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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913529/ph-like-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#1
Thai Hoa Tran, Mignon L Loh
Philadelphia chromosome-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph-like ALL) is a newly identified high-risk (HR) B-lineage ALL subtype, accounting for ∼15% of children with National Cancer Institute-defined HR B-ALL. It occurs more frequently in adolescents and adults, having been reported in as much as 27% of young adults with ALL between 21 and 39 years of age. It exhibits adverse clinical features, confers a poor prognosis, and harbors a diverse range of genetic alterations that activate cytokine receptor genes and kinase signaling pathways, making it amenable to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911302/association-between-cognitive-status-before-surgery-and-outcomes-in-elderly-patients-with-hip-fracture-in-a-dedicated-orthogeriatric-care-pathway
#2
Lorene Zerah, Judith Cohen-Bittan, Mathieu Raux, Anthony Meziere, Cendrine Tourette, Christian Neri, Marc Verny, Bruno Riou, Frederic Khiami, Jacques Boddaert
BACKGROUND: Dementia is associated with a worse prognosis of hip fracture, but the impact of a dedicated geriatric care pathway on the prognosis of these patients has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: According to the cognitive status before surgery, our main objective was to compare mortality rate at 6 months; secondary outcomes were to compare in-hospital complications, the risk of new institutionalization, and the ability to walk at 6 months. METHODS: Between 2009 and 2015, all patients (>70 years) admitted after hip fracture surgery into a dedicated unit of peri-operative geriatric care were included: patients with dementia (DP), without dementia (NDP), and with cognitive status not determined (CSND)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911299/chronotropic-response-and-cognitive-function-in-a-cohort-at-risk-for%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Lena L Law, Stephanie A Schultz, Elizabeth A Boots, Jean A Einerson, Ryan J Dougherty, Jennifer M Oh, Claudia E Korcarz, Dorothy F Edwards, Rebecca L Koscik, N Maritza Dowling, Catherine L Gallagher, Barbara B Bendlin, Cynthia M Carlsson, Sanjay Asthana, Bruce P Hermann, Mark A Sager, Sterling C Johnson, Dane B Cook, James H Stein, Ozioma C Okonkwo
The objective of this study was to examine the association of chronotropic response (CR) and heart rate (HR) recovery- two indices of cardiovascular function within the context of a graded exercise test- with cognitive performance in a cognitively healthy, late-middle-aged cohort at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ninety participants (age = 63.52±5.86 years; 65.6% female) from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention participated in this study. They underwent graded exercise testing and a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment that assessed the following four cognitive domains: Immediate Memory, Verbal & Learning Memory, Working Memory, and Speed & Flexibility...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908783/lipid-peroxidation-in-face-of-dna-damage-dna-repair-and-other-cellular-processes
#4
Barbara Tudek, Daria Zdżalik-Bielecka, Agnieszka Tudek, Konrad Kosicki, Anna Fabisiewicz, Elżbieta Speina
Exocyclic adducts to DNA bases are formed as a consequence of exposure to certain environmental carcinogens as well as inflammation and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Complex family of LPO products gives rise to a variety of DNA adducts, which can be grouped in two classes: (i) small etheno-type adducts of strong mutagenic potential, and (ii) bulky, propano-type adducts, which block replication and transcription, and are lethal lesions. Etheno-DNA adducts are removed from the DNA by base excision repair (BER), AlkB and nucleotide incision repair enzymes (NIR), while substituted propano-type lesions by nucleotide excision repair (NER) and homologous recombination (HR)...
November 28, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906047/propranolol-and-survival-from-breast-cancer-a-pooled-analysis-of-european-breast-cancer-cohorts
#5
Chris R Cardwell, Anton Pottegård, Evelien Vaes, Hans Garmo, Liam J Murray, Chris Brown, Pauline A J Vissers, Michael O'Rorke, Kala Visvanathan, Deirdre Cronin-Fenton, Harlinde De Schutter, Mats Lambe, Des G Powe, Myrthe P P van Herk-Sukel, Anna Gavin, Søren Friis, Linda Sharp, Kathleen Bennett
BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have demonstrated that propranolol inhibits several pathways involved in breast cancer progression and metastasis. We investigated whether breast cancer patients who used propranolol, or other non-selective beta-blockers, had reduced breast cancer-specific or all-cause mortality in eight European cohorts. METHODS: Incident breast cancer patients were identified from eight cancer registries and compiled through the European Cancer Pharmacoepidemiology Network...
