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Shehla Khalil, Bijay Ranjan Mirdha, Jaishree Paul, Ashutosh Panda, Govind Makharia, Rama Chaudhry, Shinjini Bhatnagar
Cryptosporidiosis is predominantly a gastrointestinal disease of humans and other animals, caused by various species of protozoan parasites representing the genus Cryptosporidium. Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in human clinical samples is central to the prevention, surveillance and control of cryptosporidiosis, particularly given that there is presently no broadly applicable treatment regimen for this disease. A non-radioactive, genus specific DNA dot blot hybridization assay was developed using Digoxigenin (DIG) labelled probes to detect Cryptosporidium DNA in human clinical samples...
October 4, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Li Du, Yun Xia, Yunyan He, Qingquan Pu, Ruoyi Hua, Wenyao Wu
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients, rapid and sensitive detection of Aspergillus from clinical samples has been a major challenge in the early diagnosis of IA. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA-ELISA) was developed to fulfil the need for the efficient diagnosis of these infections. The primers targeting 18S rRNA were selected for the amplification of Aspergillus RNA by the isothermal digoxigenin (DIG)-labeling NASBA process...
December 2016: AMB Express
Yingying Han, Jinqi Zhan, Ying Xu, Fengwei Zhang, Zhengrong Yuan, Qiang Weng
The aim of the present study was to elucidate the regulatory role of cell proliferation and apoptosis in testicular development of wild Daurian ground squirrels during the breeding season (April), the non-breeding season (June) and before hibernation (September). Gross mass and hormonal analysis showed that the testis:body mass ratio and plasma testosterone concentration fluctuated seasonally, with a peak in April and lowest values in June. Similarly, spermatogenesis was fully developed in April but suppressed in June and September...
September 28, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Anna G Downs, Katie R Scholles, David M Hollis
Rem2 is member of the RGK (Rem, Rad, and Gem/Kir) subfamily of the Ras superfamily of GTP binding proteins known to influence Ca(2+) entry into the cell. In addition, Rem2, which is found at high levels in the vertebrate brain, is also implicated in cell proliferation and synapse formation. Though the specific, regional localization of Rem2 in the adult mammalian central nervous system has been well-described, such information is lacking in other vertebrates. Rem2 is involved in neuronal processes where the capacities between adults of different vertebrate classes vary...
September 4, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
A Ben Aissa, J J Jara, R M Sebastián, A Vallribera, S Campoy, M I Pividori
Due to the increasing need of rapid tests for application in low resource settings, WHO summarized their ideal features under the acronym ASSURED (Affordable, Sensitive, Specific, User-friendly, Rapid and Robust, Equipment-free, Delivered to those who need it). In this work, two different platforms for the rapid and simultaneous testing of the foodborne pathogens E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica, in detail a nucleic acid lateral flow and an electrochemical magneto-genosensor are presented and compared in terms of their analytical performance...
August 17, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Fosheng Li, Lanju Mei, Cheng Zhan, Qiang Mao, Min Yao, Shenghua Wang, Lin Tang, Fang Chen
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in nearly every aspect of biology, including physiological, biochemical, developmental and pathological processes. Therefore, a highly sensitive and accurate method of detection of miRNAs has great potential in research on theory and application, such as the clinical approach to medicine, animal and plant production, as well as stress response. Here, we report a strategic method to detect miRNAs from multicellular organisms, which mainly includes liquid hybridization and solid phase detection (LHSPD); it has been verified in various species and is much more sensitive than traditional biotin-labeled Northern blots...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Alexander R Langley, Stefan Gräf, James C Smith, Torsten Krude
Next-generation sequencing has enabled the genome-wide identification of human DNA replication origins. However, different approaches to mapping replication origins, namely (i) sequencing isolated small nascent DNA strands (SNS-seq); (ii) sequencing replication bubbles (bubble-seq) and (iii) sequencing Okazaki fragments (OK-seq), show only limited concordance. To address this controversy, we describe here an independent high-resolution origin mapping technique that we call initiation site sequencing (ini-seq)...
