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Lyle W Murray, Iman Satti, Jodi Meyerowitz, Matthew Jones, Christian B Willberg, James E Ussher, Dominique Goedhals, Jacob Hurst, Rodney E Phillips, Helen McShane, Cloete van Vuuren, John Frater
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals have a higher risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB) than HIV-uninfected individuals, but the mechanisms underpinning this are unclear. We hypothesized that depletion of specific components of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses contributed to this increased risk. Methods: Mtb-specific T-cell responses in 147 HIV-infected and 44 HIV-uninfected control subjects in a TB-endemic setting in Bloemfontein, South Africa, were evaluated...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Steffi De Pelsmaeker, Nicolas Romero, Massimo Vitale, Herman W Favoreel
Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in the host response against viral infections and cancer development. They are able to kill virus-infected and tumor cells, and produce different important cytokines that stimulate the antiviral and antitumor adaptive immune response, particularly interferon gamma. NK cells are of particular importance in herpesvirus infections, which is illustrated by systemic and life-threatening herpesvirus disease symptoms in patients with deficiencies in NK cell activity, and by the myriad of reports describing herpesvirus NK cell evasion strategies...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Denise C Hsu, Kimberly F Breglio, Luxin Pei, Chun-Shu Wong, Bruno B Andrade, Virginia Sheikh, Margery Smelkinson, Constantinos Petrovas, Adam Rupert, Leonardo Gil-Santana, Adrian Zelazny, Steven M Holland, Kenneth Olivier, Daniel Barber, Irini Sereti
Background: Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is an aberrant inflammatory response in individuals with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. The pathogenesis of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)-associated IRIS has not been fully elucidated. Methods: We investigated monocyte and CD4+ T-cell responses in vitro, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) expression in tissues, and plasma cytokines and inflammatory markers, in 13 HIV-infected patients with MAC-IRIS and 14 HIV-uninfected patients with pulmonary MAC infection...
March 10, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Yi-Yi Wang, Bing-di Xie
Central nervous system (CNS) disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is highly devastating. Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most common form of CNS tuberculosis (TB). Rapid, sensitive, and affordable diagnostic tests are not available. Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain has a very low sensitivity in cases of TBM, the sensitivity rates is of about 10-20%.The detection rate can be improved by taking large volume CSF samples (>6 ml) and prolonged slide examination (30 min). Culture of MTB from the CSF is slow and insufficiently sensitive...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Wan Peng, Yan Sun, Gao-Fei Li, Liang-Ge He, Ruo-Zhu Li, Yao-Si Liang, Xu Ding, Xue Yu, Yong Zhang, Hao-Ran Lin, Dan-Qi Lu
Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is a Th1 cytokine that is critical for innate and adaptive immunity. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling pathways are critical in early host defense against invading pathogens. miR-146a has been reported to participate in the regulation of host immunity. The known mechanisms of integrations between the IFNγ and TLR signaling pathways are incompletely understood, especially in teleosts. In this study, orange-spotted grouper ( Epinephelus coioides ) IFNγ1 and IFNγ2, their biological activities, especially their involvements in TLR pathway, were explored...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Eda Balkan, Handan Bilen, Nilnur Eyerci, Sadullah Keleş, Aslı Kara, Necmettin Akdeniz, Hasan Dogan
BACKGROUND To investigate the gene expression levels of interleukin 10 (IL10), IL18, interferon gamma (IFNG), IFN-gamma receptor (IFNGR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in patients with active Behçet's uveitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty patients with Behçet's disease diagnosed according to the International Study Group criteria and 30 healthy individuals were included in the study. IL10, IL18, IFNG, IFNGR, CRP, and HSP70 gene expression levels were compared. RESULTS Expression levels of IL18, IFNG, IFNGR, and CRP were significantly higher in patients with active Behçet's uveitis than in control subjects (P<0...
March 13, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Shanieek Lawrence, Farah Ismail, Sarah Z Jamal, Margaret M Whalen
Tributyltin (TBT) is found in human blood and other tissues and thus is of considerable concern as to its effects on human health. Previous studies have demonstrated that TBT has detrimental effects on immune function. Recently, we found that exposures to TBT caused increased secretion of two important proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interferon gamma (IFNγ). Elevation of either of these cytokines has the potential to cause chronic inflammation, which is an important factor in a number of diseases including cancer...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Lin Yuan, Wanli Li, Qianqian Huo, Chenhong Du, Zhixiang Wang, Baodi Yi, Mingfa Wang
This study investigated the effects of xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS) and flavomycin (FLA) on the performance and immune function of broiler chickens. A total of 150 ArborAcres broilers were randomly divided into three groups and fed for six weeks from one day of age in cascade cages. The diets of each test group were (1) a basal diet, (2) the basal diet supplemented with 2 mg/kg FLA, and (3) the basal diet supplemented with 2 mg/kg XOS. At 21 and 42 days, the growth performance index values and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in the cecum were quantified...