December 1, 2016: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903895/protein-dynamics-of-human-rpa-and-rad51-on-ssdna-during-assembly-and-disassembly-of-the-rad51-filament
#6
Chu Jian Ma, Bryan Gibb, YoungHo Kwon, Patrick Sung, Eric C Greene
Homologous recombination (HR) is a crucial pathway for double-stranded DNA break (DSB) repair. During the early stages of HR, the newly generated DSB ends are processed to yield long single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) overhangs, which are quickly bound by replication protein A (RPA). RPA is then replaced by the DNA recombinase Rad51, which forms extended helical filaments on the ssDNA. The resulting nucleoprotein filament, known as the presynaptic complex, is responsible for pairing the ssDNA with homologous double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), which serves as the template to guide DSB repair...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902969/rac1-gtp-ase-signals-wnt-beta-catenin-pathway-mediated-integrin-directed-metastasis-associated-tumor-cell-phenotypes-in-triple-negative-breast-cancers
#7
Pradip De, Jennifer H Carlson, Tyler Jepperson, Scooter Willis, Brian Leyland-Jones, Nandini Dey
The acquisition of integrin-directed metastasis-associated (ID-MA) phenotypes by Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) cells is caused by an upregulation of the Wnt-beta-catenin pathway (WP). We reported that WP is one of the salient genetic features of TNBC. RAC-GTPases, small G-proteins which transduce signals from cell surface proteins including integrins, have been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis by their role in essential cellular functions like motility. The collective percentage of alteration(s) in RAC1 in ER+ve BC was lower as compared to ER-ve BC (35% vs 57%) (brca/tcga/pub2015)...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902466/long-non-coding-rna-urothelial-carcinoma-associated-1-uca1-mediates-radiation-response-in-prostate-cancer
#8
Alireza Fotouhi Ghiam, Samira Taeb, Xiaoyong Huang, Vincent Huang, Jessica Ray, Seville Scarcello, Christianne Hoey, Sahar Jahangiri, Emmanouil Fokas, Andrew Loblaw, Robert G Bristow, Danny Vesprini, Paul Boutros, Stanley K Liu
Radioresistance remains a significant obstacle in the treatment of Prostate Cancer (PCa). To simulate the clinical scenario of irradiation resistance (IRR), we created DU145-IRR PCa cell lines by treatment with 2 Gy daily IR for 59 fractions. DU145-IRR cells acquired an aggressive phenotype as evidenced by increased clonogenic survival, tumorigenic potential and invasiveness. We performed transcriptome profiling to discover dysregulated genes in DU145-IRR cells and identified the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), Urothelial carcinoma-associated 1 (UCA1)...
November 24, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897293/the-role-of-water-in-the-degradation-process-of-paper-using-1-h-hr-mas-nmr-spectroscopy
#9
Carmelo Corsaro, Domenico Mallamace, Sebastiano Vasi, Luciano Pietronero, Francesco Mallamace, Mauro Missori
The thermodynamic properties of water are essential for determining the corresponding properties of every biosystem it interacts with. Indeed, the comprehension of hydration mechanisms is fundamental for the understanding and the control of paper degradation pathways induced by natural or artificial aging. In fact, the interactions between water and cellulose at the accessible sites within the fibres' complex structure are responsible for the rupture of hydrogen bonds and the consequent swelling of the cellulose fibres and consumption of the amorphous regions...
