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galacto-oligosaccharides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339290/biocatalytic-strategies-in-the-production-of-galacto-oligosaccharides-and-its-global-status
#1
REVIEW
Parmjit S Panesar, Rupinder Kaur, Ram S Singh, John F Kennedy
Galactooligosaccharides (GOSs) are the non-digestible carbohydrates that are composed of 3-10 or longer molecules of galactose and the terminal glucose molecule. These are considered as prebiotics owing to their various health benefits, and therefore is the major focus of research. These are generally synthesized by the catalytic activity of the glycoside hydrolases (GH) utilizing lactose as a substrate, which results in the mixture of GOSs differing in their degree of polymerization. Different microbial glycoside hydrolases have been used for the production...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202487/maillard-neoglycans-as-inhibitors-for-in-vitro-adhesion-of-f4-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-to-piglet-intestinal-cells
#2
Héctor Manuel Sarabia-Sainz, Verónica Mata Haro, José Andre-I Sarabia Sainz, Luz Vázquez-Moreno, Gabriela Ramos-Clamont Montfort
Adhesion of enterotoxigenic (ETEC) E. coli to host intestinal cells is mediated by lectin-like fimbriae that bind to specific glycan moieties on the surfaces of enterocytes. To prevent in vitro binding of E. coli F4 fimbriae (F4 ETEC+) to piglet enterocytes, neoglycans were synthesized by the Maillard reaction conjugating lactose (Lac), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) or chitin oligosaccharides (Ochit) to porcine serum albumin (PSA). Neoglycans were characterized by SDS-PAGE, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and recognition by plant lectins, as well as by F4 ETEC variants...
December 5, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181381/impact-of-dietary-galacto-oligosaccharide-gos-on-chicken-s-gut-microbiota-mucosal-gene-expression-and-salmonella-colonization
#3
Rebecca-Ayme Hughes, Riawana A Ali, Mary A Mendoza, Hosni M Hassan, Matthew D Koci
Preventing Salmonella colonization in young birds is key to reducing contamination of poultry products for human consumption (eggs and meat). While several Salmonella vaccines have been developed that are capable of yielding high systemic antibodies, it is not clear how effective these approaches are at controlling or preventing Salmonella colonization of the intestinal tract. Effective alternative control strategies are needed to help supplement the bird's ability to prevent Salmonella colonization, specifically by making the cecum less hospitable to Salmonella...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174530/increased-cortical-neuronal-responses-to-nmda-and-improved-attentional-set-shifting-performance-in-rats-following-prebiotic-b-gos%C3%A2-ingestion
#4
Benjamin Gronier, Helene M Savignac, Mathieu Di Miceli, Sherif M Idriss, George Tzortzis, Daniel Anthony, Philip W J Burnet
We have previously shown that prebiotics (dietary fibres that augment the growth of indigenous beneficial gut bacteria) such as Bimuno™ galacto-oligosaccharides (B-GOS®), increased N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor levels in the rat brain. The current investigation examined the functional correlates of these changes in B-GOS®-fed rats by measuring cortical neuronal responses to NMDA using in vivo NMDA micro-iontophoresis electrophysiology, and performance in the attentional set-shifting task. Adult male rats were supplemented with B-GOS® in the drinking water 3 weeks prior to in vivo iontophoresis or behavioural testing...
November 21, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161572/new-%C3%AE-galactosidase-producers-with-potential-for-prebiotic-synthesis
#5
Sara C Silvério, Eugénia A Macedo, José A Teixeira, Lígia R Rodrigues
β-Galactosidases (EC 3.2.1.23) are interesting enzymes with potential application in the pharmaceutical and food industry. In this work, a screening study was carried out to identify new fungal sources of β-galactosidase. A total of 50 fungi were evaluated using a chromogenic test performed in agar plates. The most promising microorganisms were validated as effective β-galactosidase producers under submerged fermentation conditions. The crude β-galactosidases were characterized regarding their optimal pH (3...
November 15, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058322/influence-of-different-functional-ingredients-on-physical-properties-rheology-tribology-and-oral-perceptions-of-no-fat-stirred-yoghurt
#6
Sophia Bao Xian Ng, Phuong T M Nguyen, Bhesh Bhandari, Sangeeta Prakash
Effects of adding four functional ingredients: inulin, pectin, galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), and beta glucan on physical, rheology, tribology and sensory characteristics of skim (0.1% fat) stirred yoghurt were studied. Three levels of each ingredient were chosen: inulin (7%, 8% and 9%), pectin (0.2%, 0.25% and 0.3%), GOS (9.1%, 11.3% and 13.6%), and beta glucan (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%). Among the investigated ingredients, inulin and GOS appeared to be preferable choices due to their ability to both reduce syneresis and slightly increase sample lubrication while maintaining texture, rheology and sensory characteristics of skim yoghurt...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036913/alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides-at-low-dose-improve-liver-steatosis-in-a-high-fat-diet-mouse-model
#7
Eric Chappuis, Fanny Morel-Depeisse, Bruno Bariohay, Julien Roux
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is the major liver disease worldwide and is linked to the development of metabolic syndrome and obesity. As alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides (α-GOS) from legumes have been shown to reduce body weight and hyperphagia in overweight adults, it was hypothesized that they would exert benefits on the development of metabolic syndrome and associated NAFLD in a rodent model. C57Bl/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet until they developed metabolic syndrome and were then orally treated either with α-GOS at a physiological dose (2...
