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galacto-oligosaccharides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730134/innovative-dietary-intervention-answers-to-baby-colic
#1
Ioannis Xinias, A Analitis, Antigoni Mavroudi, Ioannis Roilides, Maria Lykogeorgou, Varvara Delivoria, Vasilis Milingos, Mayra Mylonopoulou, Yvan Vandenplas
PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the efficacy of a lactose- reduced synbiotic partial whey hydrolysate in formula fed infants presenting with colic and the impact of this dietary intervention in mean crying time and quality of life. METHODS: Forty infants with infantile colic were treated during one month with parental reassurance and the intervention formula (partial whey hydrolysate, reduced lactose, Bifidobacterium lactis BB12 and galacto-oligosaccharides) and were compared to a control group of 20 infants with infantile colic treated with parental reassurance and a standard infant formula...
June 2017: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705786/investigation-of-the-efficacy-of-synbiotics-in-the-treatment-of-functional-constipation-in-children-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#2
Ahmet Baştürk, Reha Artan, Atike Atalay, Aygen Yılmaz
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of synbiotic (Lactobacillus casei, L. rhamnosus, L. plantarum, and Bifidobacterium lactis and prebiotics [fiber, polydextrose, fructo-oligosaccharides, and galacto-oligosaccharides]) treatment in children with functional constipation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was performed in patients aged 4-18 years, and the patients were diagnosed to have functional constipation according to the Roma III diagnostic criteria...
July 13, 2017: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646668/%C3%AE-galactosidase-from-aspergillus-lacticoffeatus-a-promising-biocatalyst-for-the-synthesis-of-novel-prebiotics
#3
Beatriz B Cardoso, Sara C Silvério, Luís Abrunhosa, José A Teixeira, Lígia R Rodrigues
β-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) are interesting enzymes able to catalyze lactose hydrolysis and transfer reactions to produce lactose-based prebiotics with potential application in the pharmaceutical and food industry. In this work, Aspergillus lacticoffeatus is described, for the first time, as an effective β-galactosidase producer. The extracellular enzyme production was evaluated in synthetic and alternative media containing cheese whey and corn steep liquor. Although β-galactosidase production occurred in all media (expect for the one composed solely by cheese whey), the highest enzymatic activity values (460U/mL) were obtained for the synthetic medium...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644357/effect-of-synbiotic-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-cesarean-delivered-infants-a-randomized-double-blind-multicenter-study
#4
Mei Chin Chua, Kaouther Ben-Amor, Christophe Lay, Anne G E Neo, Wei Chin Chiang, Rajeshwar Rao, Charmaine Chew, Surasith Chaithongwongwatthana, Nipon Khemapech, Jan Knol, Voranush Chongsrisawat
We determined the effect of short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides (scGOS), long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (lcFOS) and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V on the gut microbiota of cesarean-born infants. Infants were randomized to receive a standard formula (control), the same with scGOS/lcFOS and B. breve M-16V (synbiotic), or with scGOS/lcFOS (prebiotic) from birth until week 16, 30 subjects born vaginally were included as a reference group. Synbiotic supplementation resulted in a higher bifidobacteria proportion from day 3/5 (P < 0...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637685/milk-oligosaccharides-inhibit-human-rotavirus-infectivity-in-ma104-cells
#5
Daniel R Laucirica, Vassilis Triantis, Ruud Schoemaker, Mary K Estes, Sasirekha Ramani
Background: Oligosaccharides in milk act as soluble decoy receptors and prevent pathogen adhesion to the infant gut. Milk oligosaccharides reduce infectivity of a porcine rotavirus strain; however, the effects on human rotaviruses are less well understood.Objective: In this study, we determined the effect of specific and abundant milk oligosaccharides on the infectivity of 2 globally dominant human rotavirus strains.Methods: Four milk oligosaccharides-2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL), 3'-sialyllactose (3'SL), 6'-sialyllactose (6'SL), and galacto-oligosaccharides-were tested for their effects on the infectivity of human rotaviruses G1P[8] and G2P[4] through fluorescent focus assays on African green monkey kidney epithelial cells (MA104 cells)...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589996/implications-of-the-maillard-reaction-on-bovine-alpha-lactalbumin-and-its-proteolysis-during-in-vitro-infant-digestion
#6
Yousef Joubran, Alice Moscovici, Reto Portmann, Uri Lesmes
This study investigated the functionality and digestibility of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) of alpha-lactalbumin (α-la), a major whey protein and component of infant formulas. The impact of different carbohydrates (glucose, galactose or galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS)) and heating duration was studied. SDS-PAGE, UV and color measurements monitored reaction extent, which varied between carbohydrates whereby galactose reacted more readily than glucose. Surface hydrophobicity and antioxidant capacity were found to be significantly (p < 0...
