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Hyperpolarized Xe

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754751/pauses-in-cholinergic-interneuron-activity-are-driven-by-excitatory-input-and-delayed-rectification-with-dopamine-modulation
#1
Yan-Feng Zhang, John N J Reynolds, Stephanie J Cragg
Cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) of the striatum pause their firing in response to salient stimuli and conditioned stimuli after learning. Several different mechanisms for pause generation have been proposed, but a unifying basis has not previously emerged. Here, using in vivo and ex vivo recordings in rat and mouse brain and a computational model, we show that ChI pauses are driven by withdrawal of excitatory inputs to striatum and result from a delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr ) in concert with local neuromodulation...
May 3, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729010/lung-morphometry-using-hyperpolarized-129-xe-multi-b-diffusion-mri-with-compressed-sensing-in-healthy-subjects-and-patients-with-copd
#2
Huiting Zhang, Junshuai Xie, Sa Xiao, Xiuchao Zhao, Ming Zhang, Lei Shi, Ke Wang, Guangyao Wu, Xianping Sun, Chaohui Ye, Xin Zhou
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the feasibility of compressed sensing (CS) to accelerate the acquisition of hyperpolarized (HP) 129 Xe multi-b diffusion MRI for quantitative assessments of lung microstructural morphometry. METHODS: Six healthy subjects and six chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) subjects underwent HP 129 Xe multi-b diffusion MRI (b = 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 s/cm2 ). First, a fully sampled (FS) acquisition of HP 129 Xe multi-b diffusion MRI was conducted in one healthy subject...
May 4, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673533/brain-imaging-using-hyperpolarized-129-xe-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#3
Simrun Chahal, Braedan R J Prete, Alanna Wade, Francis T Hane, Mitchell S Albert
Hyperpolarized (HP) 129 Xe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a novel iteration of traditional MRI that relies on detecting the spins of 1 H. Since 129 Xe is a gaseous signal source, it can be used for lung imaging. Additionally, 129 Xe dissolves in the blood stream and can therefore be detectable in the brain parenchyma and vasculature. In this work, we provide detailed information on the protocols that we have developed to image 129 Xe within the brains of both rodents and human subjects.
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549792/considering-low-rank-sparse-and-gas-inflow-effects-constraints-for-accelerated-pulmonary-dynamic-hyperpolarized-129-xe-mri
#4
Sa Xiao, He Deng, Caohui Duan, Junshuai Xie, Huiting Zhang, Xianping Sun, Chaohui Ye, Xin Zhou
Dynamic hyperpolarized (HP) 129 Xe MRI is able to visualize the process of lung ventilation, which potentially provides unique information about lung physiology and pathophysiology. However, the longitudinal magnetization of HP 129 Xe is nonrenewable, making it difficult to achieve high image quality while maintaining high temporal-spatial resolution in the pulmonary dynamic MRI. In this paper, we propose a new accelerated dynamic HP 129 Xe MRI scheme incorporating the low-rank, sparse and gas-inflow effects (L + S + G) constraints...
May 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526883/ethyl-pyruvate-improves-pulmonary-function-in-mice-with-bleomycin-induced-lung-injury-as-monitored-with-hyperpolarized-129-xe-mr-imaging
#5
Shota Hodono, Akihiro Shimokawa, Neil J Stewart, Yukiko Yamauchi, Renya Nishimori, Mami Yamane, Hirohiko Imai, Hideaki Fujiwara, Atsuomi Kimura
PURPOSE: High Mobility Group Box1 (HMGB1), which is one of the damage-associated molecular pattern molecules relating to various inflammatory diseases, has gained interest as a therapeutic target because of its involvement in wound healing processes. In the present study, we investigated HMGB1 as a potential therapeutic target in a model of lung fibrosis using a preclinical hyperpolarized 129 Xe (HPXe) MRI system. METHODS: Lung injury was induced by intra-peritoneal injection of bleomycin (BLM) in 19 mice...
