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inducing mitochondrial biogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727070/short-term-heat-stress-causes-altered-intracellular-signaling-in-oxidative-skeletal-muscle
#1
S Ganesan, C M Summers, S C Pearce, N K Gabler, R J Valentine, L H Baumgard, R P Rhoads, J T Selsby
Heat stress (HS) causes morbidities and mortalities, in part by inducing organ-specific injury and dysfunction. Further, HS markedly reduces farm animal productivity, and this is especially true for lean tissue accretion. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which short-term HS caused muscle dysfunction in skeletal muscle. We have previously found increased free radical injury in skeletal muscle following 24 h of HS. Thus, we hypothesized that HS would lead to apoptosis, autophagy, and decreased mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724797/increasing-the-level-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-coactivator-1%C3%AE-in-podocytes-results-in-collapsing-glomerulopathy
#2
Szu-Yuan Li, Jihwan Park, Chengxiang Qiu, Seung Hyeok Han, Matthew B Palmer, Zoltan Arany, Katalin Susztak
Inherited and acquired mitochondrial defects have been associated with podocyte dysfunction and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC1α) is one of the main transcriptional regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and function. We hypothesized that increasing PGC1α expression in podocytes could protect from CKD. We found that PGC1α and mitochondrial transcript levels are lower in podocytes of patients and mouse models with diabetic kidney disease (DKD)...
July 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720712/regulation-of-the-autophagy-system-during-chronic-contractile-activity-induced-muscle-adaptations
#3
Yuho Kim, David A Hood
Skeletal muscle is adaptable to exercise stimuli via the upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, and recent studies have suggested that autophagy also plays a role in exercise-induced muscle adaptations. However, it is still obscure how muscle regulates autophagy over the time course of training adaptations. This study examined the expression of autophagic proteins in skeletal muscle of rats exposed to chronic contractile activity (CCA; 6 h/day, 9V, 10 Hz continuous, 0.1 msec pulse duration) for 1, 3, and 7 days (n = 8/group)...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717105/ephedrine-induced-mitophagy-via-oxidative-stress-in-human-hepatic-stellate-cells
#4
Ah Young Lee, Yoonjeong Jang, Seong-Ho Hong, Seung-Hee Chang, Sungjin Park, Sanghwa Kim, Kyung-Sun Kang, Ji-Eun Kim, Myung-Haing Cho
The herb Ephedra sinica (also known as Chinese ephedra or Ma Huang), used in traditional Chinese medicine, contains alkaloids identical to ephedrine and pseudoephedrine as its principal active constituents. Recent studies have reported that ephedrine has various side effects in the cardiovascular and nervous systems. In addition, herbal Ephedra, a plant containing many pharmacologically active alkaloids, principally ephedrine, has been reported to cause acute hepatitis. Many studies reported clinical cases, however, the cellular mechanism of liver toxicity by ephedrine remains unknown...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713989/effects-of-proton-beam-irradiation-on-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-a-human-colorectal-adenocarcinoma-cell-line
#5
Byung Geun Ha, Sung Suk Jung, Yun Hee Shon
Proton beam therapy has recently been used to improve local control of tumor growth and reduce side-effects by decreasing the global dose to normal tissue. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying the physiological role of proton beam radiation are not well understood, and many studies are still being conducted regarding these mechanisms. To determine the effects of proton beams on mitochondrial biogenesis, we investigated: mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mass; the gene expression of mitochondrial transcription factors, functional regulators, and dynamic-related regulators; and the phosphorylation of the signaling molecules that participate in mitochondrial biogenesis...
July 5, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712868/salicylates-promote-mitochondrial-biogenesis-by-regulating-the-expression-of-pgc-1%C3%AE-in-murine-3t3-l1-pre-adipocytes
#6
Yimin Yan, Xiaohong Yang, Tao Zhao, Yi Zou, Rui Li, Yancheng Xu
Mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. Decreased mitochondrial density and mitochondrial copy numbers have been found in insulin-resistant individuals. Restoration of the number of mitochondria and normal mitochondrial function has become an important therapeutic target of diabetes. Salicylate, the main active ingredient in aspirin, has been in medicinal use since ancient times. Little information regarding the effects of salicylate on mitochondrial function has been reported...
