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galacto-oligosaccharides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207812/of-the-milk-sugars-galactose-but-not-prebiotic-galacto-oligosaccharide-improves-insulin-sensitivity-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#1
Priska Stahel, Julie J Kim, Changting Xiao, John P Cant
BACKGROUND: Consumption of dairy products reduces risk of type 2 diabetes. Milk proteins and fats exhibit anti-diabetic properties but milk sugars have been studied little in this context. Galactose from milk lactose is readily converted to glycogen in the liver but its effects on insulin sensitivity have not been assessed. Prebiotic oligosaccharides from milk alter gut microbiota and can thereby influence host metabolism. Our objective was to assess the effect on insulin sensitivity of dietary galactose compared to glucose and fructose, and fermentable galacto-oligosaccharides compared to non-fermentable methylcellulose...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190419/seaweed-extracts-and-galacto-oligosaccharides-improve-intestinal-health-in-pigs-following-salmonella-typhimurium-challenge
#2
M A Bouwhuis, M J McDonnell, T Sweeney, A Mukhopadhya, C J O'Shea, J V O'Doherty
Pork and pork products are recognised as vehicles of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in humans. Seaweed-derived polysaccharides (SWE) and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) have shown to exhibit antimicrobial, prebiotic and immunomodulatory activity. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of dietary GOS and SWE supplementation on reducing S. Typhimurium numbers and intestinal inflammation in vivo. In total, 30 pigs (n=10/treatment, BW 30.9 kg) were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments: (1) basal diet; (2) basal diet+2...
February 13, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176525/production-of-high-galacto-oligosaccharides-gos-by-pectinex-ultra-sp-l-optimization-of-reaction-conditions-and-immobilization-on-glyoxyl-functionalized-silica
#3
Isabel González-Delgado, Yolanda Segura, Gabriel Morales, Maria Jose Lopez-Munoz
A rational optimization for the synthesis of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) from lactose catalysed by β-galactosidase from Aspergillus aculeatus, included in the commercial product Pectinex Ultra SP-L, has been performed by using experimental design and surface response methodology. This accurate tool optimized empirical production of the most desired high galacto-oligosaccharides (tri-GOS and tetra-GOS) up to 16.4% under the following reaction conditions: 59C, 4 U/mL free enzyme concentration, pH 6.5, 250 g/L initial lactose concentration and 20h of reaction...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166850/a-fermented-milk-concentrate-and-a-combination-of-short-chain-galacto-oligosaccharides-long-chain-fructo-oligosaccharides-pectin-derived-acidic-oligosaccharides-protect-suckling-rats-from-rotavirus-gastroenteritis
#4
Mar Rigo-Adrover, Teresa Pérez-Berezo, Sara Ramos-Romero, Kees van Limpt, Karen Knipping, Johan Garssen, Jan Knol, Àngels Franch, Margarida Castell, Francisco J Pérez-Cano
Human milk contains bioactive compounds that confer a protective role against gastrointestinal infections. In order to find supplements for an infant formula able to mimic these benefits of breast-feeding, two different concepts were tested. The products consisted of the following: (1) a Bifidobacterium breve- and Streptococcus thermophilus-fermented formula and (2) a combination of short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides/long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides with pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides. A rotavirus infection suckling rat model was used to evaluate improvements in the infectious process and in the immune response of supplemented animals...
February 7, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144742/comment-on-elucidating-the-binding-efficacy-of-%C3%AE-galactosidase-on-graphene-by-docking-approach-and-its-potential-application-in-galacto-oligosaccharide-production
#5
Marek Wiśniewski, Katarzyna Roszek
In a recent study, Satar et al. (Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 39:807-814, 2016) have reported "the synthesis and characterization of graphene for the immobilization of β-galactosidase for improved galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) production". There are several issues in this study that must be commented.
January 31, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139923/bovine-milk-oligosaccharide-contents-show-remarkable-seasonal-variation-and-intercow-variation
#6
Zhiqian Liu, Martin Auldist, Marlie Wright, Benjamin Cocks, Simone Rochfort
Human milk oligosaccharides (OS) play an important role in protecting the neonate. In addition to fructo-oligosaccharides and galacto-oligosaccharides, bovine milk OS have great potential to be used in pediatric food products to mimic the functions of human milk OS. Currently, little is known about the accumulation of OS in bovine milk in relation to genetic and environmental factors. A systematic survey on seasonal variation of 14 major OS was thus conducted with 19 cows over the entire milking season using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technique...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107656/synthesis-of-an-allergy-inducing-tetrasaccharide-4p-x
#7
Takashi Moriya, Naoki Nagahata, Rei Odaka, Hirohide Nakamura, Jun Yoshikawa, Katsumi Kurashima, Tadao Saito
4P-X (β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-[β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 4)]-β-D-glucopyranose) is included in galacto-oligosaccharides (GOSs) produced by β-galactosidase derived from Bacillus circulans. 4P-X has been known to induce particularly strong allergies. High purity 4P-X is essential for use as a standard to quantify the amount of 4P-X in GOSs; however, the isolation of high purity 4P-X has never been reported. In this study, we achieved the synthesis of 4P-X by a combination of organic and enzymatic chemical syntheses in a short time...