2018: PeerJ
Mark Yulis, Miguel Quiros, Roland Hilgarth, Charles A Parkos, Asma Nusrat
Desmosomal cadherins mediate intercellular adhesion and have also been shown to regulate homeostatic signaling in epithelial cells. We have previously reported that select pro-inflammatory cytokines induce Dsg2 ectodomain cleavage and shedding from intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Dsg2 extracellular cleaved fragments (Dsg2 ECF) function to induce paracrine pro-proliferative signaling in epithelial cells. In this study, we show that exposure of IECs to pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) resulted in Dsg2 intracellular cleavage and generation of a ~55 kDa fragment (Dsg2 ICF)...
March 9, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Elisabetta Gerace, Francesca Mandanici, Paolo Pasquali, Maria Falduto, Maria Vitale, Vincenzo Di Marco Lo Presti, Benedetta Amato
The interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) test measures cell mediated immune response (CMI) during the early stages of tuberculosis infection. Although Bovine Tuberculosis (BT) spread in feral pigs is widely documented in literature, the effectiveness of IFN-γ in this species has been only recently reported. One of the major obstacle of this assay is that whole blood samples should be stimulated with purified protein derivative (PPD) cocktail within 8 h from the blood sampling. This study set up a defined broth culture in which lymphocytes, the cell population predominantly responsible for IFN-γ production, are maintained in a steady-state and their vitality is preserved...
January 2018: Tuberculosis
Sally A F El-Sahrigy, Azza M O Abdel Rahman, Dalia Y Samaha, Nesrine A Mohamed, Sally M Saber, Hala A Talkhan, Ghada A Ismail, Essam M Ibraheem, Emad M Riad
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a huge worldwide burden, despite extensive vaccination coverage with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the only vaccine available against this disease, indicating that BCG-driven immunity is inadequate to protect the human population against TB. This underscore the critical necessitate to develop an improved TB vaccine, based on a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions and immune responses during mycobacterial infection. AIM OF THE WORK: To examine whether the exogenous addition of IFN-β could improve dendritic cell (DC) response to Mycobacterium bovis (M...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Anna Starshinova, Viacheslav Zhuravlev, Irina Dovgaluk, Alexandr Panteleev, Vera Manina, Ulia Zinchenko, Evgenia Istomina, Maria Pavlova, Piotr Yablonskiy
Background: The WHO strategy for eradication of tuberculosis (TB) by 2035 (The End TB Strategy) is aimed at an early and precise diagnosis and subsequent effective treatment of TB patients. Currently, there is no gold standard for the diagnosis of latent TB infection. This study evaluated the diagnostic capabilities of a new intradermal test using recombinant TB allergen (Diaskintest) compared with tuberculin skin test (TST) and commercial TB interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs). Methods: A post-hoc data analysis that involved examining 860 HIV-negative, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-vaccinated persons aged 1-65 years who visited the TB health-care institutions of Saint Petersburg to rule out or confirm an active TB was conducted from 2011 to 2016...
January 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Afra Hasabelrsoul Ali, Alfadhil Alobeid Omer, Nageeb Suleiman Saeed, Elhag E Mansour, Mogahid Mohammed Elhassan
Background: A variety of genetic mutations are thought to be responsible for acquisition of different infections such as tuberculosis (TB). An obvious example for these variations is the link between pulmonary TB and polymorphisms within interferon-gamma receptor 1 (IFN-γ R1) gene. This project is designed to identify the role of IFN-γR1 gene polymorphism in the development of pulmonary TB among Sudanese patients attending several hospitals in Khartoum State. Methods: One hundred (n = 100) patients with active TB and fifty (n = 50) matched healthy controls were investigated for the association of two genetic polymorphisms within IFN-γR1 gene and their risk of developing pulmonary tuberculosis...
