Ken-Ei Sada, Koichi Amano, Masayoshi Harigai, Yasushi Kawaguchi, Yoshihiro Arimura, Kunihiro Yamagata, Shoichi Ozaki, Hiroaki Dobashi, Sakae Homma, Yasunori Okada, Hitoshi Sugiyama, Joichi Usui, Naotake Tsuboi, Seiichi Matsuo, Hirofumi Makino
BACKGROUND: Microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), which is classified as an anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated small vessel vasculitis, is one of the most frequent primary vasculitides in Japan. We earlier nominated 16 genes (IRF7, IFIT1, IFIT5, OASL, CLC, GBP-1, PSMB9, HERC5, CCR1, CD36, MS4A4A, BIRC4BP, PLSCR1, DEFA1/DEFA3, DEFA4, and COL9A2) as predictors of response to remission induction therapy against MPA. The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy of prediction using these 16 predictors...
May 31, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569041/predictive-value-of-tlr7-polymorphism-for-cetuximab-based-chemotherapy-in-patients-with-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#7
Satoshi Okazaki, Sebastian Stintzing, Yu Sunakawa, Shu Cao, Wu Zhang, Dongyun Yang, Yan Ning, Satoshi Matsusaka, Martin D Berger, Yuji Miyamoto, Mitsukuni Suenaga, Marta Schirripa, Jordan D West, Roel Gopez, Tsuji Akihito, Wataru Ichikawa, Volker Heinemann, R William DePaolo, Heinz-Josef Lenz
The TLR7 and TLR9 signalings are implicated in the regulation of the immune system through type-I interferon induction. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the immunomodulatory and antitumor effects of TLR7 and TLR9 agonists in combination with cetuximab. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variations in TLR7 and TLR9 and their downstream molecules IRF5 and IRF7 were associated with outcomes in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients receiving cetuximab-based chemotherapy. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR7, TLR9, IRF5 and IRF7 were tested for the association with RR, PFS, and OS in KRAS-wild type mCRC patients...
May 31, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560754/oncostatin-m-induces-rig-i-and-mda5-expression-and-enhances-the-double-stranded-rna-response-in-fibroblasts
#8
Sabine Hergovits, Christine Mais, Claude Haan, Ana P Costa-Pereira, Heike M Hermanns
Interleukin (IL)-6-type cytokines have no direct antiviral activity; nevertheless, they display immune-modulatory functions. Oncostatin M (OSM), a member of the IL-6 family, has recently been shown to induce a distinct number of classical interferon stimulated genes (ISG). Most of them are involved in antigen processing and presentation. However, induction of retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG)-I-like receptors (RLR) has not been investigated. Here we report that OSM has the capability to induce the expression of the DExD/H-Box RNA helicases RIG-I and melanoma differentiation antigen 5 (MDA5) as well as of the transcription factors interferon regulatory factor (IRF)1, IRF7 and IRF9 in primary fibroblasts...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481873/restoring-pu-1-induces-apoptosis-and-modulates-viral-transactivation-via-interferon-stimulated-genes-in-primary-effusion-lymphoma
#9
H Goto, R Kariya, E Kudo, Y Okuno, K Ueda, H Katano, S Okada
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), which is an aggressive subgroup of B-cell lymphoma associated with Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus/human herpes virus-8, is refractory to the standard treatment, and exhibits a poor survival. Although PU.1 is downregulated in PEL, the potential role of its reduction remains to be elucidated. In this investigation, we analyzed the DNA methylation of PU.1 cis-regulatory elements in PEL and the effect of restoring PU.1 on PEL cells. The mRNA level of PU.1 was downregulated in PEL cells...
May 8, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476672/gene-expression-profiles-associated-with-lymphocystis-disease-virus-lcdv-in-experimentally-infected-senegalese-sole-solea-senegalensis
#10
Carlos Carballo, Dolores Castro, Juan J Borrego, Manuel Manchado
In the present study, the pathogenesis of lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) and the immune gene expression patterns associated with this viral infection were determined in the flatfish Senegalese sole. The results indicate that LCDV spreads rapidly from the peritoneal cavity through the bloodstream to reach target organs such as kidney, gut, liver, and skin/fin. The viral load was highest in kidney and reduced progressively thorough the experiment in spite of the viral major capsid protein gene was transcribed...
