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Barbara Geiger, Hoang-Minh Nguyen, Stefanie Wenig, Hoang Anh Nguyen, Cindy Lorenz, Roman Kittl, Geir Mathiesen, Vincent G H Eijsink, Dietmar Haltrich, Thu-Ha Nguyen
β-Galactosidase from Streptococcus thermophilus was overexpressed in a food-grade organism, Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. Laboratory cultivations yielded 11,000 U of β-galactosidase activity per liter of culture corresponding to approximately 170 mg of enzyme. Crude cell-free enzyme extracts obtained by cell disruption and subsequent removal of cell debris showed high stability and were used for conversion of lactose in whey permeate. The enzyme showed high transgalactosylation activity. When using an initial concentration of whey permeate corresponding to 205 g L(-1) lactose, the maximum yield of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) obtained at 50°C reached approximately 50% of total sugar at 90% lactose conversion, meaning that efficient valorization of the whey lactose was obtained...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Engineering Journal
Arash Alizadeh, Saskia Braber, Peyman Akbari, Aletta Kraneveld, Johan Garssen, Johanna Fink-Gremmels
Considering the diverse toxic effects of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON), its common occurrence in wheat-based products, and its stability during processing, DON constitutes an increasing health concern for humans and animals. In addition to the parent compound DON, human and animal exposure encompasses the acetylated fungal metabolites 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3ADON) and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15ADON) as well as the plant-derived DON-glucoside (DON3G) and the bacterial product de-epoxy-DON (DOM-1)...
November 16, 2016: Toxins
Morvarid Rezvani, Mary Mendoza, Matthew D Koci, Caitlyn Daron, Josh Levy, Hosni M Hassan
Here, we present the genome sequence of Lactobacillus animalis strain P38 and Lactobacillus reuteri strain P43, both isolated from the cecum content of a 4-week old chicken fed a diet supplemented with the prebiotic β(1-4)galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS). These indigenous Lactobacillus isolates are potential probiotic organisms for poultry.
November 3, 2016: Genome Announcements
Karen C Goehring, Barbara J Marriage, Jeffery S Oliver, Julie A Wilder, Edward G Barrett, Rachael H Buck
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) provide multiple benefits to infants, including prebiotic effects, gut maturation, antimicrobial activities, and immune modulation. Clinical intervention studies with HMOs are required to confirm these benefits in infants. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the effects of feeding formulas supplemented with the HMO 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL) on biomarkers of immune function in healthy term infants...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Ricardo Fernandes, Vinicius A do Rosario, Michel C Mocellin, Marilyn G F Kuntz, Erasmo B S M Trindade
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Studies in humans with overweight or obesity have reported that some prebiotics and synbiotics have beneficial effects on metabolic endotoxaemia and immune function. However, to date, no systematic review of controlled clinical trials assessed this topic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of inulin-type fructans, galacto-oligosaccharides and related synbiotics on inflammatory markers in adults with overweight or obesity. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed until November 6, 2015 in four electronic databases and reference lists of all included articles and relevant reviews in the field, without using any filter...
October 8, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Carlos Vera, Andrés Córdova, Carla Aburto, Cecilia Guerrero, Sebastián Suárez, Andrés Illanes
Lactose-derived non-digestible oligosaccharides are prominent components of functional foods. Among them, galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) outstand for being prebiotics whose health-promoting effects are supported on strong scientific evidences, having unique properties as substitutes of human milk oligosaccharides in formulas for newborns and infants. GOS are currently produced enzymatically in a kinetically-controlled reaction of lactose transgalactosylation catalyzed by β-galactosidases from different microbial strains...
December 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Yvan Vandenplas, Muath Abdurrahman Alturaiki, Wafaa Al-Qabandi, Fawaz AlRefaee, Ziad Bassil, Bassam Eid, Ahmed El Beleidy, Ali Ibrahim Almehaidib, Pierre Mouawad, Maroun Sokhn
This paper covers algorithms for the management of regurgitation, constipation and infantile colic in infants. Anti-regurgitation formula may be considered in infants with troublesome regurgitation, while diagnostic investigations or drug therapy are not indicated in the absence of warning signs. Although probiotics have shown some positive evidence for the management of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), the evidence is not strong enough to make a recommendation. A partially hydrolyzed infant formula with prebiotics and β-palmitate may be considered as a dietary intervention for functional constipation in formula fed infants...