November 29, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896396/metabolic-profiling-of-ob-ob-mouse-fatty-liver-using-hr-mas-1-h-nmr-combined-with-gene-expression-analysis-reveals-alterations-in-betaine-metabolism-and-the-transsulfuration-pathway
#10
Mikheil Gogiashvili, Karolina Edlund, Kathrin Gianmoena, Rosemarie Marchan, Alexander Brik, Jan T Andersson, Jörg Lambert, Katrin Madjar, Birte Hellwig, Jörg Rahnenführer, Jan G Hengstler, Roland Hergenröder, Cristina Cadenas
Metabolic perturbations resulting from excessive hepatic fat accumulation are poorly understood. Thus, in this study, leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, a mouse model of fatty liver disease, were used to investigate metabolic alterations in more detail. Metabolites were quantified in intact liver tissues of ob/ob (n = 8) and control (n = 8) mice using high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) (1)H-NMR. In addition, after demonstrating that HR-MAS (1)H-NMR does not affect RNA integrity, transcriptional changes were measured by quantitative real-time PCR on RNA extracted from the same specimens after HR-MAS (1)H-NMR measurements...
November 28, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890540/association-of-plasma-calcium-concentrations-with-alcohol-craving-new-data-on-potential-pathways
#11
Rilana Schuster, Anne Koopmann, Martin Grosshans, Iris Reinhard, Rainer Spanagel, Falk Kiefer
Recently, calcium was suggested to be the active moiety of acamprosate. We examined plasma calcium concentrations in association with severity of alcohol dependence and its interaction with regulating pathways and alcohol craving in alcohol-dependent patients. 47 inpatient alcohol-dependent patients undergoing detoxification treatment underwent laboratory testing, including calcium, sodium, liver enzymes as well as serum concentrations of calcitonin, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D. The psychometric dimension of craving was analyzed with the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS)...
November 24, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884198/use-of-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-parp-inhibitors-in-cancer-cells-bearing-ddr-defects-the-rationale-for-their-inclusion-in-the-clinic
#12
REVIEW
Aniello Cerrato, Francesco Morra, Angela Celetti
BACKGROUND: DNA damage response (DDR) defects imply genomic instability and favor tumor progression but make the cells vulnerable to the pharmacological inhibition of the DNA repairing enzymes. Targeting cellular proteins like PARPs, which cooperate and complement molecular defects of the DDR process, induces a specific lethality in DDR defective cancer cells and represents an anti-cancer strategy. Normal cells can tolerate the DNA damage generated by PARP inhibition because of an efficient homologous recombination mechanism (HR); in contrast, cancer cells with a deficient HR are unable to manage the DSBs and appear especially sensitive to the PARP inhibitors (PARPi) effects...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883943/targeted-therapy-for-breast-cancer-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-resistance-to-treatment
#13
REVIEW
Guowei Gu, Derek Dustin, Suzanne Aw Fuqua
In recent years, clinical trials investigating new drugs and therapeutic combinations have led to promising advances in breast cancer therapy. Subtyping breast cancers into hormone receptor (HR) positive, epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2) positive, and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is currently the basis of diagnosing and treating this disease. In addition to endocrine and HER2-targeted therapies in their respective subtypes, evidence from recent preclinical studies have shown several targetable pathways that overcome resistance in the clinical setting...
November 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872704/effects-of-sex-steroid-hormones-on-neuromedin-s-and-neuromedin-u2-receptor-expression-following-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Mohammad Khaksari, Fatemeh Maghool, Gholamreza Asadikaram, Zahra Hajializadeh
OBJECTIVES: Neuroprotective effects of female gonadal steroids are mediated through several pathways involving multiple peptides and receptors after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Two of these peptides are including the regulatory peptides neuromedin U (NMU) and neuromedin S (NMS), and their common receptor neuromedin U2 receptor (NMUR2). This study investigates the effects of physiological doses of estradiol and progesterone on brain edema, NMS and NMU as well as NMUR2 expression following TBI...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866150/crispr-cas9-induced-double-strand-break-repair-in-arabidopsis-non-homologous-end-joining-mutants
#15
Hexi Shen, Gary D Strunks, Bart J P M Klemann, Paul J J Hooykaas, Sylvia de Pater
Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most harmful DNA lesions. Cells utilize two main pathways for DSB repair: homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). NHEJ can be subdivided into the KU-dependent classical NHEJ (c-NHEJ) and the more error-prone KU-independent backup-NHEJ (b-NHEJ) pathways, involving the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). However, in absence of these factors, cells still seem able to adequately maintain genome integrity, suggesting the presence of other b-NHEJ repair factors or pathways independent from KU and PARPs...
