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Aeromedical

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061924/asymptomatic-wolff-parkinson-white-pattern-ecg-in-usaf-aviators
#1
Eddie D Davenport, Karen A N Rupp, Edwin Palileo, Jared Haynes
INTRODUCTION: Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) pattern is occasionally found in asymptomatic aviators during routine ECGs. Aeromedical concerns regarding WPW pattern include risk of dysrhythmia or sudden cardiac death (SCD), thus affecting the safety of flight. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and outcomes of aviators with asymptomatic WPW pattern and assess for risk factors that contribute to progression to dysrhythmia or symptoms. METHODS: The U...
January 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061920/the-u-s-experience-with-waivers-for-insulin-treated-pilots
#2
William D Mills, Charles A DeJohn, Mustafa Alaziz
INTRODUCTION: This study explores the U.S. experience with waivers for insulin treatment for third-class medical certificates. From 1997 through 2014, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) approved an estimated 1500 waivers for insulin-treated diabetes with a total of 450 active waivers as of December 31, 2014. These pilots were involved in 25 accidents, but none were attributed to medical issues. METHODS: Data for the insulin waiver group and control group were obtained from the FAA's aeromedical certification system and matching accident data from the NTSB database...
January 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061919/myasthenia-gravis-and-its-aeromedical-implications
#3
Tania Jagathesan, Michael D O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune condition where antibodies form against the acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction, eventually causing damage to the motor end plate. The clinical features include muscle fatigability as well as ocular, bulbar, and limb weakness, which can have implications on the role of a pilot or air traffic controller. This retrospective study reviewed the United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority (UK CAA) experience of myasthenia gravis...
January 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061918/clinical-experience-and-learning-style-of-flight-nurse-and-aeromedical-evacuation-technician-students
#4
Marla J De Jong, Susan F Dukes, Karey M Dufour, Darcy L Mortimer
BACKGROUND: The clinical experience and preferred learning style of U.S. Air Force flight nurses and aeromedical evacuation technicians are unknown. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional survey design, we gathered data regarding the clinical experience, level of comfort providing clinical care, and preferred learning style of 77 active duty (AD), Air Force Reserve (AFR), and Air National Guard (ANG) nurses enrolled in the U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine Flight Nurse course, and 121 AD, AFR, and ANG medical technicians enrolled in the Aeromedical Evacuation Technician course...
January 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061917/upper-respiratory-infections-and-barotrauma-among-commercial-pilots
#5
Nina Monrad Boel, Mads Klokker
BACKGROUND: Health incapacitation is a serious threat to flight safety. Therefore, a study conducted 10 yr ago examined the incidents of ear-nose-throat (ENT) barotrauma and upper respiratory infection (URI) among commercial pilots and found that a large number continued to carry out their duties despite the risk of incapacitation. Now, 10 yr later, this new study examines if the attention to URIs has improved. METHOD: This study was conducted at the Danish Aeromedical Centre over the course of 1 yr with 463 valid respondents to a questionnaire on URIs and ENT barotrauma...