July 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710704/systemic-analysis-of-mirnas-in-pd-stress-condition-mir-5701-modulates-mitochondrial-lysosomal-cross-talk-to-regulate-neuronal-death
#7
Paresh Prajapati, Lakshmi Sripada, Kritarth Singh, Milton Roy, Khyati Bhatelia, Pooja Dalwadi, Rajesh Singh
Parkinson's disease (PD) is complex neurological disorder and is prevalent in the elderly population. This is primarily due to loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) region of the brain. The modulators of the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in PD are still not well understood. The small non-coding RNAs specifically miRNAs fine-tune the protein levels by post-transcriptional gene regulation. The role of miRNAs in PD pathogenesis is still not well characterized. In the current study, we identified the miRNA expression pattern in 6-OHDA-induced PD stress condition in SH-SY5Y, dopaminergic neuronal cell line...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710503/rac1-mediated-cardiac-damage-causes-diastolic-dysfunction-in-a-mouse-model-of-subacute-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity
#8
Jan Ohlig, Christian Henninger, Simone Zander, Marc Merx, Malte Kelm, Gerhard Fritz
The anticancer efficacy of anthracyclines is limited by congestive heart failure. Clinically established markers of early onset of cardiotoxicity following anthracycline treatment and preventive measures are missing. Although statins are reported to alleviate anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity in vivo, the molecular mechanisms involved remain elusive. In vitro data point to Rac1 as major target of the cytoprotective statin effects. Here we investigated whether specific inhibition of Rac1 by NSC23766 is as effective as lovastatin in preventing subacute cardiotoxicity following doxorubicin treatment...
July 14, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707280/multi-regulatory-network-of-ros-the-interconnection-of-ros-pgc-1-alpha-and-ampk-sirt1-during-exercise
#9
REVIEW
Anand Thirupathi, Claudio Teodoro de Souza
Transcriptional factors are easily susceptible to any stimuli, including exercise. Exercise can significantly influence PGC-1 α and AMPK-SIRT1 pathway, as it is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis. Exercise is a major energy deprivation process by which many of transcription factors get tuned positively. However, how transcription factors help to boost the antioxidant defense system at cellular level is elusive. It is well known that physical exercise can induce reactive oxygen species, but how these reactive oxygen species can help to regulate multiple transcription factors during exercise is an important area to be discussed yet...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701693/transcription-factor-hlx-controls-a-systematic-switch-from-white-to-brown-fat-through-prdm16-mediated-co-activation
#10
Lei Huang, Dongning Pan, Qingbo Chen, Lihua J Zhu, Jianhong Ou, Martin Wabitsch, Yong-Xu Wang
Browning of subcutaneous white fat (iWAT) involves several reprograming events, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here we show that the transcription factor Hlx is selectively expressed in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and iWAT, and is translationally upregulated by β3-adrenergic signaling-mediated suppression of the translational inhibitor 4E-BP1. Hlx interacts with and is co-activated by Prdm16 to control BAT-selective gene expression and mitochondrial biogenesis. Hlx heterozygous knockout mice have defects in brown-like adipocyte formation in iWAT, and develop glucose intolerance and high fat-induced hepatic steatosis...