October 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993261/volatile-organic-compounds-in-feces-associate-with-response-to-dietary-intervention-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#8
Megan Rossi, Raphael Aggio, Heidi M Staudacher, Miranda C Lomer, James O Lindsay, Peter Irving, Chris Probert, Kevin Whelan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dietary interventions are effective in management of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), although responses vary. We investigated whether fecal levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associate with response to dietary interventions in patients with IBS. METHODS: Adults who fulfilled the Rome III criteria for IBS were recruited to a 2x2 factorial randomized controlled trial. Patients were randomly assigned to a group counselled to follow a diet low in fructans, galacto-oligosaccharides, lactose, fructose, and polyols (low-FODMAP diet, n=46) or a group that received placebo dietary advice (sham diet, n=47) for 4 weeks...
October 6, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979240/effect-of-functional-oligosaccharides-and-ordinary-dietary-fiber-on-intestinal-microbiota-diversity
#9
Weiwei Cheng, Jing Lu, Boxing Li, Weishi Lin, Zheng Zhang, Xiao Wei, Chengming Sun, Mingguo Chi, Wei Bi, Bingjun Yang, Aimin Jiang, Jing Yuan
Functional oligosaccharides, known as prebiotics, and ordinary dietary fiber have important roles in modulating the structure of intestinal microbiota. To investigate their effects on the intestinal microecosystem, three kinds of diets containing different prebiotics were used to feed mice for 3 weeks, as follows: GI (galacto-oligosaccharides and inulin), PF (polydextrose and insoluble dietary fiber from bran), and a GI/PF mixture (GI and PF, 1:1), 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolic analysis of mice feces were then conducted...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931149/can-a-galacto-oligosaccharide-reduce-the-risk-of-traveller-s-diarrhoea-a-placebo-controlled-randomized-double-blind-study
#10
Gunnar Hasle, Ragnhild Raastad, Gunnar Bjune, Pål A Jenum, Lise Heier
Background: Diarrhoea is a common medical problem affecting travellers to Asia, Africa and Latin America. The use of prophylactic antimicrobial agents may increase the risk of contracting resistant bacteria. Findings indicate that oligosaccharides, i.e. carbohydrate chains of 3-10 monosaccharides, reduce the risk of diarrhoea. Methods: We performed a placebo-controlled, double-blind study of a galacto-oligosaccharide, B-GOS (Bimuno®, Clasado Ltd, Milton Keynes UK), vs placebo for participants travelling to countries with a high/intermediate risk of diarrhoea for 7-15 days...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929976/response-surface-methodology-as-a-tool-for-modelling-galacto-oligosaccharide-production
#11
Claudia I Vénica, Carina V Bergamini, María C Perotti
The experiments reported in this research paper describe the effects of β-galactosidase enzyme dose and cheese whey amount, on the maximum concentration and yield of galacto-oligosaccahride (GOS) and reaction time. The experimental plan was based on central composite rotational design (CCRD) and modelled by response surface methodology (RSM). The results indicate that the proposed mathematical models could adequately describe the concentration and yield of GOS and the reaction time within the limits of the factors that are being investigated...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911187/genome-analysis-of-food-processing-stressful-resistant-probiotic-bifidobacterium-animalis-subsp-lactis-bf052-and-its-potential-application-in-fermented-soymilk
#12
Pattra Charnchai, Sirima Suvarnakuta Jantama, Kaemwich Jantama
In this study, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BF052 was demonstrated the growth capability in soymilk and could be thus supplemented as a probiotic starter that employed soymilk as one of its food vehicles. The complete genome sequence of BF052 was therefore determined to understand the genetic basis of BF052 as a technological and functional probiotic starter. The whole genome sequence of BF052 consists of a circular genome of 1938 624 bp with a G+C content of 60.50%. This research highlights relevant genes involving in its adaptive responses to industrial and/or environmental stresses and utilization of α-galacto-oligosaccharides in BF052 strain compared with other representative bifidobacterial genomes...
September 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905280/enzymatic-synthesis-of-fucose-containing-galacto-oligosaccharides-using-%C3%AE-galactosidase-and-identification-of-novel-disaccharide-structures
#13
Anne Usvalampi, Hannu Maaheimo, Olli Tossavainen, Alexander D Frey
Fucosylated oligosaccharides have an important role in maintaining a healthy immune system and homeostatic gut microflora. This study employed a commercial β-galactosidase in the production of fucose-containing galacto-oligosaccharides (fGOS) from lactose and fucose. The production was optimized using experiment design and optimal conditions for a batch production in 3-liter scale. The reaction product was analyzed and the produced galactose-fucose disaccharides were purified. The structures of these disaccharides were determined using NMR and it was verified that one major product with the structure Galβ1-3Fuc and two minor products with the structures Galβ1-4Fuc and Galβ1-2Fuc were formed...
