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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903275/cell-cycle-inhibition-reduces-inflammatory-responses-neuronal-loss-and-cognitive-deficits-induced-by-hypobaria-exposure-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Jacob W Skovira, Junfang Wu, Jessica J Matyas, Alok Kumar, Marie Hanscom, Shruti V Kabadi, Raymond Fang, Alan I Faden
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients in military settings can be exposed to prolonged periods of hypobaria (HB) during aeromedical evacuation. Hypobaric exposure, even with supplemental oxygen to prevent hypoxia, worsens outcome after experimental TBI, in part by increasing neuroinflammation. Cell cycle activation (CCA) after TBI has been implicated as a mechanism contributing to both post-traumatic cell death and neuroinflammation. Here, we examined whether hypobaric exposure in rats subjected to TBI increases CCA and microglial activation in the brain, as compared to TBI alone, and to evaluate the ability of a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor (CR8) to reduce such changes and improve behavioral outcomes...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898553/the-aeromedical-physician-assistant
#2
Joshua Radi, Michael Brisson, Michael Line
The US Army aeromedical physician assistant (PA) serves aviation units in regards to crewmember medical readiness. All PAs are graduates of a 6-week flight surgeon course. They are responsible for conducting nearly 40% of the annual US Army flight physicals. This unique training and deployment illustrates the growing adaptability of PAs to assume a greater role in military medicine.
December 2016: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851539/1904-aeromedical-transport-in-the-prone-position
#3
Nighat Khan, Fibha Arshad, Muhammad Ali Javed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851515/1880-aeromedical-evacuation-from-a-combat-zone-expedited-ecmo-cannulation-via-the-transport-model
#4
James Lantry, Jeffrey DellaVolpe, Valerie Sams, Matthew Hamm, Philip Mason
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849490/the-psychological-effects-of-rapid-aeromedical-evacuation-in-a-predator-exposure-animal-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#5
C Brad Wilson, Joseph Harre, Thomas Shaak, Joseph Francis, Leslie D McLaughlin
Recent conflicts have contributed to an escalation in combat-related psychiatric disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although technological advances have increased the speed from which battlefield injuries reach definitive care, mental health conditions have continued to rise. This study sought to analyze the effects of flight stressors and the lack of a postcombat decompression period on stress-related behavior. We hypothesized that a 1-week decompression period before flight would attenuate stress-related behavior compared to no decompression...
November 2016: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816610/forward-psychiatry%C3%A2-%C3%A2-early-intervention-for-mental-health-problems-among-uk-armed-forces-in-afghanistan
#6
N Jones, N T Fear, S Wessely, G Thandi, N Greenberg
BACKGROUND: This observational study examined return to duty (RTD) rates following receipt of early mental health interventions delivered by deployed mental health practitioners. METHOD: In-depth clinical interviews were conducted among 975 UK military personnel referred for mental health assessment whilst deployed in Afghanistan. Socio-demographic, military, operational, clinical and therapy outcomes were recorded in an electronic health record database. Rates and predictors of EVAC were the main outcomes examined using adjusted binary logistic regression analyses...
November 3, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786602/inter-laboratory-comparison-of-three-earplug-fit-test-systems
#7
David C Byrne, William J Murphy, Edward F Krieg, Robert M Ghent, Kevin L Michael, Earl W Stefanson, William A Ahroon
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) sponsored tests of three earplug fit-test systems (NIOSH HPD Well-Fit™, Michael & Associates FitCheck, and Honeywell Safety Products VeriPRO®). Each system was compared to laboratory-based real-ear attenuation at threshold (REAT) measurements in a sound field according to ANSI/ASA S12.6-2008 at the NIOSH, Honeywell Safety Products, and Michael & Associates testing laboratories. An identical study was conducted independently at the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory (USAARL), which provided their data for inclusion in this report...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779958/aeromedical-evaluation-for-an-f-16-candidate-with-incomplete-paraplegia
#8
Monica Chahal-Kummen, Trond-Eirik Strand, Jan Ove Owe, Eigil Gulliksen, Anthony S Wagstaff
BACKGROUND: A candidate with paraplegia contacted the Institute of Aviation Medicine, Oslo, requesting a medical examination and medical certification for flying back seat on an F-16 Fighting Falcon. Thorough aeromedical examinations, including specialist evaluations, were initiated for the final decision to be made. CASE REPORT: Almost 13 yr earlier the candidate had acquired spinal cord damage at neurological level L1 after falling 4 m (13 ft) from out of a window...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753575/measuring-intangibles-defining-predictors-of-non-technical-skills-in-critical-care-air-transport-team-trainees
#9
Peter L Jernigan, Matthew C Wallace, Christine S Novak, Travis W Gerlach, Dennis J Hanseman, Timothy A Pritts, Bradley R Davis
BACKGROUND: Critical Care Air Transport Teams (CCATTs) are integral to the U.S. Air Force aeromedical evacuation paradigm. The current study was conducted to evaluate predictors of nontechnical skills (NOTECHS) in CCATT trainees. METHODS: Sixteen CCATTs were studied over a 6-month period. Team members completed a biographical survey and teams were videotaped during a simulated CCATT mission. Teams and individuals were assigned a "red flag score" using a validated assessment tool for NOTECHS...
