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galacto-oligosaccharides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396144/supplementation-of-diet-with-galacto-oligosaccharides-increases-bifidobacteria-but-not-insulin-sensitivity-in-obese-prediabetic-individuals
#1
Emanuel E Canfora, Christina M van der Beek, Gerben D A Hermes, Gijs H Goossens, Johan W E Jocken, Jens J Holst, Hans M van Eijk, Koen Venema, Hauke Smidt, Erwin G Zoetendal, Cornelis H C Dejong, Kaatje Lenaerts, Ellen E Blaak
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The gut microbiota affects host lipid and glucose metabolism, satiety, and chronic low-grade inflammation to contribute to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Fermentation end products, in particular the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) acetate, are believed to be involved in these processes. We investigate the long-term effects of supplementation with galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), an acetogenic fiber, on the composition of the human gut microbiota and human metabolism. METHODS: We performed a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel intervention study of 44 overweight or obese (body mass index, 28-40 kg/m2) prediabetic men and women (ages, 45-70 years) from October 2014 through October 2015 in Maastricht, The Netherlands...
April 7, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391618/structural-features-of-aspergillus-niger-%C3%AE-galactosidase-define-its-activity-against-glycoside-linkages
#2
Agustín Rico-Díaz, Mercedes Ramírez-Escudero, Ángel Vizoso-Vázquez, M Esperanza Cerdán, Manuel Becerra, Julia Sanz-Aparicio
β-galactosidases are biotechnologically interesting enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis or transgalactosylation of β-galactosides. Among them, the Aspergillus niger β-galactosidase (AnβGal) belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 35 (GH35) and is widely used in the industry due to its high hydrolytic activity degrading lactose. We present here its three-dimensional structure in complex with different oligosaccharides, to illustrate the structural determinants of the broad specificity of the enzyme against different glycoside linkages...
April 8, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328065/randomised-controlled-trial-demonstrates-that-fermented-infant-formula-with-short-chain-galacto-oligosaccharides-and-long-chain-fructo-oligosaccharides-reduces-the-incidence-of-infantile-colic
#3
Yvan Vandenplas, Thomas Ludwig, Hetty Bouritius, Philippe Alliet, Derek Forde, Stefaan Peeters, Frederic Huet, Jonathan Hourihane
AIM: We examined the effects on gastrointestinal tolerance of a novel infant formula that combined specific fermented formula (FERM) with short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS), with a 9:1 ratio and concentration of 0.8g/100ml. METHODS: This prospective, double-blind, randomised, controlled trial comprised 432 healthy, term infants aged 0-28 days whose parents decided to not start, or discontinued,, breastfeeding...
March 22, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318250/chemical-characterization-of-potentially-prebiotic-oligosaccharides-in-brewed-coffee-and-spent-coffee-grounds
#4
Tian Tian, Samara Freeman, Mark Corey, J Bruce German, Daniela Barile
Oligosaccharides are indigestible carbohydrates widely present in mammalian milk and in some plants. Milk oligosaccharides are associated with positive health outcomes; however, oligosaccharides in coffee have not been extensively studied. We investigated the oligosaccharides and their monomeric composition in dark roasted coffee beans, brewed coffee, and spent coffee grounds. Oligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization ranging from 3 to 15, and their constituent monosaccharides, were characterized and quantified...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262216/effects-of-prebiotics-and-synbiotics-on-functional-constipation
#5
REVIEW
Ting Yu, Yong-Ping Zheng, Jia-Cheng Tan, Wen-Jie Xiong, Yun Wang, Lin Lin
The objective was to determine the effects of prebiotics and synbiotics on adults with functional constipation (FC). Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched for literature published up to February 2015. We selected randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported administration of prebiotics or synbiotics to adults with FC. The end points included stool frequency, stool consistency and other symptoms related to constipation. Mean differences (MD) or standard mean differences (SMD) were used for continuous outcomes and risk ratios for discontinuous outcomes using a random-effects model...
March 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244671/prebiotic-inulin-type-fructans-and-galacto-oligosaccharides-definition-specificity-function-and-application-in-gastrointestinal-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Bridgette Wilson, Kevin Whelan
Prebiotics are non-digestible selectively fermented dietary fibers that specifically promote the growth of one or more bacterial genera in the gastrointestinal tract and thus provide health benefit to the host. The two most investigated prebiotics being the inulin-type fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides. Prebiotic specificity is mediated through species-specific gene clusters within saccharolytic bacteria controlled by signaling sensors for various substrates. Prebiotic health benefits are attributed to immune regulation and bacterial metabolite production...
March 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244665/fodmaps-food-composition-defining-cutoff-values-and-international-application
#7
REVIEW
Jane Varney, Jacqueline Barrett, Kate Scarlata, Patsy Catsos, Peter R Gibson, Jane G Muir
The low-FODMAP diet is a new dietary therapy for the management of irritable bowel syndrome that is gaining in popularity around the world. Developing the low-FODMAP diet required not only extensive food composition data but also the establishment of "cutoff values" to classify foods as low-FODMAP. These cutoff values relate to each particular FODMAP present in a food, including oligosaccharides (fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides), sugar polyols (mannitol and sorbitol), lactose, and fructose in excess of glucose...