June 7, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582809/dietary-galacto-oligosaccharides-improve-skin-health-a-randomized-double-blind-clinical-trial
#7
Yang Hee Hong, Un Jae Chang, Young Suk Kim, Eun Young Jung, Hyung Joo Suh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To study the effects of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) on the skin, we investigated skin-related parameters in healthy adults who received GOS for 12 weeks. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study included subjects divided into two groups (control and GOS) by stratified block randomization. The GOS group received 1.0 g of GOS twice a day, whereas the control group received only vehicle. RESULTS: The results showed that the increase in corneometer values from baseline to week 12 was significantly greater in the GOS group than in the control group (6...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525543/fermentable-carbohydrates-fodmaps-exacerbate-functional-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-cross-over-re-challenge-trial
#8
Selina R Cox, Alexis C Prince, Clio E Myers, Peter M Irving, James O Lindsay, Miranda C Lomer, Kevin Whelan
Background and Aims: Preliminary evidence suggests fermentable carbohydrate restriction might ameliorate functional gastrointestinal symptoms (FGS) in quiescent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our aim was to determine whether fermentable carbohydrates exacerbate FGS in quiescent IBD using a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over, re-challenge trial. Methods: Patients with quiescent IBD and FGS responsive to a low FODMAP diet were allocated to a series of 3-day fermentable carbohydrate challenges in random order (fructan, 12 g/d; galacto-oligosaccharides, GOS, 6 g/d; sorbitol, 6 g/d; and glucose placebo, 12 g/d), each separated by a standardised washout period...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495789/dietary-nondigestible-oligosaccharides-and-bifidobacterium-breve-m-16v-suppress-allergic-inflammation-in-intestine-via-targeting-dendritic-cell-maturation
#9
Sander de Kivit, Atanaska I Kostadinova, JoAnn Kerperien, Mary E Morgan, Veronica Ayechu Muruzabal, Gerard A Hofman, Leon M J Knippels, Aletta D Kraneveld, Johan Garssen, Linette E M Willemsen
Dietary intervention with short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides (scGOS), long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (lcFOS) and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V (Bb) (GF/Bb) suppresses food allergic symptoms in mice, potentially via intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-derived galectin-9. Furthermore, in vitro studies showed galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides (GF) to enhance the immunomodulatory capacity of a TLR9 ligand representing bacterial CpG DNA when exposed to IEC. In this study, we investigated whether GF/Bb modulates dendritic cells (DCs) and subsequent Th2 and regulatory T cell (Treg) frequency in the small intestinal lamina propria (SI-LP)...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475191/effects-of-different-oligosaccharides-at-various-dosages-on-the-composition-of-gut-microbiota-and-short-chain-fatty-acids-in-mice-with-constipation
#10
Linlin Wang, Lujun Hu, Shuang Yan, Tian Jiang, Shuguang Fang, Gang Wang, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of three different kinds of oligosaccharides (a fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) formulation consisting of 95% FOS (FOS95); a galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) formulation consisting of 90% GOS (GOS90) and an isomalto-oligosaccharide (IMO) formulation consisting of 90% IMO (IMO90)) at dosages of 0.8, 4 g per d per kg bw and 8 g per d per kg bw on the composition and activity of the microbiota in the gut of mice with constipation induced by loperamide. Oligosaccharides were intragastrically administered to specific pathogen-free BALB/c mice once per day for 17 days...