May 3, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472924/identification-of-differentially-expressed-atlantic-salmon-mirnas-responding-to-salmonid-alphavirus-sav-infection
#11
Rune Andreassen, Nardos Tesfaye Woldemariam, Ine Østråt Egeland, Oleg Agafonov, Hilde Sindre, Bjørn Høyheim
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) control multiple biological processes including the innate immune responses by negative post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. As there were no studies on the role(s) of miRNAs in viral diseases in Atlantic salmon, we aimed to identify miRNAs responding to salmonid alphavirus (SAV) infection. Their expression were studied at different time points post infection with SAV isolates associated with different mortalities. Furthermore, the genome sequences of the identified miRNAs were analysed to reveal putative cis-regulatory elements, and, finally, their putative target genes were predicted...
May 4, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416650/epigenetic-regulator-cxxc5-recruits-dna-demethylase-tet2-to-regulate-tlr7-9-elicited-ifn-response-in-pdcs
#12
Shixin Ma, Xiaoling Wan, Zihou Deng, Lei Shi, Congfang Hao, Zhenyuan Zhou, Chun Zhou, Yiyuan Fang, Jinghua Liu, Jing Yang, Xia Chen, Tiantian Li, Aiping Zang, Shigang Yin, Bin Li, Joel Plumas, Laurence Chaperot, Xiaoming Zhang, Guoliang Xu, Lubin Jiang, Nan Shen, Sidong Xiong, Xiaoming Gao, Yan Zhang, Hui Xiao
TLR7/9 signals are capable of mounting massive interferon (IFN) response in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) immediately after viral infection, yet the involvement of epigenetic regulation in this process has not been documented. Here, we report that zinc finger CXXC family epigenetic regulator CXXC5 is highly expressed in pDCs, where it plays a crucial role in TLR7/9- and virus-induced IFN response. Notably, genetic ablation of CXXC5 resulted in aberrant methylation of the CpG-containing island (CGI) within the Irf7 gene and impaired IRF7 expression in steady-state pDCs...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401895/integrated-host-and-viral-transcriptome-analyses-reveal-pathology-and-inflammatory-response-mechanisms-to-alv-j-injection-in-spf-chickens
#13
Xi Lan, Yan Wang, Kai Tian, Fei Ye, Huadong Yin, Xiaoling Zhao, Hengyong Xu, Yong Huang, Haibo Liu, John C F Hsieh, Susan J Lamont, Qing Zhu
Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is detrimental to poultry health and causes substantial economic losses from mortality and decreased performance. Because tumorigenesis is a complex mechanism, the regulatory architecture of the immune system is likely to include the added dimensions of modulation by miRNAs and long-noncoding RNA (lncRNA). To characterize the response to ALV challenge, we developed a novel methodology that combines four datasets: mRNA expression and the associated regulatory factors of miRNA and lncRNA, and ALV gene expression...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398673/melatonin-alleviates-inflammasome-induced-pyroptosis-through-inhibiting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-gsdmd-signal-in-mice-adipose-tissue
#14
Zhenjiang Liu, Lu Gan, Yatao Xu, Dan Luo, Qian Ren, Song Wu, Chao Sun
Pyroptosis is a proinflammatory form of cell death that is associated with pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory diseases. Melatonin is substantially reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting inflammasome activation. However, the effects of melatonin on inflammasome-induced pyroptosis in adipocytes remain elusive. Here, we demonstrated that melatonin alleviated lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced inflammation and NLRP3 inflammasome formation in mice adipose tissue. The NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis was also inhibited by melatonin in adipocytes...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392573/inducible-rubicon-facilitates-viral-replication-by-antagonizing-interferon-production
#15
Yushun Wan, Wei Cao, Tao Han, Sheng Ren, Jian Feng, TieLong Chen, Jun Wang, Ruth Broering, Mengji Lu, Ying Zhu
The RUN domain Beclin-1-interacting cysteine-rich-containing (Rubicon) protein is involved in the maturation step of autophagy and the endocytic pathway as a Beclin-1-binding partner, but little is known regarding the role of Rubicon during viral infection. Here, we performed functional studies of the identified target in interferon (IFN) signaling pathways associated with Rubicon to elucidate the mechanisms of viral resistance to IFN. The Rubicon protein levels were elevated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, sera and liver tissues from patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection relative to those in healthy individuals...