March 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242013/targeting-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-prebiotics-have-anxiolytic-and-antidepressant-like-effects-and-reverse-the-impact-of-chronic-stress-in-mice
#8
Aurelijus Burokas, Silvia Arboleya, Rachel D Moloney, Veronica L Peterson, Kiera Murphy, Gerard Clarke, Catherine Stanton, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
BACKGROUND: The realization that the microbiota-gut-brain axis plays a critical role in health and disease, including neuropsychiatric disorders, is rapidly advancing. Nurturing a beneficial gut microbiome with prebiotics, such as fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), is an appealing but underinvestigated microbiota manipulation. Here we tested whether chronic prebiotic treatment modifies behavior across domains relevant to anxiety, depression, cognition, stress response, and social behavior...
February 24, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207812/of-the-milk-sugars-galactose-but-not-prebiotic-galacto-oligosaccharide-improves-insulin-sensitivity-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#9
Priska Stahel, Julie J Kim, Changting Xiao, John P Cant
BACKGROUND: Consumption of dairy products reduces risk of type 2 diabetes. Milk proteins and fats exhibit anti-diabetic properties but milk sugars have been studied little in this context. Galactose from milk lactose is readily converted to glycogen in the liver but its effects on insulin sensitivity have not been assessed. Prebiotic oligosaccharides from milk alter gut microbiota and can thereby influence host metabolism. Our objective was to assess the effect on insulin sensitivity of dietary galactose compared to glucose and fructose, and fermentable galacto-oligosaccharides compared to non-fermentable methylcellulose...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190419/seaweed-extracts-and-galacto-oligosaccharides-improve-intestinal-health-in-pigs-following-salmonella-typhimurium-challenge
#10
M A Bouwhuis, M J McDonnell, T Sweeney, A Mukhopadhya, C J O'Shea, J V O'Doherty
Pork and pork products are recognised as vehicles of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in humans. Seaweed-derived polysaccharides (SWE) and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) have shown to exhibit antimicrobial, prebiotic and immunomodulatory activity. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of dietary GOS and SWE supplementation on reducing S. Typhimurium numbers and intestinal inflammation in vivo. In total, 30 pigs (n=10/treatment, BW 30.9 kg) were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments: (1) basal diet; (2) basal diet+2...
February 13, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176525/production-of-high-galacto-oligosaccharides-by-pectinex-ultra-sp-l-optimization-of-reaction-conditions-and-immobilization-on-glyoxyl-functionalized-silica
#11
Isabel González-Delgado, Yolanda Segura, Gabriel Morales, María-José López-Muñoz
A rational optimization for the synthesis of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) from lactose catalyzed by β-galactosidase from Aspergillus aculeatus, included in the commercial product Pectinex Ultra SP-L, has been performed by using experimental design and surface response methodology. This accurate tool optimized empirical production of the most desired high-GOS (tri-GOS and tetra-GOS) up to 16.4% under the following reaction conditions: 59 °C, 4 U/mL free enzyme concentration, pH 6.5, 250 g/L initial lactose concentration, and 20 h of reaction...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166850/a-fermented-milk-concentrate-and-a-combination-of-short-chain-galacto-oligosaccharides-long-chain-fructo-oligosaccharides-pectin-derived-acidic-oligosaccharides-protect-suckling-rats-from-rotavirus-gastroenteritis
#12
Mar Rigo-Adrover, Teresa Pérez-Berezo, Sara Ramos-Romero, Kees van Limpt, Karen Knipping, Johan Garssen, Jan Knol, Àngels Franch, Margarida Castell, Francisco J Pérez-Cano
Human milk contains bioactive compounds that confer a protective role against gastrointestinal infections. In order to find supplements for an infant formula able to mimic these benefits of breast-feeding, two different concepts were tested. The products consisted of the following: (1) a Bifidobacterium breve- and Streptococcus thermophilus-fermented formula and (2) a combination of short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides/long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides with pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides. A rotavirus infection suckling rat model was used to evaluate improvements in the infectious process and in the immune response of supplemented animals...
February 7, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144742/comment-on-elucidating-the-binding-efficacy-of-%C3%AE-galactosidase-on-graphene-by-docking-approach-and-its-potential-application-in-galacto-oligosaccharide-production
#13
Marek Wiśniewski, Katarzyna Roszek
In a recent study, Satar et al. (Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 39:807-814, 2016) have reported "the synthesis and characterization of graphene for the immobilization of β-galactosidase for improved galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) production". There are several issues in this study that must be commented.