September 13, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889122/galectin-9-produced-by-intestinal-epithelial-cells-enhances-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-activity-in-dendritic-cells-in-a-pi3k-and-p38-dependent-manner
#14
Sander de Kivit, Atanaska I Kostadinova, JoAnn Kerperien, Veronica Ayechu Muruzabal, Mary E Morgan, Leon M J Knippels, Aletta D Kraneveld, Johan Garssen, Linette E M Willemsen
Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) drive regulatory T cell (Treg) responses by promoting the differentiation of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-expressing CD103+ dendritic cells (DC). Apical stimulation of TLR9 by CpG DNA on IEC supports galectin-9 expression by IEC, which is promoted by short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (GF). While galectin-9 can induce the maturation of monocyte-derived DC (moDC), the contribution of galectin-9 on the induction of ALDH activity in DC is not known...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884590/galacto-oligosaccharides-ameliorate-dysbiotic-bifidobacteriaceae-decline-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#15
M Gonai, A Shigehisa, I Kigawa, K Kurasaki, O Chonan, T Matsuki, Y Yoshida, M Aida, K Hamano, Y Terauchi
Gut microbiota affects the host's metabolism, and it is suggested that there are differences in gut microbiota composition between patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy individuals. Additionally, dysbiosis may increase the concentration of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), causing metabolic endotoxemia, which induces impaired glucose tolerance. Several studies have reported relationships between metabolic diseases and the gut microbiota; and prebiotics, such as oligosaccharides, are commonly consumed to regulate gut microbiotas in healthy individuals...
September 8, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877890/tackling-iron-deficiency-in-infants-galacto-oligosaccharides-may-be-up-to-the-task
#16
Fudi Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858205/impact-of-novel-prebiotic-galacto-oligosaccharides-on-various-biomarkers-of-colorectal-cancer-in-wister-rats
#17
Tahir Rasool Qamar, Sanaullah Iqbal, Fatima Syed, Muhammad Nasir, Habib Rehman, Muhammad Aamir Iqbal, Rui Hai Liu
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths around the globe. Bioactive food ingredients such as prebiotics have protective potential in colon cancer. Data on galacto-oligosaccharides (GalOS) against CRC are very limited and GalOS used in this study have β-1,6 and β-1,3 as major glycosidic linkages and, to our best knowledge, were never used before against any cancer treatment. This study aims to investigate the protective role of novel GalOS against various biomarkers of CRC including aberrant crypt foci (ACF), bacterial enzymes and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in a rodent model induced with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH)...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839490/effects-of-prenatal-consumption-of-caprine-milk-oligosaccharides-on-mice-mono-associated-with-bifidobacterium-bifidum-agr2166
#18
Caroline Thum, Kikuji Itoh, Wayne Young, Adrian Cookson, Warren McNabb, Nicole Roy
BACKGROUND: Prenatal consumption of oligosaccharides are associated with changes in the maternal gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota with health consequences for the offspring. It has previously been demonstrated that caprine milk oligosaccharides (CMO) stimulate the growth and fermentation rate of Bifidobacterium bifidum AGR2166. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of B. bifidum AGR2166 and prenatal consumption of CMO, alone or in combination, on the dam's large intestine, foetal development and ability of B...
2017: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814396/consumption-of-galacto-oligosaccharides-increases-iron-absorption-from-a-micronutrient-powder-containing-ferrous-fumarate-and-sodium-iron-edta-a-stable-isotope-study-in-kenyan-infants
#19
Daniela Paganini, Mary A Uyoga, Colin I Cercamondi, Diego Moretti, Edith Mwasi, Clarissa Schwab, Salome Bechtler, Francis M Mutuku, Valeria Galetti, Christophe Lacroix, Simon Karanja, Michael B Zimmermann
Background: Whether consumption of prebiotics increases iron absorption in infants is unclear.Objective: We set out to determine whether prebiotic consumption affects iron absorption from a micronutrient powder (MNP) containing a mixture of ferrous fumarate and sodium iron EDTA (FeFum+NaFeEDTA) in Kenyan infants.Design: Infants (n = 50; aged 6-14 mo) consumed maize porridge that was fortified with an MNP containing FeFum+NaFeEDTA and 7.5 g galacto-oligosaccharides (GOSs) (Fe+GOS group, n = 22) or the same MNP without GOSs (Fe group, n = 28) each day for 3 wk...
October 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809383/increasing-symptoms-in-irritable-bowel-symptoms-with-ingestion-of-galacto-oligosaccharides-are-mitigated-by-%C3%AE-galactosidase-treatment
#20
C J Tuck, K M Taylor, P R Gibson, J S Barrett, J G Muir
OBJECTIVES: Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are dietary FODMAPs (fermentable carbohydrates) associated with triggering gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial aimed to assess whether oral α-galactosidase co-ingestion with foods high in GOS and low in other FODMAPs would reduce symptoms. METHODS: Patients meeting the Rome III criteria for IBS who were hydrogen-producers on breath testing were recruited...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
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