January 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030500/analysis-of-aeromedical-retrieval-coverage-using-elliptical-isochrones-an-evaluation-of-helicopter-fleet-size-configurations-in-scotland
#6
Naomi Dodds, Phillip Emerson, Stephanie Phillips, David R Green, Jan O Jansen
BACKGROUND: Trauma systems in remote and rural regions often rely on helicopter emergency medical services to facilitate access to definitive care. The siting of such resources is key, but often relies on simplistic modelling of coverage, using circular isochrones. Scotland is in the process of implementing a national trauma network, and there have been calls for an expansion of aeromedical retrieval capacity. The aim of this study was to analyse population and area coverage of the current retrieval service configuration, with three aircraft, and a configuration with an additional helicopter, in the North East of Scotland, using a novel methodology...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920669/the-neurovestibular-challenges-of-astronauts-and-balance-patients-some-past-countermeasures-and-two-alternative-approaches-to-elicitation-assessment-and-mitigation
#7
REVIEW
Ben D Lawson, Angus H Rupert, Braden J McGrath
Astronauts and vestibular patients face analogous challenges to orientation function due to adaptive exogenous (weightlessness-induced) or endogenous (pathology-induced) alterations in the processing of acceleration stimuli. Given some neurovestibular similarities between these challenges, both affected groups may benefit from shared research approaches and adaptation measurement/improvement strategies. This article reviews various past strategies and introduces two plausible ground-based approaches, the first of which is a method for eliciting and assessing vestibular adaptation-induced imbalance...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903275/cell-cycle-inhibition-reduces-inflammatory-responses-neuronal-loss-and-cognitive-deficits-induced-by-hypobaria-exposure-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Jacob W Skovira, Junfang Wu, Jessica J Matyas, Alok Kumar, Marie Hanscom, Shruti V Kabadi, Raymond Fang, Alan I Faden
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients in military settings can be exposed to prolonged periods of hypobaria (HB) during aeromedical evacuation. Hypobaric exposure, even with supplemental oxygen to prevent hypoxia, worsens outcome after experimental TBI, in part by increasing neuroinflammation. Cell cycle activation (CCA) after TBI has been implicated as a mechanism contributing to both post-traumatic cell death and neuroinflammation. Here, we examined whether hypobaric exposure in rats subjected to TBI increases CCA and microglial activation in the brain, as compared to TBI alone, and to evaluate the ability of a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor (CR8) to reduce such changes and improve behavioral outcomes...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898553/the-aeromedical-physician-assistant
#9
Joshua Radi, Michael Brisson, Michael Line
The US Army aeromedical physician assistant (PA) serves aviation units in regards to crewmember medical readiness. All PAs are graduates of a 6-week flight surgeon course. They are responsible for conducting nearly 40% of the annual US Army flight physicals. This unique training and deployment illustrates the growing adaptability of PAs to assume a greater role in military medicine.
December 2016: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851539/1904-aeromedical-transport-in-the-prone-position
#10
Nighat Khan, Fibha Arshad, Muhammad Ali Javed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851515/1880-aeromedical-evacuation-from-a-combat-zone-expedited-ecmo-cannulation-via-the-transport-model
#11
James Lantry, Jeffrey DellaVolpe, Valerie Sams, Matthew Hamm, Philip Mason
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849490/the-psychological-effects-of-rapid-aeromedical-evacuation-in-a-predator-exposure-animal-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#12
C Brad Wilson, Joseph Harre, Thomas Shaak, Joseph Francis, Leslie D McLaughlin
Recent conflicts have contributed to an escalation in combat-related psychiatric disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although technological advances have increased the speed from which battlefield injuries reach definitive care, mental health conditions have continued to rise. This study sought to analyze the effects of flight stressors and the lack of a postcombat decompression period on stress-related behavior. We hypothesized that a 1-week decompression period before flight would attenuate stress-related behavior compared to no decompression...
November 2016: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816610/forward-psychiatry%C3%A2-%C3%A2-early-intervention-for-mental-health-problems-among-uk-armed-forces-in-afghanistan
#13
N Jones, N T Fear, S Wessely, G Thandi, N Greenberg
BACKGROUND: This observational study examined return to duty (RTD) rates following receipt of early mental health interventions delivered by deployed mental health practitioners. METHOD: In-depth clinical interviews were conducted among 975 UK military personnel referred for mental health assessment whilst deployed in Afghanistan. Socio-demographic, military, operational, clinical and therapy outcomes were recorded in an electronic health record database. Rates and predictors of EVAC were the main outcomes examined using adjusted binary logistic regression analyses...