February 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075353/biochemical-and-structural-insights-into-a-novel-thermostable-%C3%AE-1-3-galactosidase-from-marinomonas-sp-bsi20414
#8
Haitao Ding, Qian Zeng, Lili Zhou, Yong Yu, Bo Chen
A novel β-1,3-galactosidase, designated as MaBGA (β-galactosidase from Marinomonas sp. BSi20414), was successfully purified to homogeneity from Marinomonas sp. BSi20414 isolated from Arctic sea ice by ammonium sulfate precipitation and anion exchange chromatography, resulting in an 8.12-fold increase in specific activity and 9.9% recovery in total activity. MaBGA displayed its maximum activity at pH 6.0 and 60 °C, and maintained at least 90% of its initial activity over the pH range of 5.0-8.0 after incubating for 1 h...
January 8, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001151/evaluation-of-clinical-safety-and-beneficial-effects-of-stachyose-enriched-%C3%AE-galacto-oligosaccharides-on-gut-microbiota-and-bowel-function-in-humans
#9
Ting Li, Xinshan Lu, Xingbin Yang
Deshipu stachyose granules (DSG) is a mixture of α-galacto-oligosaccharides derived from the dietary roots of Lycopus lucidus Turcz. Our previous study showed that DSG could improve the faecal microbial composition, and facilitate intestinal peristalsis and fecal excretion in mice. This study was designed to investigate the effect of DSG on gut microbiota and bowel function in humans. Two human intervention studies were conducted. In the first study, 100 healthy adults were treated without or with 5 g per day of DSG for 14 days...
December 21, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974055/host-microbiome-interactions-in-human-type-2-diabetes-following-prebiotic-fibre-galacto-oligosaccharide-intake
#10
Camilla Pedersen, Edith Gallagher, Felicity Horton, Richard J Ellis, Umer Z Ijaz, Huihai Wu, Etana Jaiyeola, Onyinye Diribe, Thibaut Duparc, Patrice D Cani, Glenn R Gibson, Paul Hinton, John Wright, Roberto La Ragione, M Denise Robertson
Aberrant microbiota composition and function have been linked to several pathologies, including type 2 diabetes. In animal models, prebiotics induce favourable changes in the intestinal microbiota, intestinal permeability (IP) and endotoxaemia, which are linked to concurrent improvement in glucose tolerance. This is the first study to investigate the link between IP, glucose tolerance and intestinal bacteria in human type 2 diabetes. In all, twenty-nine men with well-controlled type 2 diabetes were randomised to a prebiotic (galacto-oligosaccharide mixture) or placebo (maltodextrin) supplement (5·5 g/d for 12 weeks)...
December 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942845/in-vitro-assessment-of-iron-availability-from-commercial-young-child-formulae-supplemented-with-prebiotics
#11
Tatiana Christides, Julia Clark Ganis, Paul Anthony Sharp
PURPOSE: Iron is essential for development and growth in young children; unfortunately, iron deficiency (ID) is a significant public health problem in this population. Young Child Formulae (YCF), milk-derived products fortified with iron and ascorbic acid (AA, an enhancer of iron absorption) may be good sources of iron to help prevent ID. Furthermore, some YCF are supplemented with prebiotics, non-digestible carbohydrates suggested to enhance iron bioavailability. The aim of our study was to evaluate iron bioavailability of YCF relative to prebiotic and AA concentrations...
December 9, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931127/prebiotics-and-synbiotics-in-ulcerative-colitis
#12
Axel Laurell, Klas Sjöberg
BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon with unclear pathogenesis. A dysbiotic intestinal microbiota is regarded as a key component in the disease process and there has been significant interest in developing new treatments which target the microbiota. AIM: To give an overview of the studies to date investigating prebiotics and synbiotics for the treatment of UC. METHODS: A literature search of PubMed and related search engines was carried out using the terms "ulcerative colitis" in combination with "prebiotic", "synbiotic" or "dietary fibre"...
April 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885320/from-by-product-to-valuable-components-efficient-enzymatic-conversion-of-lactose-in-whey-using-%C3%AE-galactosidase-from-streptococcus-thermophilus
#13
Barbara Geiger, Hoang-Minh Nguyen, Stefanie Wenig, Hoang Anh Nguyen, Cindy Lorenz, Roman Kittl, Geir Mathiesen, Vincent G H Eijsink, Dietmar Haltrich, Thu-Ha Nguyen
β-Galactosidase from Streptococcus thermophilus was overexpressed in a food-grade organism, Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. Laboratory cultivations yielded 11,000 U of β-galactosidase activity per liter of culture corresponding to approximately 170 mg of enzyme. Crude cell-free enzyme extracts obtained by cell disruption and subsequent removal of cell debris showed high stability and were used for conversion of lactose in whey permeate. The enzyme showed high transgalactosylation activity. When using an initial concentration of whey permeate corresponding to 205 g L(-1) lactose, the maximum yield of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) obtained at 50°C reached approximately 50% of total sugar at 90% lactose conversion, meaning that efficient valorization of the whey lactose was obtained...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Engineering Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854268/deoxynivalenol-and-its-modified-forms-are-there-major-differences
#14
Arash Alizadeh, Saskia Braber, Peyman Akbari, Aletta Kraneveld, Johan Garssen, Johanna Fink-Gremmels
Considering the diverse toxic effects of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON), its common occurrence in wheat-based products, and its stability during processing, DON constitutes an increasing health concern for humans and animals. In addition to the parent compound DON, human and animal exposure encompasses the acetylated fungal metabolites 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3ADON) and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15ADON) as well as the plant-derived DON-glucoside (DON3G) and the bacterial product de-epoxy-DON (DOM-1)...