May 24, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471912/effect-of-synbiotic-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-caesarean-delivered-infants-a-randomized-double-blind-multicenter-study
#11
Mei Chien Chua, Kaouther Ben-Amor, Christophe Lay, Anne Goh Eng Neo, Wen Chin Chiang, Rajeshwar Rao, Charmaine Chew, Surasith Chaithongwongwatthana, Nipon Khemapech, Jan Knol, Voranush Chongsrisawat
We determined the effect of short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides (scGOS), long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (lcFOS) and Bifidobacterium breve M-16 V on the gut microbiota of caesarean born infants. Infants were randomized to receive a standard formula (control), the same with scGOS/lcFOS and B. breve M-16 V (synbiotic), or with scGOS/lcFOS (prebiotic) from birth until week 16, 30 subjects born vaginally were included as a reference group. Synbiotic supplementation resulted in a higher bifidobacteria proportion from day 3/5 (p < 0...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396144/supplementation-of-diet-with-galacto-oligosaccharides-increases-bifidobacteria-but-not-insulin-sensitivity-in%C3%A2-obese%C3%A2-prediabetic-individuals
#12
Emanuel E Canfora, Christina M van der Beek, Gerben D A Hermes, Gijs H Goossens, Johan W E Jocken, Jens J Holst, Hans M van Eijk, Koen Venema, Hauke Smidt, Erwin G Zoetendal, Cornelis H C Dejong, Kaatje Lenaerts, Ellen E Blaak
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The gut microbiota affects host lipid and glucose metabolism, satiety, and chronic low-grade inflammation to contribute to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Fermentation end products, in particular the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) acetate, are believed to be involved in these processes. We investigated the long-term effects of supplementation with galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), an acetogenic fiber, on the composition of the human gut microbiota and human metabolism. METHODS: We performed a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel intervention study of 44 overweight or obese (body mass index, 28-40 kg/m(2)) prediabetic men and women (ages, 45-70 y) from October 2014 through October 2015 in Maastricht, The Netherlands...
April 8, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391618/structural-features-of-aspergillus-niger-%C3%AE-galactosidase-define-its-activity-against-glycoside-linkages
#13
Agustín Rico-Díaz, Mercedes Ramírez-Escudero, Ángel Vizoso-Vázquez, M Esperanza Cerdán, Manuel Becerra, Julia Sanz-Aparicio
β-Galactosidases are biotechnologically interesting enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis or transgalactosylation of β-galactosides. Among them, the Aspergillus niger β-galactosidase (AnβGal) belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 35 (GH35) and is widely used in the industry due to its high hydrolytic activity which is used to degrade lactose. We present here its three-dimensional structure in complex with different oligosaccharides, to illustrate the structural determinants of the broad specificity of the enzyme against different glycoside linkages...
April 8, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328065/randomised-controlled-trial-demonstrates-that-fermented-infant-formula-with-short-chain-galacto-oligosaccharides-and-long-chain-fructo-oligosaccharides-reduces-the-incidence-of-infantile-colic
#14
Yvan Vandenplas, Thomas Ludwig, Hetty Bouritius, Philippe Alliet, Derek Forde, Stefaan Peeters, Frederic Huet, Jonathan Hourihane
AIM: We examined the effects on gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance of a novel infant formula that combined specific fermented formula (FERM) with short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS), with a 9:1 ratio and concentration of 0.8 g/100 mL. METHODS: This prospective, double-blind, randomised, controlled trial comprised 432 healthy, term infants aged 0-28 days whose parents decided to not start, or discontinued, breastfeeding...