September 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Mohammad Bodrul Munir, Roshada Hashim, Mohammad Suhaimee Abdul Manaf, Siti Azizah Mohd Nor
This study used a two-phase feeding trial to determine the influence of selected dietary prebiotics and probiotics on growth performance, feed utilisation, and morphological changes in snakehead (Channa striata) fingerlings as well as the duration of these effects over a post-experimental period without supplementation. Triplicate groups of fish (22.46 ±0.17 g) were raised on six different treatment diets: three prebiotics (0.2% β-glucan, 1% galacto-oligosaccharides [GOS], 0.5% mannan-oligosaccharides [MOS]), two probiotics (1% live yeast [Saccharomyces cerevisiae] and 0...
August 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Hildegard Watzlawick, Kambiz Morabbi Heravi, Josef Altenbuchner
Bacillus subtilis possesses different enzymes for the utilization of plant cell wall polysaccharides. This includes a gene cluster containing galactan degradation genes (ganA and ganB), two transporter component genes (ganQ and ganP), and the sugar-binding lipoprotein-encoding gene ganS (previously known as cycB). These genes form an operon that is regulated by GanR. The degradation of galactan by B. subtilis begins with the activity of extracellular GanB. GanB is an endo-β-1,4-galactanase and is a member of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 53...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Tahir Rasool Qamar, Fatima Syed, Muhammad Nasir, Habib Rehman, Muhammad Nauman Zahid, Rui Hai Liu, Sanaullah Iqbal
The selectivity and beneficial effects of prebiotics are mainly dependent on composition and glycosidic linkage among monosaccharide units. This is the first study to use prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) that contains β-1,6 and β-1,3 glycosidic linkages and the novel combination of GOS and inulin in cancer prevention. The objective of the present study is to explore the role of novel GOS and inulin against various biomarkers of colorectal cancer (CRC) and the incidence of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in a 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH)-induced rodent model...
2016: Nutrients
Frédéric Huet, Marieke Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Sebastian Tims, Umberto Simeoni, Gérard Beley, Christoph Savagner, Yvan Vandenplas, Jonathan O'B Hourihane
OBJECTIVE: Fermented formulae (FERM) and a specific mixture of 90% short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and 10% long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS; 9:1) have a potential beneficial effect on gastrointestinal function and microbiota development in infants. The present study assessed the safety and tolerance of the combination of partly fermented infant milk formulae and scGOS/lcFOS compared with either 1 feature, in healthy term infants. METHODS: Four hundred thirty-two infants were enrolled before 28 days of age and followed up to 17 weeks of age and assigned to 1 of the 4 groups: (i) formula with scGOS/lcFOS, (ii) scGOS/lcFOS + 15% FERM, (iii) scGOS/lcFOS + 50% FERM, or (iv) 50% fermented formula (50% FERM)...
October 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Aurora Perez-Cornago, Almudena Sanchez-Villegas, Maira Bes-Rastrollo, Alfredo Gea, Patricio Molero, Francisca Lahortiga-Ramos, Miguel Angel Martínez-González
BACKGROUND: Yogurt and prebiotic consumption has been linked to better health. However, to our knowledge, no longitudinal study has assessed the association of yogurt and prebiotic consumption with depression risk. OBJECTIVE: We longitudinally evaluated the association of yogurt and prebiotic consumption with depression risk in a Mediterranean cohort. METHODS: The SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) Project is a dynamic, prospective cohort of Spanish university graduates...
September 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Huaisheng Sun, Shengping You, Mengfan Wang, Wei Qi, Rongxin Su, Zhimin He
A recyclable strategy for the production of high-purity (>95%) galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) was developed using Kluyveromyces lactis in both the synthesis and purification steps. For the synthesis of GOS, ethanol-permeabilized cells (p-cells) of K. lactis were used because the enhanced permeability facilitated the mass transfer of the substrate and the release of oligosaccharide products. For the purification of GOS, non-permeabilized K. lactis cells (np-cells) were preferred as a result of their intrinsic cell membrane barrier toward GOS, which led to the selective consumption of carbohydrate...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Claudia I Vénica, Irma V Wolf, Carina V Bergamini, María C Perotti
BACKGROUND: Different types of reduced-lactose yogurt, obtained by lactose hydrolysis using β-galactosidase enzyme, are commercially available. The breakdown of lactose modifies the carbohydrate profile, including the production of prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), which could affect the survival and activity of starter and probiotic cultures and the parameters of yogurt quality. The extension of these changes is dependent on the yogurt matrix composition. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of lactose hydrolysis on GOS, lactose, volatile profile and physicochemical parameters of different yogurt varieties during storage...