January 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Xiaoling Xie, Weijun Zhou, Yuxing Hu, Yiran Chen, Honghao Zhang, Yuhua Li
The identification and characterization of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) that generate specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are vital to the development of cancer immunotherapy. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway substrate 8 gene (Eps8) is involved in regulating cancer progression and might be an ideal antigen. In this study, we searched for novel human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A*2402-restricted epitopes derived from the Eps8 protein via the HLA-binding prediction algorithm. Among four candidates, peptides 327 (EFLDCFQKF), 534 (KYAKSKYDF) and 755 (LFSLNKDEL) induced peptide-specific CTLs to secrete higher levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and showed enhanced cytotoxic activity against malignant cancer cells...
March 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Aletheia Soares Sampaio, Ana Lucia Ribeiro de Vasconcelos, Clarice Neuenschwander Lins de Morais, George Tadeu Nunes Diniz, Anna Lígia de Castro Figueiredo, Sílvia Maria Lucena Montenegro
INTRODUCTION: The functioning of the immune system during pregnancy is altered in both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and uninfected women. Unfavorable socioeconomic conditions have been indicative of higher morbidity and mortality and worsening of the immune system. The aim of this study was to correlate social status with levels of interleukin (IL)-10 (non-inflammatory) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ; inflammatory) cytokines. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with three groups of women: 33 pregnant HIV-infected (G1); 40 non-pregnant, HIV-infected (G2); and 35 pregnant, HIV-uninfected...
January 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Vesela Encheva, Clémence Foltz, Ambrosius P Snijders, Eva-Maria Frickel
OBJECTIVE: The intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii can invade any nucleated cell residing inside a parasitophorous vacuole (PV). Upon infection, the cytokine interferon gamma (IFNγ) is produced and elicits host defence mechanisms able to recognise the PV and destroy the parasite. Hereby, Guanylate binding proteins, ubiquitin and the E3 ubiquitin ligases Tripartite Motif Containing 21 (TRIM21) and TNF receptor associated factor 6 are targeted to the murine PV leading to its destruction...
March 6, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Ai-Ling Tian, MingMin Lu, Guillermo Calderón-Mantilla, Evangelia Petsalaki, Tania Dottorini, XiaoWei Tian, YuJian Wang, Si-Yang Huang, Jun-Ling Hou, XiangRui Li, Hany M Elsheikha, Xing-Quan Zhu
BACKGROUND: The molecular structure of Fasciola gigantica 14-3-3 protein has been characterized. However, the involvement of this protein in parasite pathogenesis remains elusive and its effect on the functions of innate immune cells is unknown. We report on the cloning and expression of a recombinant F. gigantica 14-3-3 epsilon protein (rFg14-3-3e), and testing its effects on specific functions of goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). METHODS: rFg14-3-3e protein was expressed in Pichia pastoris...
March 6, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Jung Seop Eom, Insu Kim, Won-Young Kim, Eun-Jung Jo, Jeongha Mok, Mi-Hyun Kim, Kwangha Lee, Ki Uk Kim, Hye-Kyung Park, Min Ki Lee
The high background rates of positive results on the tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) sometimes confuse the investigation of tuberculosis (TB) contact in TB-prevalent countries, particularly in elderly contacts. The aim was to investigate the predictive value of TST and IGRA for diagnosing latent TB infection (LTBI) in elderly household contacts in South Korea.In this retrospective study, TST and IGRA results of household contacts of suspected pulmonary TB patients were reviewed according to the index patient's final diagnosis (TB group: culture-confirmed pulmonary TB, non-TB group: pulmonary disease other than TB)...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Fabian Speth, Claas H Hinze, Susanne Andel, Thomas Mertens, Johannes-Peter Haas
BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to apply the varicella zoster virus (VZV) vaccine to patients with pediatric rheumatic diseases (PRD) at risk for severe chickenpox, without interrupting their current immunosuppression, including biological agents, using an immunological-based pre-vaccination checklist to assure safety. A pre-vaccination checklist was implemented to ensure adequate immune competence prior to immunization. METHODS: This prospective study included seronegative patients (VZV-IgG ≤200 mIU/ml) and patients who had previously received only a single dose of VZV vaccine...
March 2, 2018: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
Bruno Cerqueira-Rodrigues, Ana Mendes, Margarida Correia-Neves, Claudia Nobrega
CD4+ T cells are essential players for the control of mycobacterial infections. Several mycobacterial antigens have been identified for eliciting a relevant CD4+ T cell mediated-immune response, and numerous studies explored this issue in the context of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Antigen 85 (Ag85), a highly conserved protein across Mycobacterium species, is secreted at the early phase of M. tuberculosis infection leading to the proliferation of Ag85-specific CD4+ T cells. However, in the context of Mycobacterium avium infection, little is known about the expression of this antigen and the elicited immune response...
2018: PloS One
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