July 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698627/the-energy-disruptor-metformin-targets-mitochondrial-integrity-via-modification-of-calcium-flux-in-cancer-cells
#11
Camille Loubiere, Stephan Clavel, Jerome Gilleron, Rania Harisseh, Jeremy Fauconnier, Issam Ben-Sahra, Lisa Kaminski, Kathiane Laurent, Stephanie Herkenne, Sandra Lacas-Gervais, Damien Ambrosetti, Damien Alcor, Stephane Rocchi, Mireille Cormont, Jean-François Michiels, Bernard Mari, Nathalie M Mazure, Luca Scorrano, Alain Lacampagne, Abdallah Gharib, Jean-François Tanti, Frederic Bost
Mitochondrial integrity is critical for the regulation of cellular energy and apoptosis. Metformin is an energy disruptor targeting complex I of the respiratory chain. We demonstrate that metformin induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, calcium release from the ER and subsequent uptake of calcium into the mitochondria, thus leading to mitochondrial swelling. Metformin triggers the disorganization of the cristae and inner mitochondrial membrane in several cancer cells and tumors. Mechanistically, these alterations were found to be due to calcium entry into the mitochondria, because the swelling induced by metformin was reversed by the inhibition of mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU)...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697336/dgat1-dependent-lipid-droplet-biogenesis-protects-mitochondrial-function-during-starvation-induced-autophagy
#12
Truc B Nguyen, Sharon M Louie, Joseph R Daniele, Quan Tran, Andrew Dillin, Roberto Zoncu, Daniel K Nomura, James A Olzmann
Lipid droplets (LDs) provide an "on-demand" source of fatty acids (FAs) that can be mobilized in response to fluctuations in nutrient abundance. Surprisingly, the amount of LDs increases during prolonged periods of nutrient deprivation. Why cells store FAs in LDs during an energy crisis is unknown. Our data demonstrate that mTORC1-regulated autophagy is necessary and sufficient for starvation-induced LD biogenesis. The ER-resident diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) selectively channels autophagy-liberated FAs into new, clustered LDs that are in close proximity to mitochondria and are lipolytically degraded...
July 10, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682939/burn-trauma-acutely-increases-the-respiratory-capacity-and-function-of-liver-mitochondria
#13
Fredrick J Bohanon, Omar Nunez Lopez, David N Herndon, Xiaofu Wang, Nisha Bhattarai, Amina El Ayadi, Anesh Prasai, Jayson W Jay, Yesenia Rojas-Khalil, Tracy E Toliver-Kinsky, Celeste C Finnerty, Ravi S Radhakrishnan, Craig Porter
BACKGROUND: A complete understanding of the role of the liver in burn-induced hypermetabolism is lacking. We investigated the acute effect of severe burn trauma on liver mitochondrial respiratory capacity and coupling control as well as the signaling events underlying these alterations. METHODS: Male BALB/c mice (8-12 weeks) received full-thickness scald burns on ∼30% of the body surface. Liver tissue was harvested 24 hours post injury. Mitochondrial respiration was determined by high-resolution respirometry...
July 4, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675237/ursolic-acid-induces-mitochondrial-biogenesis-through-the-activation-of-ampk-and-pgc-1-in-c2c12-myotubes-a-possible-mechanism-underlying-its-beneficial-effect-on-exercise-endurance
#14
Jihang Chen, Hoi Shan Wong, Pou Kuan Leong, Hoi Yan Leung, Wing Man Chan, Kam Ming Ko
Mitochondrial biogenesis, which involves an increase in mitochondrial number and the overall capacity of oxidative phosphorylation, is a critical determinant of skeletal muscle function. Recent findings have shown that some natural products can enhance mitochondrial adaptation to aerobic exercise, which in turn improves exercise performance, presumably by delaying muscle fatigue. Ursolic acid (UA), a natural triterpene, is commonly found in various vegetables and fruits. In the current study, UA was shown to increase mitochondrial mass and ATP generation capacity, with a concomitant production of a low level of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in C2C12 myotubes...