June 25, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Peyman Akbari, Johanna Fink-Gremmels, Rianne H A M Willems, Elisabetta Difilippo, Henk A Schols, Margriet H C Schoterman, Johan Garssen, Saskia Braber
PURPOSE: The direct effects of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), including Vivinal(®) GOS syrup (VGOS) and purified Vivinal(®) GOS (PGOS), on the epithelial integrity and corresponding interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL8) release were examined in a Caco-2 cell model for intestinal barrier dysfunction. To investigate structure-activity relationships, the effects of individual DP fractions of VGOS were evaluated. Moreover, the obtained results with GOS were compared with Caco-2 monolayers incubated with fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin...
June 13, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
D M Short, D A Moore, W M Sischo
BACKGROUND: Bacterial contamination of colostrum is common and can decrease IgG absorption in neonatal calves. Strategies that mitigate this situation without complicating colostrum management will benefit dairy calf health and survival. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of supplementing colostrum with oligosaccharides (OS) on serum IgG concentration and apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG (AEA%) in calves fed unpasteurized colostrum and characterize these outcomes with respect to colostrum bacterial exposures...
July 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Roberta Grimaldi, Jonathan R Swann, Jelena Vulevic, Glenn R Gibson, Adele Costabile
Prebiotic oligosaccharides have the ability to generate important changes in the gut microbiota composition that may confer health benefits to the host. Reducing the impurities in prebiotic mixtures could expand their applications in food industries and improve their selectivity and prebiotic effect on the potential beneficial bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. This study aimed to determine the in vitro potential fermentation properties of a 65 % galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) content Bimuno® GOS (B-GOS) on gut microbiota composition and their metabolites...
August 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Chloe A Autran, Margriet H C Schoterman, Evelyn Jantscher-Krenn, Johannis P Kamerling, Lars Bode
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the most frequent and fatal intestinal disorders in preterm infants and has very limited treatment options. Breast-fed infants are at a 6-10-fold lower NEC risk than formula-fed infants, and we have previously shown that human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) improved survival and reduced pathology in a rat NEC model. The HMO disialyllacto-N-tetraose (DSLNT) was most effective, and sialylation was shown to be essential for its protective effect. Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), currently added to some infant formula, but not containing sialic acid, had no effect...
July 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Alfonso Benítez-Páez, F Javier Moreno, María L Sanz, Yolanda Sanz
Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 was isolated from stools of a breast-fed infant. Although, this strain is generally considered an adult-type bifidobacterial species, it has also been shown to have pre-clinical efficacy in obesity models. In order to understand the molecular basis of its adaptation to complex carbohydrates and improve its potential functionality, we have analyzed its genome and transcriptome, as well as its metabolic output when growing in galacto-oligosaccharides derived from lactulose (GOS-Lu) as carbon source...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Natalia Sosa, Esteban Gerbino, Marina A Golowczyc, Carolina Schebor, Andrea Gómez-Zavaglia, E Elizabeth Tymczyszyn
In this work maltodextrins were added to commercial galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) in a 1:1 ratio and their thermophysical characteristics were analyzed. GOS:MD solutions were then used as matrices during spray-drying of Lactobacillus plantarum CIDCA 83114. The obtained powders were equilibrated at different relative humidities (RH) and stored at 5 and 20°C for 12 weeks, or at 30°C for 6 weeks. The Tgs of GOS:MD matrices were about 20-30°C higher than those of GOS at RH within 11 and 52%. A linear relation between the spin-spin relaxation time (T2) and T-Tg parameter was observed for GOS:MD matrices equilibrated at 11, 22, 33, and 44% RH at 5, 20, and 30°C...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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