March 9, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515459/kv7-kcnq-k-channels-influence-total-peripheral-resistance-in-female-but-not-male-rats-and-hamper-catecholamine-release-in-hypertensive-rats-of-both-sexes
#6
Torill Berg
K+ -channels of the Kv7/KCNQ-family hyperpolarize and stabilize excitable cells such as autonomic neurons and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Kv7 may therefore play a role in blood pressure (BP) homeostasis, and prevent a high total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR), a hallmark of hypertensive disease. The present study analyzed if Kv7 channels influence catecholamine release and TPR in normotensive (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and if they may contribute to the antihypertensive protection seen in young, female SHR...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504181/comparison-of-3-he-and-129-xe-mri-for-evaluation-of-lung-microstructure-and-ventilation-at-1-5t
#7
Neil J Stewart, Ho-Fung Chan, Paul J C Hughes, Felix C Horn, Graham Norquay, Madhwesha Rao, Denise P Yates, Rob H Ireland, Matthew Q Hatton, Bilal A Tahir, Paul Ford, Andrew J Swift, Rod Lawson, Helen Marshall, Guilhem J Collier, Jim M Wild
BACKGROUND: To support translational lung MRI research with hyperpolarized 129 Xe gas, comprehensive evaluation of derived quantitative lung function measures against established measures from 3 He MRI is required. Few comparative studies have been performed to date, only at 3T, and multisession repeatability of 129 Xe functional metrics have not been reported. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: To compare hyperpolarized 129 Xe and 3 He MRI-derived quantitative metrics of lung ventilation and microstructure, and their repeatability, at 1...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274298/time-resolved-monitoring-of-enzyme-activity-with-ultrafast-hyper-cest-spectroscopy
#8
Jörg Döpfert, Matthias Schnurr, Martin Kunth, Honor May Rose, Andreas Hennig, Leif Schröder
We propose a method to dynamically monitor the progress of an enzymatic reaction using NMR of hyperpolarized129 Xe in a host-guest system. It is based on a displacement assay originally designed for fluorescence experiments that exploits the competitive binding of the enzymatic product on the one hand and a reporter dye on the other hand to a supramolecular host. Recently, this assay has been successfully transferred to NMR, using xenon as a reporter, cucurbit[6]uril as supramolecular host, and chemical exchange saturation transfer with hyperpolarized Xe (Hyper-CEST) as detection technique...
December 23, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238999/physiological-gas-exchange-mapping-of-hyperpolarized-129-xe-using-spiral-ideal-and-moxe-in-a-model-of-regional-radiation-induced-lung-injury
#9
Brandon Zanette, Elaine Stirrat, Salomeh Jelveh, Andrew Hope, Giles Santyr
PURPOSE: To map physiological gas exchange parameters using dissolved hyperpolarized (HP)129 Xe in a rat model of regional radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) with spiral-IDEAL and the model of xenon exchange (MOXE). Results are compared to quantitative histology of pulmonary tissue and red blood cell (RBC) distribution. METHODS: Two cohorts (n = 6 each) of age-matched rats were used. One was irradiated in the right-medial lung, producing regional injury. Gas exchange was mapped 4 weeks postirradiation by imaging dissolved-phase HP129 Xe using spiral-IDEAL at five gas exchange timepoints using a clinical 1...
February 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150078/bimodal-fluorescence-129-xe-nmr-probe-for-molecular-imaging-and-biological-inhibition-of-egfr-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#10
Gaëlle Milanole, Bo Gao, Audrey Paoletti, Grégory Pieters, Christophe Dugave, Eric Deutsch, Sofia Rivera, Frédéric Law, Jean-Luc Perfettini, Emilie Mari, Estelle Léonce, Céline Boutin, Patrick Berthault, Hervé Volland, François Fenaille, Thierry Brotin, Bernard Rousseau
Although Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) is one of the main causes of cancer death, very little improvement has been made in the last decades regarding diagnosis and outcomes. In this study, a bimodal fluorescence/129 Xe NMR probe containing a xenon host, a fluorescent moiety and a therapeutic antibody has been designed to target the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors (EGFR) overexpressed in cancer cells. This biosensor shows high selectivity for the EGFR, and a biological activity similar to that of the antibody...