October 2016: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662352/spatial-disorientation-training-in-the-rotor-wing-flight-simulator
#10
Nicole Powell-Dunford, Alaistair Bushby, Richard A Leland
BACKGROUND: This study is intended to identify efficacy, evolving applications, best practices, and challenges of spatial disorientation (SD) training in flight simulators for rotor wing pilots. METHODS: Queries of a UK Ministry of Defense research database and Pub Med were undertaken using the search terms 'spatial disorientation,' 'rotor wing,' and 'flight simulator.' Efficacy, evolving applications, best practices, and challenges of SD simulation for rotor wing pilots were also ascertained through discussion with subject matter experts and industrial partners...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607071/-aeromedical-decision-making-in-psychiatry
#11
F Weber
This paper reviews aeromedical decision-making in psychiatry. It explains the "one-percent rule", the general medical criteria for fitness for flying and how they are applied to psychiatric disorders.
September 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602899/automated-control-of-endotracheal-tube-cuff-pressure-during-simulated-flight
#12
Thomas Blakeman, Dario Rodriquez, James Woods, Daniel Cox, Joel Elterman, Richard Branson
BACKGROUND: Successful mechanical ventilation requires that the airway be controlled by an endotracheal tube (ETT) with an inflatable cuff to seal the airway. Aeromedical evacuation represents a unique challenge in which to manage ETT cuffs. We evaluated three methods of automatic ETT cuff pressure adjustment during changes in altitude in an altitude chamber. METHODS: Size 7.5 and 8.0 mm ETTs that are currently included in the Critical Care Air Transport Team allowance standard were used for the evaluation...
November 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565064/injury-and-fatality-risks-in-aeromedical-transport-focus-on-prevention
#13
Heidi H Hon, Thomas R Wojda, Noran Barry, Ulunna MacBean, John P Anagnostakos, David C Evans, Peter G Thomas, Stanislaw P Stawicki
BACKGROUND: Aeromedical transport (AMT) is a reliable and well-established life-saving option for rapid patient transfers to health care delivery hubs. However, owing to the very nature of AMT, fatal and nonfatal events may occur. This study reviews aeromedical incidents reported since the publication of the last definitive review in 2003, aiming to provide additional insight into a wide range of factors potentially associated with fatal and nonfatal AMT incidents (AMTIs). We hypothesized that weather and/or visual conditions, postcrash fire, aircraft make and/or type, and time of day all correlate with the risk of AMTI with injury or fatality...
August 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503048/use-of-gene-expression-biomarkers-to-predict-suicidality
#14
Ries Simons
Since the tragic accident of Germanwings flight 4U9525, there has been discussion about methods to identify and prevent suicidality in pilots. Neurogenetic scientists claim that biomarker tests for suicidality as part of healthcare assessments may lead to early identification of suicidal behavior. In this commentary the value of these gene expression biomarkers for aeromedical purposes is evaluated based on relevant literature. It is concluded that the currently identified biomarkers for suicidality need thorough validation before they can be used...