July 19, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668760/effect-of-contaminants-of-emerging-concern-on-liver-mitochondrial-function-in-chinook-salmon
#15
Andrew Yeh, David J Marcinek, James P Meador, Evan P Gallagher
We previously reported the bioaccumulation of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), including pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and perfluorinated compounds, in field-collected juvenile Chinook salmon from urban estuaries of Puget Sound, WA (Meador et al., 2016). Although the toxicological impacts of CECs on salmon are poorly understood, several of the detected contaminants disrupt mitochondrial function in other species. Here, we sought to determine whether environmental exposures to CECs are associated with hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction in juvenile Chinook...
June 16, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666871/structural-bases-of-the-altered-catalytic-properties-of-a-pathogenic-variant-of-apoptosis-inducing-factor
#16
Luca Sorrentino, Federica Cossu, Mario Milani, Alessandro Aliverti, Eloise Mastrangelo
The apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is a FAD-containing protein playing critical roles in caspase-independent apoptosis and mitochondrial respiratory chain biogenesis and maintenance. While its lethal role is well known, the details of its mitochondrial function remain elusive. So far, nineteen allelic variants of AIF have been associated to human diseases, mainly affecting the nervous system. A strict correlation is emerging between the degree of impairment of its ability to stabilize the charge-transfer (CT) complex between FAD and NAD(+) and the severity of the resulting pathology...
June 27, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661045/sodium-salicylate-modulates-inflammatory-responses-through-amp-activated-protein-kinase-activation-in-lps-stimulated-thp-1-cells
#17
Weiwei Bao, Yaru Luo, Dan Wang, Jian Li, Xi Wu, Wei Mei
Sodium salicylate (NaSal) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The putative mechanisms for NaSal's pharmacologic actions include the inhibition of cyclooxygenases, platelet-derived thromboxane A2 and NF-κB signaling. Recent studies demonstrated that salicylate could activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor that maintains the balance between ATP production and consumption. The anti-inflammatory action of AMPK has been reported to be mediated by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659734/effects-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-on-thermogenesis-and-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-brown-adipose-tissues-of-diet-induced-obese-mice
#18
Mak-Soon Lee, Yoonjin Shin, Sunyoon Jung, Yangha Kim
Background: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the major polyphenol in green tea and has been considered a natural agent that can help to reduce the risk of obesity. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of EGCG on thermogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) of diet-induced obese mice. Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were provided a high-fat diet for 8 weeks to induce obesity, following which they were divided into two groups: one on a high-fat control diet and the other on a 0...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659586/pgc-1%C3%AE-attenuates-hydrogen-peroxide-induced-apoptotic-cell-death-by-upregulating-nrf-2-via-gsk3%C3%AE-inactivation-mediated-by-activated-p38-in-hk-2-cells
#19
Hoon-In Choi, Hye-Jin Kim, Jung-Sun Park, In-Jin Kim, Eun Hui Bae, Seong Kwon Ma, Soo Wan Kim
Ischemia/reperfusion injury triggers acute kidney injury (AKI) by aggravating oxidative stress mediated mitochondria dysfunction. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is a master player that regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and the antioxidant response. We postulated that PGC-1α functions as cytoprotective effector in renal cells and that its regulation mechanism is coordinated by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2). In this study, to understand the effect and molecular mechanisms of PGC-1α, we developed an empty vector or PGC-1α-overexpressing stable cell lines in HK-2 cells (Mock or PGC-1α stable cells)...
June 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659036/cinnamomum-cassia-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice-through-the-increase-of-muscle-energy
#20
Mi Young Song, Seok Yong Kang, Anna Kang, Ji Hye Hwang, Yong-Ki Park, Hyo Won Jung
The cortex of Cinnamomum cassia Presl (Cinnamomi Cortex: CC) has commonly been used for weight control in traditional medicines, but without a scientific basis. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the anti-obesity effect of CC extract in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mouse model and in C2C12 mouse skeletal muscle cells. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet or a HFD for 16 consecutive weeks, and orally administered CC extract (100 or 300[Formula: see text]mg/kg) or metformin (250[Formula: see text]mg/kg; positive control) daily for 16 weeks...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
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