November 3, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786602/inter-laboratory-comparison-of-three-earplug-fit-test-systems
#14
David C Byrne, William J Murphy, Edward F Krieg, Robert M Ghent, Kevin L Michael, Earl W Stefanson, William A Ahroon
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) sponsored tests of three earplug fit-test systems (NIOSH HPD Well-Fit™, Michael & Associates FitCheck, and Honeywell Safety Products VeriPRO®). Each system was compared to laboratory-based real-ear attenuation at threshold (REAT) measurements in a sound field according to ANSI/ASA S12.6-2008 at the NIOSH, Honeywell Safety Products, and Michael & Associates testing laboratories. An identical study was conducted independently at the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory (USAARL), which provided their data for inclusion in this report...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779958/aeromedical-evaluation-for-an-f-16-candidate-with-incomplete-paraplegia
#15
Monica Chahal-Kummen, Trond-Eirik Strand, Jan Ove Owe, Eigil Gulliksen, Anthony S Wagstaff
BACKGROUND: A candidate with paraplegia contacted the Institute of Aviation Medicine, Oslo, requesting a medical examination and medical certification for flying back seat on an F-16 Fighting Falcon. Thorough aeromedical examinations, including specialist evaluations, were initiated for the final decision to be made. CASE REPORT: Almost 13 yr earlier the candidate had acquired spinal cord damage at neurological level L1 after falling 4 m (13 ft) from out of a window...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753575/measuring-intangibles-defining-predictors-of-non-technical-skills-in-critical-care-air-transport-team-trainees
#16
Peter L Jernigan, Matthew C Wallace, Christine S Novak, Travis W Gerlach, Dennis J Hanseman, Timothy A Pritts, Bradley R Davis
BACKGROUND: Critical Care Air Transport Teams (CCATTs) are integral to the U.S. Air Force aeromedical evacuation paradigm. The current study was conducted to evaluate predictors of nontechnical skills (NOTECHS) in CCATT trainees. METHODS: Sixteen CCATTs were studied over a 6-month period. Team members completed a biographical survey and teams were videotaped during a simulated CCATT mission. Teams and individuals were assigned a "red flag score" using a validated assessment tool for NOTECHS...
October 2016: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662352/spatial-disorientation-training-in-the-rotor-wing-flight-simulator
#17
REVIEW
Nicole Powell-Dunford, Alaistair Bushby, Richard A Leland
BACKGROUND: This study is intended to identify efficacy, evolving applications, best practices, and challenges of spatial disorientation (SD) training in flight simulators for rotor wing pilots. METHODS: Queries of a UK Ministry of Defense research database and Pub Med were undertaken using the search terms 'spatial disorientation,' 'rotor wing,' and 'flight simulator.' Efficacy, evolving applications, best practices, and challenges of SD simulation for rotor wing pilots were also ascertained through discussion with subject matter experts and industrial partners...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607071/-aeromedical-decision-making-in-psychiatry
#18
F Weber
This paper reviews aeromedical decision-making in psychiatry. It explains the "one-percent rule", the general medical criteria for fitness for flying and how they are applied to psychiatric disorders.
September 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602899/automated-control-of-endotracheal-tube-cuff-pressure-during-simulated-flight
#19
Thomas Blakeman, Dario Rodriquez, James Woods, Daniel Cox, Joel Elterman, Richard Branson
BACKGROUND: Successful mechanical ventilation requires that the airway be controlled by an endotracheal tube (ETT) with an inflatable cuff to seal the airway. Aeromedical evacuation represents a unique challenge in which to manage ETT cuffs. We evaluated three methods of automatic ETT cuff pressure adjustment during changes in altitude in an altitude chamber. METHODS: Size 7.5 and 8.0 mm ETTs that are currently included in the Critical Care Air Transport Team allowance standard were used for the evaluation...
November 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565064/injury-and-fatality-risks-in-aeromedical-transport-focus-on-prevention
#20
Heidi H Hon, Thomas R Wojda, Noran Barry, Ulunna MacBean, John P Anagnostakos, David C Evans, Peter G Thomas, Stanislaw P Stawicki
BACKGROUND: Aeromedical transport (AMT) is a reliable and well-established life-saving option for rapid patient transfers to health care delivery hubs. However, owing to the very nature of AMT, fatal and nonfatal events may occur. This study reviews aeromedical incidents reported since the publication of the last definitive review in 2003, aiming to provide additional insight into a wide range of factors potentially associated with fatal and nonfatal AMT incidents (AMTIs). We hypothesized that weather and/or visual conditions, postcrash fire, aircraft make and/or type, and time of day all correlate with the risk of AMTI with injury or fatality...
August 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
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