July 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318250/chemical-characterization-of-potentially-prebiotic-oligosaccharides-in-brewed-coffee-and-spent-coffee-grounds
#15
Tian Tian, Samara Freeman, Mark Corey, J Bruce German, Daniela Barile
Oligosaccharides are indigestible carbohydrates widely present in mammalian milk and in some plants. Milk oligosaccharides are associated with positive health outcomes; however, oligosaccharides in coffee have not been extensively studied. We investigated the oligosaccharides and their monomeric composition in dark roasted coffee beans, brewed coffee, and spent coffee grounds. Oligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization ranging from 3 to 15, and their constituent monosaccharides, were characterized and quantified...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262216/effects-of-prebiotics-and-synbiotics-on-functional-constipation
#16
REVIEW
Ting Yu, Yong-Ping Zheng, Jia-Cheng Tan, Wen-Jie Xiong, Yun Wang, Lin Lin
The objective was to determine the effects of prebiotics and synbiotics on adults with functional constipation (FC). Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched for literature published up to February 2015. We selected randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported administration of prebiotics or synbiotics to adults with FC. The end points included stool frequency, stool consistency and other symptoms related to constipation. Mean differences (MD) or standard mean differences (SMD) were used for continuous outcomes and risk ratios for discontinuous outcomes using a random-effects model...
March 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244671/prebiotic-inulin-type-fructans-and-galacto-oligosaccharides-definition-specificity-function-and-application-in-gastrointestinal-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Bridgette Wilson, Kevin Whelan
Prebiotics are non-digestible selectively fermented dietary fibers that specifically promote the growth of one or more bacterial genera in the gastrointestinal tract and thus provide health benefit to the host. The two most investigated prebiotics being the inulin-type fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides. Prebiotic specificity is mediated through species-specific gene clusters within saccharolytic bacteria controlled by signaling sensors for various substrates. Prebiotic health benefits are attributed to immune regulation and bacterial metabolite production...
March 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244665/fodmaps-food-composition-defining-cutoff-values-and-international-application
#18
REVIEW
Jane Varney, Jacqueline Barrett, Kate Scarlata, Patsy Catsos, Peter R Gibson, Jane G Muir
The low-FODMAP diet is a new dietary therapy for the management of irritable bowel syndrome that is gaining in popularity around the world. Developing the low-FODMAP diet required not only extensive food composition data but also the establishment of "cutoff values" to classify foods as low-FODMAP. These cutoff values relate to each particular FODMAP present in a food, including oligosaccharides (fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides), sugar polyols (mannitol and sorbitol), lactose, and fructose in excess of glucose...
March 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242013/targeting-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-prebiotics-have-anxiolytic-and-antidepressant-like-effects-and-reverse-the-impact-of-chronic-stress-in-mice
#19
Aurelijus Burokas, Silvia Arboleya, Rachel D Moloney, Veronica L Peterson, Kiera Murphy, Gerard Clarke, Catherine Stanton, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
BACKGROUND: The realization that the microbiota-gut-brain axis plays a critical role in health and disease, including neuropsychiatric disorders, is rapidly advancing. Nurturing a beneficial gut microbiome with prebiotics, such as fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), is an appealing but underinvestigated microbiota manipulation. Here we tested whether chronic prebiotic treatment modifies behavior across domains relevant to anxiety, depression, cognition, stress response, and social behavior...
February 24, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207812/of-the-milk-sugars-galactose-but-not-prebiotic-galacto-oligosaccharide-improves-insulin-sensitivity-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#20
Priska Stahel, Julie J Kim, Changting Xiao, John P Cant
BACKGROUND: Consumption of dairy products reduces risk of type 2 diabetes. Milk proteins and fats exhibit anti-diabetic properties but milk sugars have been studied little in this context. Galactose from milk lactose is readily converted to glycogen in the liver but its effects on insulin sensitivity have not been assessed. Prebiotic oligosaccharides from milk alter gut microbiota and can thereby influence host metabolism. Our objective was to assess the effect on insulin sensitivity of dietary galactose compared to glucose and fructose, and fermentable galacto-oligosaccharides compared to non-fermentable methylcellulose...
2017: PloS One
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