November 18, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865919/differential-stress-induced-c-fos-expression-and-identification-of-region-specific-mirna-mrna-networks-in-the-dorsal-raphe-and-amygdala-of-high-responder-low-responder-rats
#16
Joshua L Cohen, Anooshah E Ata, Nateka L Jackson, Elizabeth J Rahn, Ryne C Ramaker, Sara Cooper, Ilan A Kerman, Sarah M Clinton
Chronic stress triggers a variety of physical and mental health problems, and how individuals cope with stress influences risk for emotional disorders. To investigate molecular mechanisms underlying distinct stress coping styles, we utilized rats that were selectively-bred for differences in emotionality and stress reactivity. We show that high novelty responding (HR) rats readily bury a shock probe in the defensive burying test, a measure of proactive stress coping behavior, while low novelty responding (LR) rats exhibit enhanced immobility, a measure of reactive coping...
November 16, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864903/long-term-monitoring-of-cardiorespiratory-patterns-in-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#17
Daniel M Goldenholz, Amanda Kuhn, Alison Austermuehle, Martin Bachler, Christopher Mayer, Siegfried Wassertheurer, Sara K Inati, William H Theodore
OBJECTIVE: Sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP) during inpatient electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring has been a rare but potentially preventable event, with associated cardiopulmonary markers. To date, no systematic evaluation of alarm settings for a continuous pulse oximeter (SpO2 ) has been performed. In addition, evaluation of the interrelationship between the ictal and interictal states for cardiopulmonary measures has not been reported. METHODS: Patients with epilepsy were monitored using video-EEG, SpO2 , and electrocardiography (ECG)...
November 16, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863841/the-role-and-impact-of-estrogens-and-xenoestrogen-on-the-development-of-cervical-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Dorota Ewa Bronowicka-Kłys, Margarita Lianeri, Paweł Piotr Jagodziński
Throughout an individual's lifetime, the human body is exposed to many different chemical compounds, including xenoestrogens (XEs) that can be found in the environment, food, air, cosmetics and other substances, which have a positive or negative impact on their health and lifestyle. Whereas high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is necessary but not sufficient for full malignant cervical cell transformation, other compounds such as estrogens and XEs may be risk factors for cervical cancer (CC) development...
November 15, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863516/residential-neighbourhood-greenspace-is-associated-with-reduced-risk-of-incident-diabetes-in-older-people-a-prospective-cohort-study
#19
Alice M Dalton, Andrew P Jones, Stephen J Sharp, Andrew J M Cooper, Simon Griffin, Nicholas J Wareham
BACKGROUND: Three cross sectional studies suggest that neighbourhood greenspace may protect against incident diabetes. This study uses data from a longitudinal study with a large sample size to investigate the association between greenspace and the occurrence of incident diabetes over time. METHODS: Data was from the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer Norfolk, UK, cohort, recruitment 1993-2007 (N = 23,865). Neighbourhoods were defined as 800 m circular buffers around participants' home locations, according to their home postcode (zip code)...
November 18, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856220/the-biology-of-beta-human-papillomaviruses
#20
REVIEW
Massimo Tommasino
The beta genus comprises more than 50 beta human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are suspected to be involved, together with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), the most common form of human cancer. Two members of the genus beta, HPV5 and HPV8, were first identified in patients with a genetic disorder, epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), that confers high susceptibility to beta HPV infection and NMSC development. The fact that organ transplant recipients (OTRs) with an impaired immune system have an elevated risk of NMSC raised the hypothesis that beta HPV types may also be involved in skin carcinogenesis in non-EV patients...
November 14, 2016: Virus Research
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