April 10, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392570/human-t-cell-lymphotropic-virus-type-1-and-its-oncogenesis
#16
REVIEW
Lan-Lan Zhang, Jing-Yun Wei, Long Wang, Shi-le Huang, Ji-Long Chen
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), a rapidly progressing clonal malignancy of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Exploring the host-HTLV-1 interactions and the molecular mechanisms underlying HTLV-1-mediated tumorigenesis is critical for developing efficient therapies against the viral infection and associated leukemia/lymphoma. It has been demonstrated to date that several HTLV-1 proteins play key roles in the cellular transformation and immortalization of infected T lymphocytes...
April 10, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380049/mir-144-attenuates-the-host-response-to-influenza-virus-by-targeting-the-traf6-irf7-signaling-axis
#17
Carrie M Rosenberger, Rebecca L Podyminogin, Alan H Diercks, Piper M Treuting, Jacques J Peschon, David Rodriguez, Madhumati Gundapuneni, Mitchell J Weiss, Alan Aderem
Antiviral responses must rapidly defend against infection while minimizing inflammatory damage, but the mechanisms that regulate the magnitude of response within an infected cell are not well understood. miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that suppress protein levels by binding target sequences on their cognate mRNA. Here, we identify miR-144 as a negative regulator of the host antiviral response. Ectopic expression of miR-144 resulted in increased replication of three RNA viruses in primary mouse lung epithelial cells: influenza virus, EMCV, and VSV...
April 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368411/pu-1-acts-as-tumor-suppressor-for-myeloma-cells-through-direct-transcriptional-repression-of-irf4
#18
N Ueno, N Nishimura, S Ueno, S Endo, H Tatetsu, S Hirata, H Hata, M Matsuoka, H Mitsuya, Y Okuno
We previously reported that PU.1 is downregulated in the majority of myeloma cell lines and primary myeloma cells of certain myeloma patients, and conditional expression of PU.1 in such myeloma cell lines induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. We found downregulation of IRF4 protein in the U266 myeloma cell line following induction of PU.1. Previous studies reported that knockdown of IRF4 in myeloma cell lines induces apoptosis, prompting us to further investigate the role of IRF4 downregulation in PU.1-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in myeloma cells...
April 3, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367002/tsg-6-downregulates-ifn-alpha-and-tnf-alpha-expression-by-suppressing-irf7-phosphorylation-in-human-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells
#19
L Kui, G C Chan, P P W Lee
Proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and type I interferons (IFN) are pathogenic signatures of systemic lupus erythematosus, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a major role by predominantly producing IFN-α. Given the rise of importance in identifying tumor necrosis stimulated gene 6 (TSG-6) as a key anti-inflammatory regulator, we investigate its function and its ability to counteract proinflammatory cytokine secretion by pDCs in vitro. CpG-A and R837 induced significant endogenous TSG-6 expression in the pDC cell-line GEN2...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342865/kshv-encoded-viral-interferon-regulatory-factor-4-virf4-interacts-with-irf7-and-inhibits-interferon-alpha-production
#20
Sung-Woo Hwang, DongIk Kim, Jae U Jung, Hye-Ra Lee
Before an infection can be completely established, the host immediately turns on the innate immune system through activating the interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral pathway. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) utilizes a unique antagonistic mechanism of type I IFN-mediated host antiviral immunity by incorporating four viral interferon regulatory factors (vIRF1-4). Herein, we characterized novel immune evasion strategies of vIRF4 to inhibit the IRF7-mediated IFN-α production. KSHV vIRF4 specifically interacts with IRF7, resulting in inhibition of IRF7 dimerization and ultimately suppresses IRF7-mediated activation of type I IFN...
May 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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