July 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503041/aeromedical-hazard-comparison-of-faa-medically-certified-third-class-and-medically-uncertified-pilots
#15
Eduard M Ricaurte, William D Mills, Charles A DeJohn, Maria C Laverde-Lopez, Daniel F Porras-Sanchez
BACKGROUND: Since 2004, in the United States, light sport aircraft (LSA) and some aircraft with standard airworthiness certificates can be operated for recreational purposes with a valid state driver's license rather than a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)-issued aeromedical certificate. There have been recent efforts to allow operation of much larger, heavier, faster, and more complex aircraft without requiring a medical certificate. The primary objective of this research was to compare hazards to flight safety identified in fatally injured pilots required to possess a valid FAA third-class medical certificate to hazards in fatally injured pilots who were not required to possess a valid medical certificate...
July 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27437912/decompressive-craniectomy-and-cranioplasty-experience-and-outcomes-in-deployed-uk-military-personnel
#16
S A G Roberts, E Toman, A Belli, M J Midwinter
OBJECT: In recent conflicts, many UK personnel sustained head injuries requiring damage-control surgery and aeromedical transfer to the UK. This study aims to examine indications, complications and outcomes of UK military casualties undergoing craniectomy and cranioplasty from conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. METHODS: The UK military Joint Theatre Trauma Registry (JTTR) was searched for all UK survivors in Afghanistan and Iraq between 2004 and 2014 requiring craniectomy and cranioplasty resulting from trauma...
October 2016: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27371641/management-of-critical-illness-with-non-invasive-ventilation-by-an-australian-hems
#17
Andrew R Coggins, Erin N Cummins, Brian Burns
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) therapy is widely used for the management of acute respiratory failure. The objective of this study was to investigate the current use of NIV during interhospital retrievals in an Australian physician-led aeromedical service. METHODS: We reviewed patients receiving NIV during interhospital retrieval at the Greater Sydney Area Helicopter Medical Services (GSA-HEMS) over a 14-month period. The main objectives were to describe the number of retrievals using NIV, the need for intubation in NIV patients and the effect of the therapy on mission duration...
July 1, 2016: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27250671/review-of-therapeutic-agents-employed-by-an-australian-aeromedical-prehospital-and-retrieval-service
#18
Marcus D Hayward, Luke Regan, John Glasheen, Brian Burns
OBJECTIVE: There is little current evidence regarding which therapeutic agents are actually used within existing aeromedical services. The Greater Sydney Area Helicopter Emergency Medical Service operates a large, physician-staffed, multimodal, prehospital and interhospital retrieval service. The aim of the present study was to identify the range and frequency of drug, fluid and blood product use within our service. METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study...
June 2016: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27215883/cardiovascular-complaints-among-military-members-during-operation-enduring-freedom
#19
James A Watts, Frank D Russo, Todd C Villines, Samuel O Jones, Gilberto Patino, Javed M Nasir, Robert E Eckart, Kevin E Steel
During Operation Enduring Freedom, the US military began deploying a dedicated theater cardiology consultant to Afghanistan in an effort to increase rates of return to duty in service members with cardiovascular complaints. This study was designed to categorize these complaints and determine the effect on both aeromedical evacuation and return to duty rates during a 2.5 year observation period. A total of 1,495 service members were evaluated, with 43% presenting due to chest pain followed by arrhythmias/palpitations (24...
April 2016: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27214588/responses-of-the-acutely-injured-spinal-cord-to-vibration-that-simulates-transport-in-helicopters-or-mine-resistant-ambush-protected-vehicles
#20
Femke Streijger, Jae H T Lee, Neda Manouchehri, Angela D Melnyk, Jason Chak, Seth Tigchelaar, Kitty So, Elena B Okon, Shudong Jiang, Rachel Kinsler, Khalid Barazanji, Peter Alec Cripton, Brian K Kwon
In the military environment, injured soldiers undergoing medical evacuation via helicopter or mine resistant ambush protected vehicle (MRAP) are subjected to vibration and shock inherent to the transport vehicle. We conducted the present study to assess the consequences of such vibration on the acutely injured spinal cord. We used a porcine model of spinal cord injury (SCI). After a T10 contusion-compression injury, animals were subjected to i) no vibration (n=7-8), ii) whole body vibration at frequencies and amplitudes simulating helicopter transport (n=8), or iii) whole body vibration simulating ground transportation in an MRAP ambulance (n=7)...
May 23, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
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