September 1, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Fei Tieng Lim, Satoshi Ogawa, Ishwar S Parhar
Sprouty-related protein-2 (Spred-2) is a negative regulator of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) pathway, which is important for cell proliferation, neuronal differentiation, plasticity and survival. Nevertheless, its general molecular characteristics such as gene expression patterns and potential role in neural repair in the brain remain unknown. Thus, this study aimed to characterize the expression of spred-2 in the zebrafish brain. Digoxigenin-in situ hybridization showed spred-2 mRNA-expressing cells were mainly seen in the proliferative zones such as the olfactory bulb, telencephalon, optic tectum, cerebellum, and the dorsal and ventral hypothalamus, and most of which were neuronal cells...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Hana Ozaki, Tsuyoshi Katoh, Ryoko Nakagawa, Yasuhiro Ishihara, Noriyuki Sueyoshi, Isamu Kameshita, Takanobu Taniguchi, Tetsuo Hirano, Takeshi Yamazaki, Atsuhiko Ishida
Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase phosphatase (CaMKP/PPM1F) is a Ser/Thr phosphatase that belongs to the PPM family. Growing evidence suggests that PPM phosphatases including CaMKP act as a complex with other proteins to regulate cellular functions. In this study, using the two-dimensional far-western blotting technique with digoxigenin-labeled CaMKP as a probe, in conjunction with peptide mass fingerprinting analysis, we identified neurofilament L (NFL) as a CaMKP-binding protein in a Triton-insoluble fraction of rat brain...
September 2, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yogin Patel, Ji S Lee, Hexin Chen
In this article, we describe a detailed protocol for miRNA detection in breast cancer tissue using in situ hybridization with a digoxigenin-labelled LNA (Locked Nucleic Acid) probe. The probe was recognized by anti-DIG alkaline phosphatase antibodies and later developed using alkaline phosphatase substrate producing fluorescence signals. Here we utilized miRNA in situ hybridization (MISH) technique to analyze expression of miR-489 in tissues from breast cancer patients. This technique can detect the localization of miRNA of interest in individual tissue samples...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Tsung-Po Lai, Woodring E Wright, Jerry W Shay
Telomere length in humans has been correlated with cancer and age-related diseases. The standard method to measure telomere length relies on Southern blot analysis with radioactively or non-radioactively labeled probes containing several telomeric DNA repeats. However, this approach requires relatively large amounts of genomic DNA, making it difficult to measure telomere length when a limited amount of sample is available. Here, we describe a non-radioactive labeling method that uses 3' fill-in combined with lambda exonuclease digestion to incorporate one or more digoxigenin (DIG) molecules into bridged nucleic acid (BNA)-containing oligonucleotides (ONTs)...
2016: BioTechniques
Atsushi Murai, Misako Kakiuchi, Takahito Hamano, Misato Kobayashi, Masaoki Tsudzuki, Mikiharu Nakano, Yoichi Matsuda, Fumihiko Horio
In avian species, maternal blood immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is transferred to the egg yolks of maturing oocytes, but the mechanism underlying this transfer is unknown. To gain insight into the mechanism of maternal IgY transfer in quail, we established an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantitation of quail IgY. We characterized strain differences in blood and egg yolk IgY concentrations and exogenously injected IgY-Fc uptakes into egg yolks. A specific rabbit polyclonal antibody to quail IgY was raised for the ELISA...
July 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Carolina Cocito, Adalberto Merighi, Mario Giacobini, Laura Lossi
A mutation of the reln gene gives rise to the Reeler mouse (reln (-∕-)) displaying an ataxic phenotype and cerebellar hypoplasia. We have characterized the neurochemistry of postnatal (P0-P60) reln (-∕-) mouse cerebella with specific attention to the intervention of cell proliferation and apoptosis in the P0-P25 interval. Homozygous reln (-∕-) mice and age-matched controls were analyzed by immunofluorescence using primary antibodies against NeuN, calbindin, GFAP, vimentin, SMI32, and GAD67. Proliferation and apoptosis were detected after a single intraperitoneal BrdU injection and by the TUNEL assay with anti-digoxigenin rhodamine-conjugated antibodies...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
H Y Yin, T J Fang, H W Wen
UNLABELLED: Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are the most common cause of food poisoning worldwide and can induce symptoms, such as diarrhoea, vomiting and abdominal cramping. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop a multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a lateral flow assay (m-LAMP/LFA) to simultaneously detect the sea and seb genes of Staphylococcus aureus. The amplicons of the sea gene were labelled with digoxigenin (Dig) and biotin while those of seb gene were labelled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and biotin...