December 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114616/detection-of-regional-radiation-induced-lung-injury-using-hyperpolarized-129-xe-chemical-shift-imaging-in-a-rat-model-involving-partial-lung-irradiation-proof-of-concept-demonstration
#11
Brandon Zanette, Elaine Stirrat, Salomeh Jelveh, Andrew Hope, Giles Santyr
Purpose: The purpose of this work was to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of hyperpolarized (HP)129 Xe dissolved in pulmonary tissue (PT) and red blood cells (RBCs) to detect regional changes to PT structure and perfusion in a partial-lung rat model of radiation-induced lung injury and compare with histology. Methods and materials: The right medial region of the lungs of 6 Sprague-Dawley rats was irradiated (20 Gy, single-fraction). A second nonirradiated cohort served as the control group...
July 2017: Advances in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058007/a-cryptophane-based-turn-on-129-xe-nmr-biosensor-for-monitoring-calmodulin
#12
Brittany A Riggle, Mara L Greenberg, Yanfei Wang, Rebecca F Wissner, Serge D Zemerov, E James Petersson, Ivan J Dmochowski
We present the first cryptophane-based "turn-on"129 Xe NMR biosensor, employing a peptide-functionalized cryptophane to monitor the activation of calmodulin (CaM) protein in solution. In the absence of CaM binding, interaction between the peptide and cryptophane completely suppresses the hyperpolarized129 Xe-cryptophane NMR signal. Biosensor binding to Ca2+ -activated CaM produces the expected129 Xe-cryptophane NMR signal.
October 31, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034509/3d-diffusion-weighted-129-xe-mri-for-whole-lung-morphometry
#13
Ho-Fung Chan, Neil J Stewart, Graham Norquay, Guilhem J Collier, Jim M Wild
PURPOSE: To obtain whole lung morphometry measurements from 129 Xe in a single breath-hold with 3D multiple b-value 129 Xe diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) with an empirically optimized diffusion time and compressed sensing for scan acceleration. METHODS: Prospective three-fold undersampled 3D multiple b-value hyperpolarized 129 Xe DW-MRI datasets were acquired, and the diffusion time (Δ) was iterated so as to provide diffusive length scale (LmD ) estimates from the stretched exponential model (SEM) that are comparable to those from 3 He...
June 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940774/functional-airway-obstruction-observed-with-hyperpolarized-129-xenon-mri
#14
Erin J Song, Chris R Kelsey, Bastiaan Driehuys, Leith Rankine
Hyperpolarized 129 Xenon-MRI (HP 129 Xe MRI) is an emerging imaging modality that allows assessment of both ventilation and gas transfer. Most research to date has focused on non-malignant pulmonary diseases. However, the capability of evaluating the two primary physiological processes of the lung (ventilation and gas transfer) makes HP 129 Xe MRI a promising imaging modality in the management of patients with lung cancer.
February 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940334/uncovering-a-third-dissolved-phase-129-xe-resonance-in-the-human-lung-quantifying-spectroscopic-features-in-healthy-subjects-and-patients-with-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#15
Scott H Robertson, Rohan S Virgincar, Elianna A Bier, Mu He, Geoffrey M Schrank, Rose Marie Smigla, Craig Rackley, H Page McAdams, Bastiaan Driehuys
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to accurately characterize the spectral properties of hyperpolarized (129) Xe in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) compared to healthy volunteers. METHODS: Subjects underwent hyperpolarized (129) Xe breath-hold spectroscopy, during which 38 dissolved-phase free induction decays (FIDs) were acquired after reaching steady state (echo time/repetition time = 0.875/50 ms; bandwidth = 8.06 kHz; flip angle≈22 °)...