January 31, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139923/bovine-milk-oligosaccharide-contents-show-remarkable-seasonal-variation-and-intercow-variation
#14
Zhiqian Liu, Martin Auldist, Marlie Wright, Benjamin Cocks, Simone Rochfort
Human milk oligosaccharides (OS) play an important role in protecting the neonate. In addition to fructo-oligosaccharides and galacto-oligosaccharides, bovine milk OS have great potential to be used in pediatric food products to mimic the functions of human milk OS. Currently, little is known about the accumulation of OS in bovine milk in relation to genetic and environmental factors. A systematic survey on seasonal variation of 14 major OS was thus conducted with 19 cows over the entire milking season using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technique...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107656/synthesis-of-an-allergy-inducing-tetrasaccharide-4p-x
#15
Takashi Moriya, Naoki Nagahata, Rei Odaka, Hirohide Nakamura, Jun Yoshikawa, Katsumi Kurashima, Tadao Saito
4P-X (β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-[β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 4)]-β-D-glucopyranose) is included in galacto-oligosaccharides (GOSs) produced by β-galactosidase derived from Bacillus circulans. 4P-X has been known to induce particularly strong allergies. High purity 4P-X is essential for use as a standard to quantify the amount of 4P-X in GOSs; however, the isolation of high purity 4P-X has never been reported. In this study, we achieved the synthesis of 4P-X by a combination of organic and enzymatic chemical syntheses in a short time...
February 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075353/biochemical-and-structural-insights-into-a-novel-thermostable-%C3%AE-1-3-galactosidase-from-marinomonas-sp-bsi20414
#16
Haitao Ding, Qian Zeng, Lili Zhou, Yong Yu, Bo Chen
A novel β-1,3-galactosidase, designated as MaBGA (β-galactosidase from Marinomonas sp. BSi20414), was successfully purified to homogeneity from Marinomonas sp. BSi20414 isolated from Arctic sea ice by ammonium sulfate precipitation and anion exchange chromatography, resulting in an 8.12-fold increase in specific activity and 9.9% recovery in total activity. MaBGA displayed its maximum activity at pH 6.0 and 60 °C, and maintained at least 90% of its initial activity over the pH range of 5.0-8.0 after incubating for 1 h...
January 8, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001151/evaluation-of-clinical-safety-and-beneficial-effects-of-stachyose-enriched-%C3%AE-galacto-oligosaccharides-on-gut-microbiota-and-bowel-function-in-humans
#17
Ting Li, Xinshan Lu, Xingbin Yang
Deshipu stachyose granules (DSG) is a mixture of α-galacto-oligosaccharides derived from the dietary roots of Lycopus lucidus Turcz. Our previous study showed that DSG could improve the faecal microbial composition, and facilitate intestinal peristalsis and fecal excretion in mice. This study was designed to investigate the effect of DSG on gut microbiota and bowel function in humans. Two human intervention studies were conducted. In the first study, 100 healthy adults were treated without or with 5 g per day of DSG for 14 days...
December 21, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974055/host-microbiome-interactions-in-human-type-2-diabetes-following-prebiotic-fibre-galacto-oligosaccharide-intake
#18
Camilla Pedersen, Edith Gallagher, Felicity Horton, Richard J Ellis, Umer Z Ijaz, Huihai Wu, Etana Jaiyeola, Onyinye Diribe, Thibaut Duparc, Patrice D Cani, Glenn R Gibson, Paul Hinton, John Wright, Roberto La Ragione, M Denise Robertson
Aberrant microbiota composition and function have been linked to several pathologies, including type 2 diabetes. In animal models, prebiotics induce favourable changes in the intestinal microbiota, intestinal permeability (IP) and endotoxaemia, which are linked to concurrent improvement in glucose tolerance. This is the first study to investigate the link between IP, glucose tolerance and intestinal bacteria in human type 2 diabetes. In all, twenty-nine men with well-controlled type 2 diabetes were randomised to a prebiotic (galacto-oligosaccharide mixture) or placebo (maltodextrin) supplement (5·5 g/d for 12 weeks)...
December 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942845/in-vitro-assessment-of-iron-availability-from-commercial-young-child-formulae-supplemented-with-prebiotics
#19
Tatiana Christides, Julia Clark Ganis, Paul Anthony Sharp
PURPOSE: Iron is essential for development and growth in young children; unfortunately, iron deficiency (ID) is a significant public health problem in this population. Young Child Formulae (YCF), milk-derived products fortified with iron and ascorbic acid (AA, an enhancer of iron absorption) may be good sources of iron to help prevent ID. Furthermore, some YCF are supplemented with prebiotics, non-digestible carbohydrates suggested to enhance iron bioavailability. The aim of our study was to evaluate iron bioavailability of YCF relative to prebiotic and AA concentrations...
December 9, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931127/prebiotics-and-synbiotics-in-ulcerative-colitis
#20
Axel Laurell, Klas Sjöberg
BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon with unclear pathogenesis. A dysbiotic intestinal microbiota is regarded as a key component in the disease process and there has been significant interest in developing new treatments which target the microbiota. AIM: To give an overview of the studies to date investigating prebiotics and synbiotics for the treatment of UC. METHODS: A literature search of PubMed and related search engines was carried out using the terms "ulcerative colitis" in combination with "prebiotic", "synbiotic" or "dietary fibre"...
April 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
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