November 16, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811108/draft-genome-sequences-of-lactobacillus-animalis-strain-p38-and-lactobacillus-reuteri-strain-p43-isolated-from-chicken-cecum
#15
Morvarid Rezvani, Mary Mendoza, Matthew D Koci, Caitlyn Daron, Josh Levy, Hosni M Hassan
Here, we present the genome sequence of Lactobacillus animalis strain P38 and Lactobacillus reuteri strain P43, both isolated from the cecum content of a 4-week old chicken fed a diet supplemented with the prebiotic β(1-4)galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS). These indigenous Lactobacillus isolates are potential probiotic organisms for poultry.
November 3, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798337/similar-to-those-who-are-breastfed-infants-fed-a-formula-containing-2-fucosyllactose-have-lower-inflammatory-cytokines-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Karen C Goehring, Barbara J Marriage, Jeffery S Oliver, Julie A Wilder, Edward G Barrett, Rachael H Buck
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) provide multiple benefits to infants, including prebiotic effects, gut maturation, antimicrobial activities, and immune modulation. Clinical intervention studies with HMOs are required to confirm these benefits in infants. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the effects of feeding formulas supplemented with the HMO 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL) on biomarkers of immune function in healthy term infants...
December 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771020/effects-of-inulin-type-fructans-galacto-oligosaccharides-and-related-synbiotics-on-inflammatory-markers-in-adult-patients-with-overweight-or-obesity-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Ricardo Fernandes, Vinicius A do Rosario, Michel C Mocellin, Marilyn G F Kuntz, Erasmo B S M Trindade
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Studies in humans with overweight or obesity have reported that some prebiotics and synbiotics have beneficial effects on metabolic endotoxaemia and immune function. However, to date, no systematic review of controlled clinical trials assessed this topic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of inulin-type fructans, galacto-oligosaccharides and related synbiotics on inflammatory markers in adults with overweight or obesity. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed until November 6, 2015 in four electronic databases and reference lists of all included articles and relevant reviews in the field, without using any filter...
October 8, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757792/synthesis-and-purification-of-galacto-oligosaccharides-state-of-the-art
#18
REVIEW
Carlos Vera, Andrés Córdova, Carla Aburto, Cecilia Guerrero, Sebastián Suárez, Andrés Illanes
Lactose-derived non-digestible oligosaccharides are prominent components of functional foods. Among them, galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) outstand for being prebiotics whose health-promoting effects are supported on strong scientific evidences, having unique properties as substitutes of human milk oligosaccharides in formulas for newborns and infants. GOS are currently produced enzymatically in a kinetically-controlled reaction of lactose transgalactosylation catalyzed by β-galactosidases from different microbial strains...
December 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738596/middle-east-consensus-statement-on-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-in-12-months-old-infants
#19
REVIEW
Yvan Vandenplas, Muath Abdurrahman Alturaiki, Wafaa Al-Qabandi, Fawaz AlRefaee, Ziad Bassil, Bassam Eid, Ahmed El Beleidy, Ali Ibrahim Almehaidib, Pierre Mouawad, Maroun Sokhn
This paper covers algorithms for the management of regurgitation, constipation and infantile colic in infants. Anti-regurgitation formula may be considered in infants with troublesome regurgitation, while diagnostic investigations or drug therapy are not indicated in the absence of warning signs. Although probiotics have shown some positive evidence for the management of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), the evidence is not strong enough to make a recommendation. A partially hydrolyzed infant formula with prebiotics and β-palmitate may be considered as a dietary intervention for functional constipation in formula fed infants...
September 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688855/dietary-prebiotics-and-probiotics-influence-the-growth-performance-feed-utilisation-and-body-indices-of-snakehead-channa-striata-fingerlings
#20
Mohammad Bodrul Munir, Roshada Hashim, Mohammad Suhaimee Abdul Manaf, Siti Azizah Mohd Nor
This study used a two-phase feeding trial to determine the influence of selected dietary prebiotics and probiotics on growth performance, feed utilisation, and morphological changes in snakehead (Channa striata) fingerlings as well as the duration of these effects over a post-experimental period without supplementation. Triplicate groups of fish (22.46 ±0.17 g) were raised on six different treatment diets: three prebiotics (0.2% β-glucan, 1% galacto-oligosaccharides [GOS], 0.5% mannan-oligosaccharides [MOS]), two probiotics (1% live yeast [Saccharomyces cerevisiae] and 0...
August 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
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