July 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Yafei Zhu, Qipeng Zhao, Hua Gao, Xiaodong Peng, Youmin Wen, Guidong Dai
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Lycium barbarum L., popularly known as "Goji berry", a classic of Traditional Chinese Medicine has long been used to treat ocular diseases and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, the photoreceptor cell protection of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP), a water extract from Lycium barbarum L. has received more attention. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of LBP on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced photoreceptor cell apoptosis, and the involvement of the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Syevda G Sirenko, Victor A Maltsev, Yael Yaniv, Rostislav Bychkov, Daniel Yaeger, Tatiana Vinogradova, Harold A Spurgeon, Edward G Lakatta
Coupling of an intracellular Ca(2+) clock to surface membrane ion channels, i.e., a "membrane clock, " via coupling of electrochemical Na(+) and Ca(2+) gradients (ENa and ECa, respectively) has been theorized to regulate sinoatrial nodal cell (SANC) normal automaticity. To test this hypothesis, we measured responses of [Na(+)]i, [Ca(2+)]i, membrane potential, action potential cycle length (APCL), and rhythm in rabbit SANCs to Na(+)/K(+) pump inhibition by the digitalis glycoside, digoxigenin (DG, 10-20 μmol/l)...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Jinglin Kong, Nicholas A W Bell, Ulrich F Keyser
Designed "DNA carriers" have been proposed as a new method for nanopore based specific protein detection. In this system, target protein molecules bind to a long DNA strand at a defined position creating a second level transient current drop against the background DNA translocation. Here, we demonstrate the ability of this system to quantify protein concentrations in the nanomolar range. After incubation with target protein at different concentrations, the fraction of DNA translocations showing a secondary current spike allows for the quantification of the corresponding protein concentration...
June 8, 2016: Nano Letters
Christine E Tinberg, Sagar D Khare
The ability to de novo design proteins that can bind small molecules has wide implications for synthetic biology and medicine. Combining computational protein design with the high-throughput screening of mutagenic libraries of computationally designed proteins is emerging as a general approach for creating binding proteins with programmable binding modes, affinities, and selectivities. The computational step enables the creation of a binding site in a protein that otherwise does not (measurably) bind the intended ligand, and targeted mutagenic screening allows for validation and refinement of the computational model as well as provides orders-of-magnitude increases in the binding affinity...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
W Scott Young, June Song, Éva Mezey
Expression of genes is manifested by the production of RNA transcripts within cells. Hybridization histochemistry (or in situ hybridization) permits localization of these transcripts with cellular resolution or better. Furthermore, the relative amounts of transcripts detected in different tissues or in the same tissues in different states (e.g., physiological or developmental) may be quantified. This unit describes hybridization histochemical techniques using either oligodeoxynucleotide probes (see Basic Protocols 1 and 2, Alternate Protocol 1) or RNA probes (riboprobes; see Basic Protocols 3 and 5)...
2016: Current Protocols in Neuroscience
Dan Song, Yun Zhong, Chunfeng Qian, Qinyan Zou, Jian Ou, Yichao Shi, Liang Gao, Gaigai Wang, Zhenxing Liu, Haibo Li, Hailei Ding, Huihua Wu, Fuxin Wang, Jing Wang, Hong Li
Premature ovarian failure (POF) is one of the most common causes of infertility in women. In our present study, we established cyclophosphamide- (CTX-) induced POF rat model and elucidated its effect on ovarian function. We detected the serum estrogen, follicle stimulating hormone, and anti-Müllerian hormone of mice models by ELISA and evaluated their folliculogenesis by histopathology examination. Our study revealed that CTX administration could severely disturb hormone secretion and influence folliculogenesis in rat...
2016: BioMed Research International
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