October 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932564/assessment-of-pulmonary-microstructural-changes-by-hyperpolarized-129-xe-diffusion-weighted-imaging-in-an-elastase-instilled-rat-model-of-emphysema
#16
Ke Wang, Ting Pan, Hao Yang, Weiwei Ruan, Jianping Zhong, Guangyao Wu, Xin Zhou
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of hyperpolarized (129)Xe diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for the evaluation of pulmonary microstructural changes in the presence of pancreatic porcine elastase (PPE)-induced pulmonary emphysema rat model. METHODS: Sixteen male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into two groups, the emphysema model group and control group. Experimental emphysematous models were made by instilling elastase into rat lungs of model group, the control group were instilled with isodose saline...
August 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921655/fast-dynamic-ventilation-mri-of-hyperpolarized-129-xe-using-spiral-imaging
#17
Ozkan Doganay, Tahreema N Matin, Anthony Mcintyre, Brian Burns, Rolf F Schulte, Fergus V Gleeson, Daniel Bulte
PURPOSE: To develop and optimize a rapid dynamic hyperpolarized 129 Xe ventilation (DXeV) MRI protocol and investigate the feasibility of capturing pulmonary signal-time curves in human lungs. THEORY AND METHODS: Spiral k-space trajectories were designed with the number of interleaves Nint  = 1, 2, 4, and 8 corresponding to voxel sizes of 8 mm, 5 mm, 4 mm, and 2.5 mm, respectively, for field of view = 15 cm. DXeV images were acquired from a gas-flow phantom to investigate the ability of Nint  = 1, 2, 4, and 8 to capture signal-time curves...
May 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860333/using-hyperpolarized-129-xe-mri-to-quantify-regional-gas-transfer-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#18
Jennifer M Wang, Scott H Robertson, Ziyi Wang, Mu He, Rohan S Virgincar, Geoffry M Schrank, Rose Marie Smigla, Thomas G O'Riordan, John Sundy, Lukas Ebner, Craig R Rackley, Page McAdams, Bastiaan Driehuys
BACKGROUND: Assessing functional impairment, therapeutic response and disease progression in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) continues to be challenging. Hyperpolarized (129)Xe MRI can address this gap through its unique capability to image gas transfer three-dimensionally from airspaces to interstitial barrier tissues to red blood cells (RBCs). This must be validated by testing the degree to which it correlates with pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and CT scores, and its spatial distribution reflects known physiology and patterns of disease...
August 31, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858563/imaging-human-brain-perfusion-with-inhaled-hyperpolarized-129-xe-mr-imaging
#19
Madhwesha R Rao, Neil J Stewart, Paul D Griffiths, Graham Norquay, Jim M Wild
Purpose To evaluate the feasibility of directly imaging perfusion of human brain tissue by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with inhaled hyperpolarized xenon 129 (129 Xe). Materials and Methods In vivo imaging with 129 Xe was performed in three healthy participants. The combination of a high-yield spin-exchange optical pumping 129 Xe polarizer, custom-built radiofrequency coils, and an optimized gradient-echo MR imaging protocol was used to achieve signal sensitivity sufficient to directly image hyperpolarized 129 Xe dissolved in the human brain...
February 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804157/electron-microscopic-observations-of-rb-particles-and-pitting-in-129-xe-spin-exchange-optical-pumping-cells
#20
C Flower, M S Freeman, M Plue, B Driehuys
High-volume production of hyperpolarized (129)Xe by spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP) has historically fallen short of theoretical predictions. Recently, this shortfall was proposed to be caused by the formation of alkali metal clusters during optical pumping. However, this hypothesis has yet to be verified experimentally. Here, we seek to detect the presence of alkali particles using a combination of both transmission (TEM) and scanning (SEM) electron microscopy. From TEM studies, we observe the presence of particles exhibiting sizes ranging from approximately 0...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Physics
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